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Mitochondrial respiration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782205/nad-repletion-produces-no-therapeutic-effect-in-mice-with-respiratory-chain-complex-iii-deficiency-and-chronic-energy-deprivation
#1
Janne Purhonen, Jayasimman Rajendran, Saara Tegelberg, Olli-Pekka Smolander, Eija Pirinen, Jukka Kallijärvi, Vineta Fellman
Biosynthetic precursors of NAD+ can replenish a decreased cellular NAD+ pool and, supposedly via sirtuin (SIRT) deacetylases, improve mitochondrial function. We found decreased hepatic NAD+ concentration and downregulated biosynthesis in Bcs1lp.S78G knock-in mice with respiratory chain complex III deficiency and mitochondrial hepatopathy. Aiming at ameliorating disease progression via NAD+ repletion and improved mitochondrial function, we fed these mice nicotinamide riboside (NR), a NAD+ precursor. A targeted metabolomics verified successful administration and suggested enhanced NAD+ biosynthesis in the treated mice, although hepatic NAD+ concentration was unchanged at the end point...
May 21, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780691/understanding-d-ribose-and-mitochondrial-function
#2
Diane E Mahoney, John B Hiebert, Amanda Thimmesch, John T Pierce, James L Vacek, Richard L Clancy, Andrew J Sauer, Janet D Pierce
Mitochondria are important organelles referred to as cellular powerhouses for their unique properties of cellular energy production. With many pathologic conditions and aging, mitochondrial function declines, and there is a reduction in the production of adenosine triphosphate. The energy carrying molecule generated by cellular respiration and by pentose phosphate pathway, an alternative pathway of glucose metabolism. D-ribose is a naturally occurring monosaccharide found in the cells and particularly in the mitochondria is essential in energy production...
2018: Adv Biosci Clin Med
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780405/quercetin-induced-lifespan-extension-in-podospora-anserina-requires-methylation-of-the-flavonoid-by-the-o-methyltransferase-pamth1
#3
Verena Warnsmann, Saskia Hainbuch, Heinz D Osiewacz
Quercetin is a flavonoid that is ubiquitously found in vegetables and fruits. Like other flavonoids, it is active in balancing cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and has a cyto-protective function. Previously, a link between ROS balancing, aging, and the activity of O -methyltransferases was reported in different organisms including the aging model Podospora anserina. Here we describe a role of the S -adenosylmethionine-dependent O -methyltransferase PaMTH1 in quercetin-induced lifespan extension...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29778689/network-analysis-of-a-proposed-exit-pathway-for-protons-to-the-p-side-of-cytochrome-c-oxidase
#4
Xiuhong Cai, Kamran Haider, Jianxun Lu, Slaven Radic, Chang Yun Son, Qiang Cui, M R Gunner
Cytochrome c Oxidase (CcO) reduces O2 , the terminal electron acceptor, to water in the aerobic respiration electron transport chain. The energy released by O2 reductions is stored by removing eight protons from the high pH, N-side, of the membrane with four used for chemistry in the active site and four pumped to the low pH, P-side. The proton transfers must occur along controllable proton pathways that prevent energy dissipating movement towards the N-side. The CcO N-side has well established D- and K-channels to deliver protons to the protein interior...
May 17, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777685/thiamine-preserves-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-traumatic-brain-injury-preventing-inactivation-of-the-2-oxoglutarate-dehydrogenase-complex
#5
Garik V Mkrtchyan, Muammer Üçal, Andrea Müllebner, Sergiu Dumitrescu, Martina Kames, Rudolf Moldzio, Marek Molcanyi, Samuel Schaefer, Adelheid Weidinger, Ute Schaefer, Juergen Hescheler, Johanna Catharina Duvigneau, Heinz Redl, Victoria I Bunik, Andrey V Kozlov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Based on the fact that traumatic brain injury is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction we aimed at localization of mitochondrial defect and attempted to correct it by thiamine. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Interventional controlled experimental animal study was used. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to lateral fluid percussion traumatic brain injury. Thiamine was administered 1 h prior to trauma; cortex was extracted for analysis 4 h and 3 d after trauma...
