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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896705/live-metabolic-profile-analysis-of-zebrafish-embryos-using-a-seahorse-xf-24-extracellular-flux-analyzer
#1
Simon T Bond, Kevin A McEwen, Prusothman Yoganantharajah, Yann Gibert
The Agilent Seahorse Extracellular Flux Analyzer can be used to measure the oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and extra cellular acidification rate (ECAR), from which mitochondrial bioenergetics measurements can be determined including basal respiration, respiration due to ATP turnover, uncoupled respiration/proton leak, and maximum respiration. This novel method demonstrates how to use a Seahorse XF 24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer to measure the bioenergetic flux of zebrafish embryos in vivo during development...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879596/comparative-toxicity-of-three-phenolic-compounds-on-the-embryo-of-fathead-minnow-pimephales-promelas
#2
Erchao Li, Derek G Bolser, Kevin J Kroll, Erica K Brockmeier, Francesco Falciani, Nancy D Denslow
Phenols are classified as polar narcotics, which are thought to cause toxicity by non-specific mechanisms, possibly by disrupting membrane structure and function. Here we test three phenolic chemicals, phenol, 2,4-dichlorphenol and pentachlorophenol on embryo development, heartbeat rate and mitochondrial respiration in fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). While these chemicals have been used on isolated mitochondria, they have not yet been used to verify respiration in intact embryos. Mitochondrial respiration in intact embryos was measured after optimizing the Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyzer...
May 29, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860557/measurement-of-respiratory-function-in-isolated-cardiac-mitochondria-using-seahorse-xfe24-analyzer-applications-for-aging-research
#3
Siva S V P Sakamuri, Jared A Sperling, Venkata N Sure, Monica H Dholakia, Nicholas R Peterson, Ibolya Rutkai, Padmini S Mahalingam, Ryosuke Satou, Prasad V G Katakam
Mitochondria play a critical role in the cardiomyocyte physiology by generating majority of the ATP required for the contraction/relaxation through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Aging is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and mitochondrial dysfunction has been proposed as potential cause of aging. Recent technological innovations in Seahorse XFe24 Analyzer enhanced the detection sensitivity of oxygen consumption rate and proton flux to advance our ability study mitochondrial function...
June 2, 2018: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29799462/the-extracts-and-major-compounds-derived-from-astragali-radix-alter-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-cultured-cardiomyocytes-comparison-of-various-polar-solvents-and-compounds
#4
Yun Huang, Kenneth Kin Leung Kwan, Ka Wing Leung, Huaiyou Wang, Xiang Peng Kong, Tina Ting Xia Dong, Karl Wah Keung Tsim
Astragali Radix (AR) is a widely used "Qi-invigorating" herb in China for its tonic effects in strengthening biological tissues. The extract of AR contains abundant antioxidants, including astragalosides and isoflavonoids. However, very few reports have systematically measured the effects of the major components of AR on cell mitochondrial bioenergetics. Here, a systemic approach employing an extracellular flux analyzer was developed to evaluate mitochondrial respiration in cultured cardiomyocyte cells H9C2...
May 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787979/genome-wide-analysis-reveals-tnfaip8l2-as-an-immune-checkpoint-regulator-of-inflammation-and-metabolism
#5
Ting Li, Wei Wang, Shunyou Gong, Honghong Sun, Huqin Zhang, An-Gang Yang, Youhai H Chen, Xinyuan Li
The interplay between inflammation and metabolism is widely recognized, yet the underlying molecular mechanisms remain poorly characterized. Using experimental database mining and genome-wide gene expression profiling methods, we found that in contrast to other TNFAIP8 family members, TNFAIP8L2 (TIPE2) was preferentially expressed in human myeloid cell types. In addition, Tnfaip8l2 expression drastically decreased in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages. Consequently, Tnfaip8l2 deficiency led to heightened expression of genes that were enriched for leukocyte activation and lipid biosynthesis pathways...
