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Lei-Lei Tang, Jia-Dan Wang, Ting-Ting Xu, Zhe Zhao, Jia-Jie Zheng, Ren-Shan Ge, Dan-Yan Zhu
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a persistent organic contaminant that may cause cardiotoxicity in animals and humans. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism by which it affects the organelle toxicity in cardiomyocytes during the cardiogenesis. Our previous proteomic study showed that differences of protein expression mainly existed in mitochondria of cardiomyocytes differentiated from embryonic stem (ES) cells after exposure to PFOS. Here, we focused on mitochondrial toxicity of PFOS in ES cell-derived cardiomyocytes...
March 10, 2017: Toxicology
Kan Yin, Rongjia Zhu, Shihua Wang, Robert Chunhua Zhao
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been proved to be an important element in cell-based therapy. Photobiomodulation used extremely low-level lasers (LLLs) to affect the behavior of cells. The effect mechanism of LLLs on MSCs from human remained to be discovered. In this study, cell viability was assessed using MTS assays and cell cycle was evaluated by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The influence of LLLs on mitochondrial biogenesis (fission or fusion) and function (ATP, reactive oxygen species [ROS], nitric oxide [NO]) was evaluated by transmission electron microscope, FACS, quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR), and immunocytochemistry...
March 27, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
Karl N Miller, Maggie S Burhans, Josef P Clark, Porsha R Howell, Michael A Polewski, Tyler M DeMuth, Kevin W Eliceiri, Mary J Lindstrom, James M Ntambi, Rozalyn M Anderson
Adipose tissue expansion has been associated with system-wide metabolic dysfunction and increased vulnerability to diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. A reduction in adiposity is a hallmark of caloric restriction (CR), an intervention that extends longevity and delays the onset of these same age-related conditions. Despite these parallels, the role of adipose tissue in coordinating the metabolism of aging is poorly defined. Here, we show that adipose tissue metabolism and secretory profiles change with age and are responsive to CR...
February 3, 2017: Aging Cell
Evgeny A Lysenko, Tatiana F Vepkhvadze, Egor M Lednev, Olga L Vinogradova, Daniil V Popov
We tested whether post exercise ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA < 10 g) is sufficient to activate signaling associated with muscle protein synthesis and suppress exercise-induced activation of mechanisms associated with proteolysis in endurance-trained human skeletal muscle. Nine endurance-trained athletes performed a cycling bout with and without BCAA ingestion (0.1 g/kg). Post exercise ACC(Ser79/222) phosphorylation (endogenous marker of AMPK activity) was increased (~3-fold, P < 0...
December 3, 2016: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
Feng-Feng Cai, Cheng Xu, Xin Pan, Lu Cai, Xiao-Yan Lin, Su Chen, Ewelina Biskup
Cellular adaptive mechanisms are crucial for tumorigenesis and a common feature in solid tumor progression. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) facilitates the biological response to hypoxia, advancing angiogenesis and metastatic potential of the tumor. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivators 1α (PGC-1α) enhances mitochondrial biogenesis, favored by migratory/invasive cancer cells. We conducted a prospective, long-term follow up study to determine whether HIF-1α and PGC-1α can be implemented as predictive biomarker in breast cancer...
November 22, 2016: Oncotarget
Hui Yang, Rui Yang, Hao Liu, Zhongqian Ren, Cuicui Wang, Da Li, Xiaoxin Ma
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) coactivates multiple transcription factors and regulates several metabolic processes. In this study, we focused on the roles of PGC-1α in the apoptosis of endometrial cancer HEC-1A cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: PGC-1a expression in the HEC-1A cells was detected with real-time polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. Small interfering RNA directed against PGC-1α was designed and synthesized, and RNA interference technology was used to knock down PGC-1α mRNA and protein expression...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Lorna Mulvey, William A Sands, Karine Salin, Amanda E Carr, Colin Selman
Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan and healthspan in many species, but precisely how it elicits its beneficial effects is unclear. We investigated the impact of DR on mitochondrial function within liver and skeletal muscle of female ILSXISS mice that exhibit strain-specific variation in lifespan under 40% DR. Strains TejJ89 (lifespan increased under DR), TejJ48 (lifespan unaffected by DR) and TejJ114 (lifespan decreased under DR) were studied following 10 months of 40% DR (13 months of age). Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) within isolated liver mitochondria were unaffected by DR in TejJ89 and TejJ48, but decreased by DR in TejJ114...