May 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777200/a-map-of-the-pgc-1%C3%AE-and-nt-pgc-1%C3%AE-regulated-transcriptional-network-in-brown-adipose-tissue
#6
Ji Suk Chang, Sujoy Ghosh, Susan Newman, J Michael Salbaum
Transcriptional coactivator PGC-1α and its splice variant NT-PGC-1α play crucial roles in regulating cold-induced thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue (BAT). PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α are highly induced by cold in BAT and subsequently bind to and coactivate many transcription factors to regulate expression of genes involved in mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, respiration and thermogenesis. To identify the complete repertoire of PGC-1α and NT-PGC-1α target genes in BAT, we analyzed genome-wide DNA-binding and gene expression profiles...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775559/mechanosensitivity-of-mitochondr-ial-large-conductance-calcium-activated-potassium-channels
#7
Agnieszka Walewska, Bogusz Kulawiak, Adam Szewczyk, Piotr Koprowski
Potassium channels have been discovered in the inner mitochondrial membrane of various cells. These channels can regulate the mitochondrial membrane potential, the matrix volume, respiration and reactive species generation. Therefore, it is believed that their activation is cytoprotective in various tissues. In our study, the single-channel activity of a large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (mitoBKCa ) was measured by the patch-clamp technique on mitoplasts derived from mitochondria isolated from human glioma U-87 MG cells...
May 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774488/the-effect-of-oxygen-in-sirt3-mediated-myocardial-protection-a-proof-of-concept-study-in-cultured-cardiomyoblasts
#8
Philipp Diehl, Daniel S Gaul, Jonas Sogl, Ulrike Flierl, Darren Henstridge, Juergen Pahla, Heiko Bugger, Maximilian Y Emmert, Frank Ruschitzka, Christoph Bode, Thomas F Lüscher, Martin Moser, Christian M Matter, Karlheinz Peter, Stephan Winnik
Sirtuin 3 is a nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dependent mitochondrial deacetylase that governs mitochondrial metabolism and oxidative defense. The demise in myocardial function following myocardial ischemia has been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Sirt3 maintains myocardial contractile function and protects from cardiac hypertrophy. The role of Sirt3 in ischemia is controversial. Our objective was to understand, under what circumstances Sirt3 is protective in different facets of ischemia, using an in vitro proof-of-concept approach based on simulated ischemia in cultured cardiomyoblasts...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Thrombolysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773647/altered-sterol-metabolism-in-budding-yeast-affects-mitochondrial-iron-sulfur-fe-s-cluster-synthesis
#9
Diane M Ward, Opal S Chen, Liangtao Li, Jerry Kaplan, Shah Alam Bhuiyan, Selvamuthu K Natarajan, Martin Bard, James E Cox
Ergosterol synthesis is essential for cellular growth and viability of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and intracellular sterol distribution and homeostasis are therefore highly regulated in this species. Erg25 is an iron-containing C4-methyl sterol oxidase that contributes to the conversion of 4,4-dimethylzymosterol to zymosterol, a precursor of ergosterol. The ERG29 gene encodes an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated protein, and here we identified a role for Erg29 in the methyl sterol oxidase step of ergosterol synthesis...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770425/dynamic-microfluidic-nanocalorimetry-system-for-measuring-caenorhabditis-elegans-metabolic-heat
#10
Roger Krenger, Thomas Lehnert, Martin A M Gijs
Basal heat production is a key phenotype for assessing the metabolic activity of small living organisms. Here, we present a new nanocalorimetric system, based on thin film thermopile sensors combined with microfluidic chips for measuring metabolic heat signals generated by Caenorhabditis elegans larval populations (60 to 220 organisms). In addition to versatile on-chip fluidic manipulation, our microfluidic approach allows confining worm populations close to the sensor surface, thus increasing the sensitivity of the assays...