July 2018: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767788/acute-maneb-exposure-significantly-alters-both-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696133/classical-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-metabolically-reprograms-sarcoma-cells-through-regulation-of-hexokinase-2
#7
Priya Londhe, Peter Y Yu, Yuichi Ijiri, Katherine J Ladner, Joelle M Fenger, Cheryl London, Peter J Houghton, Denis C Guttridge
Background: Metabolic reprogramming has emerged as a cancer hallmark, and one of the well-known cancer-associated metabolic alterations is the increase in the rate of glycolysis. Recent reports have shown that both the classical and alternative signaling pathways of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) play important roles in controlling the metabolic profiles of normal cells and cancer cells. However, how these signaling pathways affect the metabolism of sarcomas, specifically rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) and osteosarcoma (OS), has not been characterized...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694441/cellular-metabolism-and-oxidative-stress-as-a-possible-determinant-for-longevity-in-small-breed-and-large-breed-dogs
#8
Ana Gabriela Jimenez, Josh Winward, Ursula Beattie, William Cipolli
Among species, larger animals tend to live longer than smaller ones, however, the opposite seems to be true for dogs-smaller dogs tend to live significantly longer than larger dogs across all breeds. We were interested in the mechanism that may allow for small breeds to age more slowly compared with large breeds in the context of cellular metabolism and oxidative stress. Primary dermal fibroblasts from small and large breed dogs were grown in culture. We measured basal oxygen consumption (OCR), proton leak, and glycolysis using a Seahorse XF96 oxygen flux analyzer...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691295/metformin-targets-mitochondrial-glycerophosphate-dehydrogenase-mgpdh-to-control-rate-of-oxidative-phosphorylation-and-growth-of-thyroid-cancer-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#9
Shilpa Thakur, Brianna Daley, Kelli Gaskins, Vasyl V Vasko, Myriem Boufraqech, Dhaval Patel, Carole Sourbier, Jeff M Reece, Sheue-Yann Cheng, Electron Kebebew, Sunita K Agarwal, Joanna Klubo-Gwiezdzinska
PURPOSE: Mitochondrial glycerophosphate dehydrogenase (mGPDH) is the key enzyme connecting oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis as well as a target of the antidiabetic drug metformin (MF) in the liver. There are no data on the expression and role of mGPDH as a metformin target in cancer. In this study, we evaluated mGPDH as a potential target of metformin in thyroid cancer and investigated its contribution in thyroid cancer metabolism. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We analyzed mGPDH expression in 253 thyroid cancer and normal tissues by immunostaining and examined its expression and localization in thyroid cancer-derived cell lines (FTC133, BCPAP) by confocal microscopy...
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689339/mitochondrial-dysfunction-is-implicated-in-retinoic-acid-induced-spina-bifida-aperta-in-rat-fetuses
#10
Jia Xue, Hui Gu, Dan Liu, Wei Ma, Xiaowei Wei, Lianshuai Zhao, Yusi Liu, Chaonan Zhang, Zhengwei Yuan
Neural tube defects (NTDs) are the most common and severe congenital malformations, which result from failure of the neural tube to close during embryonic development. The etiology of NTDs is complex, caused by interactions between genetic defects and environmental factors, but the exact mechanisms of this disease are still not fully understood. We herein employ a Seahorse Bioscience microplate-based extracellular flux (XF) analyzer to determine mitochondrial function and quantify respiratory coupling to various bioenergetic functions using specific pharmacological inhibitors of bioenergetic pathways...
April 22, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673597/sennoside-a-protects-mitochondrial-structure-and-function-to-improve-high-fat-diet-induced-hepatic-steatosis-by-targeting-vdac1
#11
Jiamei Le, Weiping Jia, Yongning Sun
Mitochondrial dysfunction is mainly associated with high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced hepatic steatosis. Sennoside A (SA), a commonly used clinical stimulant laxative, is reported to improve energy metabolism and insulin resistance. However, the effect and mechanism of SA on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect and mechanism of SA on HFD-induced hepatic steatosis in mice. We examined the liver and body weight of mice to evaluate the physical changes in the liver...