September 2, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Barbara M L C Bocco, Ruy A N Louzada, Diego H S Silvestre, Maria C S Santos, Elena Anne-Palmer, Igor F Rangel, Sherine Abdalla, Andrea C Ferreira, Miriam O Ribeiro, Balázs Gereben, Denise P Carvalho, Antonio C Bianco, João P Werneck-de-Castro
KEY POINTS: In skeletal muscle, physical exercise and thyroid hormone mediate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1a) expression that is crucial to skeletal muscle mitochondrial function. The expression of type 2 deiodinase (D2), which activates thyroid hormone in skeletal muscle is upregulated by acute treadmill exercise through a β-adrenergic receptor-dependent mechanism. Pharmacological block of D2 or disruption of the Dio2 gene in skeletal muscle fibres impaired acute exercise-induced PGC-1a expression...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Vicente Martínez-Redondo, Paulo R Jannig, Jorge C Correia, Duarte M S Ferreira, Igor Cervenka, Jessica M Lindvall, Indranil Sinha, Manizheh Izadi, Amanda T Pettersson-Klein, Leandro Z Agudelo, Alfredo Gimenez-Cassina, Patricia C Brum, Karin Dahlman-Wright, Jorge L Ruas
Endurance and resistance exercise training induces specific and profound changes in the skeletal muscle transcriptome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1 α (PGC-1α) coactivators are not only among the genes differentially induced by distinct training methods, but they also participate in the ensuing signaling cascades that allow skeletal muscle to adapt to each type of exercise. Although endurance training preferentially induces PGC-1α1 expression, resistance exercise activates the expression of PGC-1α2, -α3, and -α4...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
L Szalardy, M Molnar, R Torok, D Zadori, L Vecsei, P Klivenyi, P Liberski, G G Kovacs
Despite the current hypotheses about myelinic and astrocytic ion-dyshomeostasis underlying white (WM) and grey matter (GM) vacuolation in mitochondrial encephalopathies, there is a paucity of data on the exact mechanism of vacuole formation. To revisit the concepts of vacuole formation associated with mitochondrial dysfunction, we performed a comparative neuropathological analysis in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) and full-length peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-g coactivator-1a (FL-PGC-1a)-deficient mice, a recently proposed morphological model of mitochondrial encephalopathies...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
Tamotsu Nishida, Yoshiji Yamada
Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation...
May 13, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Weiguo Dong, Wanqing Quo, Feng Wang, Changzheng Li, Yongcai Xie, Xuehua Zheng, Hong Shi
BACKGROUND: Abnormalities of brain energy metabolism are involved in Alzheimer disease (AD). Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is a class III histone deacetylase and activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ co-activator-1α (PGC-1α), which enhances mitochondrial biogenesis and energy homeostasis. Electroacupuncture (EA) has been reported to improve brain energy metabolism in AD. However, the effect of EA on SIRT1 and PGC-1α in AD remains unclear. MATERIAL AND METHODS: ATP levels were measured using assay kits in the hippocampus and frontal cortex of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice...
November 4, 2015: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Mateusz Wątroba, Dariusz Szukiewicz
Sirtuins, initially described as histone deacetylases and gene silencers in yeast, are now known to have much more functions and to be much more abundant in living organisms. Sirtuins gained much attention when they were first acknowledged to be responsible for some beneficial and longevity-promoting effects of calorie restriction in many species of animals - from fruit flies to mammals. In this paper, we discuss some detailed molecular mechanisms of inducing these effects, and wonder if they could be possibly mimicked without actually applying calorie restriction, through induction of sirtuin activity...