May 17, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769150/adipose-tissue-uncoupling-protein-1-levels-and-function-are-increased-in-a-mouse-model-of-developmental-obesity-induced-by-maternal-exposure-to-high-fat-diet
#11
E Bytautiene Prewit, C Porter, M La Rosa, N Bhattarai, H Yin, P Gamble, T Kechichian, L S Sidossis
With brown adipose tissue (BAT) becoming a possible therapeutic target to counteract obesity, the prenatal environment could represent a critical window to modify BAT function and browning of white AT. We investigated if levels of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) and UCP1-mediated thermogenesis are altered in offspring exposed to prenatal obesity. Female CD-1 mice were fed a high-fat (HF) or standard-fat (SF) diet for 3 months before breeding. After weaning, all pups were placed on SF. UCP1 mRNA and protein levels were quantified using quantitative real-time PCR and Western blot analysis, respectively, in brown (BAT), subcutaneous (SAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues at 6 months of age...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768193/gsk3%C3%AE-regulates-brain-energy-metabolism
#12
Stephen A Martin, Dylan C Souder, Karl N Miller, Josef P Clark, Abdul Kader Sagar, Kevin W Eliceiri, Luigi Puglielli, T Mark Beasley, Rozalyn M Anderson
GSK3β is a serine threonine kinase implicated in the progression of Alzheimer's disease. Although the role of GSK3β in growth and pathology has been extensively studied, little is known about the metabolic consequences of GSK3β manipulation, particularly in the brain. Here, we show that GSK3β regulates mitochondrial energy metabolism in human H4 neuroglioma cells and rat PC12-derived neuronal cells and that inhibition of GSK3β in mice in vivo alters metabolism in the hippocampus in a region-specific manner...
May 15, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767788/acute-maneb-exposure-significantly-alters-both-glycolysis-and-mitochondrial-function-in-neuroblastoma-cells
#13
Colin C Anderson, Stefanos Aivazidis, Crystal L Kuzyk, Abhilasha Jain, James R Roede
The pesticides paraquat (PQ) and maneb (MB) have been described as environmental risk factors for Parkinson's disease (PD), with mechanisms associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. A combined exposure of PQ and MB in murine models and neuroblastoma cells has been utilized to further advance understanding of the PD phenotype. MB acts as a redox modulator through alkylation of protein thiols and has been previously characterized to inhibit complex III of the electron transport chain (ETC) and uncouple the mitochondrial proton gradient...
May 14, 2018: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767723/isca1-mutation-in-a-patient-with-infantile-onset-leukodystrophy-causes-defects-in-mitochondrial-4fe-4s-proteins
#14
Alessandra Torraco, Oliver Stehling, Claudia Stümpfig, Ralf Rösser, Domenico De Rasmo, Giuseppe Fiermonte, Daniela Verrigni, Teresa Rizza, Angelo Vozza, Michela Di Nottia, Daria Diodato, Diego Martinelli, Fiorella Piemonte, Carlo Dionisi-Vici, Enrico Bertini, Roland Lill, Rosalba Carrozzo
Multiple Mitochondrial Dysfunction Syndromes (MMDS) comprise a group of severe autosomal recessive diseases characterized by impaired respiration and lipoic acid metabolism, resulting in infantile-onset mitochondrial encephalopathy, non-ketotic hyperglycinemia, myopathy, lactic acidosis and early death. Four different MMDS have been analyzed in detail according to the genes involved in the disease, MMDS1 (NFU1), MMDS2 (BOLA3), MMDS3 (IBA57), and MMDS4 (ISCA2). MMDS5 has recently been described in a clinical case report of patients carrying a mutation in ISCA1, but with no further functional analysis...