June 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649571/spermidine-ameliorates-the-neuronal-aging-by-improving-the-mitochondrial-function-in-vitro
#12
Yu-Hong Jing, Ji-Long Yan, Qing-Jun Wang, Hai-Chao Chen, Xue-Zhu Ma, Jie Yin, Li-Ping Gao
Changes in mitochondrial structure and function are the initial factors of cell aging. Spermidine has an antiaging effect, but its effect on neuronal aging and mitochondrial mechanisms is unclear. In this study, mouse neuroblastoma (N2a) cells were treated with d‑galactose (d‑Gal) to establish cell aging to investigate the antiaging effect and mechanisms of spermidine. Changes in the cell cycle and β-galactosidase activity were analyzed to evaluate the extent of cell aging. Stabilities of mitochondrial mRNA and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were evaluated in the process of cell aging under different treatments...
April 9, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644563/heat-acclimation-increases-mitochondrial-respiration-capacity-of-c2c12-myotubes-and-protects-against-lps-mediated-energy-deficit
#13
Meghan G Patton, Trevor L Gillum, Mandy C Szymanski, Lacey M Gould, Claire J Lauterbach, Roger A Vaughan, Matthew R Kuennen
This work investigated the effect of a 6-day heat acclimation (HA) protocol on myotube metabolic responses at baseline and in response to a subsequent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge. C2C12 myotubes were incubated for 2 h/day at 40 °C for 6 days (HA) or maintained at 37 °C (C). Following 24-h recovery, myotubes were challenged with 500 ng/ml LPS for 2 h, then collected for analysis of protein markers of mitochondrial biogenesis and macronutrient storage. Functional significance of these changes was confirmed with mitochondrial respiration and glycolytic measurements on a Seahorse XF-96 analyzer...
April 11, 2018: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644532/methamphetamine-induces-apoptosis-of-microglia-via-the-intrinsic-mitochondrial-dependent-pathway
#14
Anna V Sharikova, Elizabeth Quaye, Jun Yong Park, Maxwell C Maloney, Habben Desta, Ramkumar Thiyagarajan, Kenneth L Seldeen, Neil U Parikh, Parteet Sandhu, Alexander Khmaladze, Bruce R Troen, Stanley A Schwartz, Supriya D Mahajan
Methamphetamine (METH) is a drug of abuse, the acute and chronic use of which induces neurotoxic responses in the human brain, ultimately leading to neurocognitive disorders. Our goals were to understand the impact of METH on microglial mitochondrial respiration and to determine whether METH induces the activation of the mitochondrial-dependent intrinsic apoptosis pathway in microglia. We assessed the expression of pro- apoptosis genes using qPCR of RNA extracted from a human microglial cell line (HTHU). We examined the apoptosis-inducing effects of METH on microglial cells using digital holographic microscopy (DHM) to quantify real-time apoptotic volume decrease (AVD) in microglia in a noninvasive manner...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618935/metabolic-profiling-of-follistatin-overexpression-a-novel-therapeutic-strategy-for-metabolic-diseases
#15
Rajan Singh, Shehla Pervin, Se-Jin Lee, Alan Kuo, Victor Grijalva, John David, Laurent Vergnes, Srinivasa T Reddy
Background: Follistatin (Fst) promotes brown adipocyte characteristics in adipose tissues. Methods: Abdominal fat volume (CT scan), glucose clearance (GTT test), and metabolomics analysis (mass spectrometry) of adipose tissues from Fst transgenic (Fst-Tg) and wild type (WT) control mice were analyzed. Oxygen consumption (Seahorse Analyzer) and lipidomics (gas chromatography) was analyzed in 3T3-L1 cells. Results: Fst-Tg mice show significant decrease in abdominal fat content, increased glucose clearance, improved plasma lipid profiles and significant changes in several conventional metabolites compared to the WT mice...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618839/metformin-adapts-its-cellular-effects-to-bioenergetic-status-in-a-model-of-metabolic-dysfunction
#16
Christopher Auger, Thibacg Sivayoganathan, Abdikarim Abdullahi, Alexandra Parousis, Bo Wen Pang, Marc G Jeschke
Thermal injury induces a complex immunometabolic response, characterized by hyperglycemia, extensive inflammation and persistent hypermetabolism. It has been suggested that attenuation of the hypermetabolic response is beneficial for patient wellbeing. To that effect, metformin represents an attractive therapeutic agent, as its effects on glycemia, inflammation and bioenergetics can improve outcomes in burn patients. Therefore, we studied metformin and its effects on mitochondrial bioenergetics in a murine model of thermal injury...