March 2016: Advances in Medical Sciences
Yongkang Zou, Ning Gong, Ying Cui, Xiaojuan Wang, Anfang Cui, Qi Chen, Tao Jiao, Xueyu Dong, Hao Yang, Shutian Zhang, Fude Fang, Yongsheng Chang
Dysregulation of hepatic gluconeogenesis contributes to the pathogenesis of diabetes, yet the detailed molecular mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here we show that FOXP1, a transcriptional repressor, plays a key role in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis. Hepatic expression levels of FOXP1 are decreased in diabetic mice. Modest hepatic overexpression of FOXP1 in mice inhibited the expression of gluconeogenic genes, such as peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6PC), leading to a decrease in hepatic glucose production and fasting blood glucose levels in normal mice and different mouse models of diabetes, including db/db diabetic and high-fat diet-induced obese mice...
December 18, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Maryam Sardari, Ameneh Rezayof, Fariba Khodagholi
Stress is a potent modulator of hippocampal-dependent memory formation. The aim of the present study was to assess the role of hippocampal signaling pathways in stress-induced memory impairment in male Wistar rats. The animals were exposed to acute elevated platform (EP) stress and memory formation was measured by a step-through type passive avoidance task. The results indicated that post-training or pre-test exposure to EP stress impaired memory consolidation or retrieval respectively. Using western blot analysis, it was found that memory retrieval was associated with the increase in the levels of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (P-CREB), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) and its downstream targets in the hippocampus...
November 2, 2015: Brain Research
Lu Jing, Ye Hou, Hui Wu, Yuanxin Miao, Xinyun Li, Jianhua Cao, John Michael Brameld, Tim Parr, Shuhong Zhao
Feed efficiency (FE) can be measured by feed conversion ratio (FCR) or residual feed intake (RFI). In this study, we measured the FE related phenotypes of 236 castrated purebred Yorkshire boars, and selected 10 extreme individuals with high and low RFI for transcriptome analysis. We used RNA-seq analyses to determine the differential expression of genes and miRNAs in skeletal muscle. There were 99 differentially expressed genes identified (q ≤ 0.05). The down-regulated genes were mainly involved in mitochondrial energy metabolism, including FABP3, RCAN, PPARGC1 (PGC-1A), HK2 and PRKAG2...
2015: Scientific Reports
Mohammad Hassan Karimfar, Karimeh Haghani, Azar Babakhani, Salar Bakhtiyari
Alteration of lipid metabolism is an important mechanism for the treatment of insulin resistance. PGC-1α, a key regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and function, plays an important role in the improvement of insulin sensitivity by increasing fatty acids β-oxidation. In the present study, the effects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), an anti-obesity agent and enhancer of lipid catabolism, on PGC-1α protein expression was examined and compared with anti-diabetic drug rosiglitazone (RGZ). After differentiation of C2C12 myoblasts to myotubes, insulin resistance was induced by palmitate treatment...
June 2015: Lipids
J Liu
Irisin is a newly discovered 112 amino acid residues' glycosylated protein hormone that was firstly found up-regulated by exercise-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) and then play an important role in circulation so as to target other organs. It conducts many downstream events including osteoblast differentiation, nerve cell and β-cell regeneration and so on. In clinical research, non-inflammation and inflammation related diseases correlated with basal level of irisin and they benefited from exercise-induced irisin endocrinology...
2015: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Xuemei Xie, Tulian Lin, Meihui Zhang, Lihong Liao, Guandou Yuan, Hongjie Gao, Qin Ning, Xiaoping Luo
BACKGROUND: Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) followed by postnatal accelerated growth (CG-IUGR) is associated with long-term adverse metabolic consequences, and an involvement of epigenetic dysregulation has been implicated. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) is a key orchestrator in energy homeostasis. We hypothesized that CG-IUGR programed an insulin-resistant phenotype through the alteration in DNA methylation and transcriptional activity of PGC-1α...
May 2015: Pediatric Research
I V Astratenkova, V A Rogozkin
Enzymes Akt, AMPK, mTOR, S6K and PGC-1a coactivator take part in skeletal muscles in the regulation of synthesis of proteins. The expression of these proteins is regulated by growth factors, hormones, nutrients, mechanical loading and leads to an increase in muscle mass and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. The review presents the results of studies published in the past four years, which expand knowledge on the effects of various factors on protein synthesis in skeletal muscle. The attention is focused on the achievements that reveal and clarify the signaling pathways involved in the regulation of protein synthesis in skeletal muscle...
June 2014: Rossiĭskii Fiziologicheskiĭ Zhurnal Imeni I.M. Sechenova
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