May 14, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760184/structural-and-functional-rescue-of-chronic-metabolically-stressed-optic-nerves-through-respiration
#15
Mohammad Harun-Or-Rashid, Nate Pappenhagen, Peter G Palmer, Matthew A Smith, Victoria Gevorgyan, Gina N Wilson, Samuel D Crish, Denise M Inman
Axon degeneration can arise from metabolic stress, potentially a result of mitochondrial dysfunction or lack of appropriate substrate input. In this study, we investigated whether the metabolic vulnerability observed during optic neuropathy in the DBA/2J (D2) model of glaucoma is due to dysfunctional mitochondria or impaired substrate delivery to axons, the latter based on our observation of significantly decreased glucose and monocarboxylate transporters in D2 optic nerve (ON), human ON, and mice subjected to acute glaucoma injury...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756604/alkaloids-nitric-oxide-and-nitrite-reductases-evolutionary-coupling-as-key-regulators-of-cellular-bioenergetics-with-special-relevance-to-the-human-microbiome
#16
George B Stefano, Richard M Kream
Typical alkaloids expressed by prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells are small heterocyclic compounds containing weakly basic nitrogen groups that are critically important for mediating essential biological activities. The prototype opiate alkaloid morphine represents a low molecular mass heterocyclic compound that has been evolutionarily fashioned from a relatively restricted role as a secreted antimicrobial phytoalexin into a broad spectrum regulatory molecule. As an essential corollary, positive evolutionary pressure has driven the development of a cognate 6-transmembrane helical (TMH) domain μ3 opiate receptor that is exclusively responsive to morphine and related opiate alkaloids...
May 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753771/mir-199a-3p-regulates-brown-adipocyte-differentiation-through-mtor-signaling-pathway
#17
Yao Gao, Yan Cao, Xianwei Cui, Xingyun Wang, Yahui Zhou, Fangyan Huang, Xing Wang, Juan Wen, Kaipeng Xie, Pengfei Xu, Xirong Guo, Lianghui You, Chenbo Ji
Recent discoveries of functional brown adipocytes in mammals illuminates their therapeutic potential for combating obesity and its associated diseases. However, on account of the limited amount and activity in adult humans of brown adipocyte depots, identification of miRNAs and characterization their regulatory roles in human brown adipogenesis are urgently needed. This study focused on the role of microRNA (miR)-199a-3p in human brown adipocyte differentiation and thermogenic capacity. A decreased expression pattern of miR-199a-3p was consistently observed during the differentiation course of brown adipocytes in mice and humans...
May 10, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29753719/analysis-of-respiratory-capacity-in-brain-tissue-preparations-high-resolution-respirometry-for-intact-hippocampal-slices
#18
Cândida Dias, Cátia F Lourenço, Rui M Barbosa, João Laranjinha, Ana Ledo
The evaluation of mitochondrial function provides the basis for the study of brain bioenergetics. However, analysis of brain mitochondrial respiration has been hindered by the low yield associated with mitochondria isolation procedures. Furthermore, isolating mitochondria or cells results in loss of the inherent complexity of the central nervous system. High-resolution respirometry (HRR), is a valuable tool to study mitochondrial function and has been used in diverse biological preparations ranging from isolated mitochondria to tissue homogenates and permeabilized tissue biopsies...
May 10, 2018: Analytical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750960/a-novel-role-for-ptk2b-in-cultured-beige-adipocyte-differentiation
#19
Bin Ni, Jared S Farrar, Shanshan Chen, Joseph C Lownik, Francesco S Celi
Adipocyte differentiation is a tightly regulated process which requires the sequential and organized expression of numerous genes and proteins. Phosphorylation of cytoplasmic proteins and key transcription factors represents a critical regulatory mechanism of the process leading to adipocyte maturation and modulation of associated metabolic pathways. Despite the recognition of the importance of protein phosphorylation in adipocyte biology, relatively little is known about the role of specific kinases in thermogenic (brown or beige) adipocyte differentiation and function...
May 8, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748969/persulfide-synthases-function-coupled-with-translation-and-mediate-sulfur-respiration
#20
REVIEW
Shigemoto Fuji, Tomohiro Sawa, Hozumi Motohashi, Takaaki Akaike
Cysteine persulfide and polysulfide are produced in cells and exist in abundance in both low-molecular-weight and protein fractions. However, the mechanism of regulation of the formation of cellular cysteine polysulfides and the physiological functions of cysteine persulfides/polysulfides produced in cells are not fully understood. We recently demonstrated that cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase (CARS) is novel cysteine persulfide synthase. CARS is involved in protein polysulfidation that is coupled with translation...
May 10, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
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