April 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615095/loss-of-xbp1-accelerates-age-related-decline-in-retinal-function-and-neurodegeneration
#17
Todd McLaughlin, Marek Falkowski, Jae Whan Park, Stephen Keegan, Michael Elliott, Joshua J Wang, Sarah X Zhang
BACKGROUND: Aging is the strongest risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases and extended age results in neuronal degeneration and functional decline in the visual system. Among many contributing factors to age-related deterioration of neurons is an insufficient activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in response to cellular stress. X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1) is a major component of the UPR and is essential for maintaining protein homeostasis and reducing cellular stresses...
April 4, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29613828/activation-of-class-i-histone-deacetylases-contributes-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cardiomyocytes-with-altered-complex-activities
#18
Baigalmaa Lkhagva, Yu-Hsun Kao, Ting-I Lee, Ting-Wei Lee, Wan-Li Cheng, Yi-Jen Chen
Histone deacetylases (HDACs) play vital roles in the pathophysiology of heart failure, which is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) contributes to the genesis of heart failure and impairs mitochondria. This study evaluated the role of HDACs in TNF-α-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and investigated their therapeutic potential and underlying mechanisms. We measured mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and ATP production using Seahorse XF24 extracellular flux analyzer and bioluminescent assay in control and TNF-α (10 ng/ml, 24 h)-treated HL-1 cells with or without HDAC inhibition...
May 3, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594127/effect-of-eicosapentaenoic-acid-and-docosahexaenoic-acid-on-myogenesis-and-mitochondrial-biosynthesis-during-murine-skeletal-muscle-cell-differentiation
#19
Tun-Yun Hsueh, Jamie I Baum, Yan Huang
Polyunsaturated fatty acids are important nutrients for human health, especially omega-3 fatty acids such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which have been found to play positive roles in the prevention of various diseases. However, previous studies have reported that excessive omega-3 fatty acids supplement during pregnancy caused side effects such as slower neural transmission times and postnatal growth restriction. In this study, we investigated the effect of EPA and DHA on mitochondrial function and gene expression in C2C12 myoblasts during skeletal muscle differentiation...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550120/%C3%AE-lactalbumin-oleic-acid-complex-kills-tumor-cells-by-inducing-excess-energy-metabolism-but-inhibiting-mrna-expression-of-the-related-enzymes
#20
B Fang, M Zhang, K S Ge, H Z Xing, F Z Ren
Previous studies have demonstrated that the anti-tumor α-lactalbumin-oleic acid complex (α-LA-OA) may target the glycolysis of tumor cells. However, few data are available regarding the effects of α-LA-OA on energy metabolism. In this study, we measured glycolysis and mitochondrial functions in HeLa cells in response to α-LA-OA using the XF flux analyzer (Seahorse Bioscience, North Billerica, MA). The gene expression of enzymes involved in glycolysis, tricarboxylic acid cycle, electron transfer chain, and ATP synthesis were also evaluated...
June 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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