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Acid Base

Yi Wu, Jianfei Zhao, Chenchen Xu, Ning Ma, Ting He, Jinshan Zhao, Xi Ma, Phil A Thacker
Over the last 27 years (1990-2017), based on the revolutionary progresses of basic nutrition research, novel methods and techniques have been developed which bring a profound technological revolution to pig production from free-range system to intensive farming all over the world. Basic theoretical innovations and feed production studies have provided vital advancements in pig nutrition by developing formula feed, utilizing balanced diets, determining feed energy value, dividing pig physiological stages, enhancing gut health, and improving feed processing technique...
April 24, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Federico M Flores, Rosa M Torres Sánchez, Maria Dos Santos Afonso
The most worldwide used herbicide is glyphosate, phosphonomethylglycine (PMG). Consequently, a significant amount of PMG, its metabolites (sarcosine, SAR, and aminomethylphosphonic acid, AMPA) and the degradation product, methylphosphonic acid (MPA), reaches the soil, which acts as final sink. Because clays are one of the most reactive components of soils, expansive clays such as montmorillonite (Mt) are used to retain agriculture contaminants with some success. In this work, as a preliminary step for the evaluation of the risk that PMG, SAR, AMPA, and MPA occurrence could have on the environment, their adsorption on Mt surface was performed...
April 25, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Jing-Hua Chen, Long-Jiang Yu, Alain Boussac, Zheng-Yu Wang-Otomo, Tingyun Kuang, Jian-Ren Shen
The thermophilic purple sulfur bacterium Thermochromatium tepidum possesses four main water-soluble redox proteins involved in the electron transfer behavior. Crystal structures have been reported for three of them: a high potential iron-sulfur protein, cytochrome c', and one of two low-potential cytochrome c 552 (which is a flavocytochrome c) have been determined. In this study, we purified another low-potential cytochrome c 552 (LPC), determined its N-terminal amino acid sequence and the whole gene sequence, characterized it with absorption and electron paramagnetic spectroscopy, and solved its high-resolution crystal structure...
April 24, 2018: Photosynthesis Research
Ali A Ensafi, Maryam Amini, Behzad Rezaei
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) were electrodeposited on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode (GCE) and then treated with a mixture of a thiolated DNA sequence (p-63; with high affinity for bisphenol A) and free bisphenol A (BPÀ). Pyrrole was then electropolymerizaed on the surface of the GCE to entrap the BPA@p-63 complex. BPA is then extracted with acetic acid solution to obtain MIP cavities where the embedded DNA sequence acts as the binding site for BPA. Scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic voltammetry were employed to characterize the surface of the modified GCE...
April 24, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Cai-Ping Ye, Gan Xu, Zheng Wang, Jie Han, Lian Xue, Fu-Yu Cao, Qi Zhang, Lin-Feng Yang, Li-Zhou Lin, Xu-Dong Chen
The functionalized ligand 9,10-anthraquinone-1,4-dicarboxylate acid (H2AQDC) was designed and synthesized in order to develop metal-organic coordination polymers as heterogeneous catalysts with a photosensitizing feature. Two major considerations of the ligand design are anthraquinone moieties for photosensitizing to harvest light and carboxylate groups for polymeric coordination toward less solubility. A series of transition metal complexes based on this ligand were synthesized subsequently, namely {Co(AQDC)(H2O)3·2H2O}n (Co-AQDC), {Ni(AQDC)(H2O)3·2H2O}n (Ni-AQDC), {[Cu(AQDC)(H2O)3][Cu(AQDC)(H2O)2(DMF)]·(H2O)4}n (Cu-AQDC), {Zn1...
April 25, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Anne Nsubuga, Massimo Sgarzi, Kristof Zarschler, Manja Kubeil, René Hübner, Robin Steudtner, Bim Graham, Tanmaya Joshi, Holger Stephan
Pure hexagonal (β-phase) NaYF4-based hydrophobic upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs) were surface-modified with O-phospho-l-threonine (OPLT), alendronic acid, and PEG-phosphate ligands to generate water-dispersible UCNPs. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to establish the presence of the ligands on the UCNP surface. These UCNPs exhibit great colloidal stability and a near-neutral surface at physiological pH, as confirmed by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential (ζ) measurements, respectively...
April 25, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Yoghatama Cindya Zanzer, Merichel Plaza, Anestis Dougkas, Charlotta Turner, Elin Östman
Pleiotropic effects of spices on health, particularly on glucose metabolism and energy regulation, deserve further clinical investigation into their efficacy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether consumption of a black pepper-based beverage (BPB) preload containing 20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) would exert any effect on postprandial glycaemia, appetite sensations, gut hormones, thyroid function, and gastrointestinal well-being after a white wheat bread (WWB) challenge meal containing 50 g available carbohydrates (CHO) compared to a control beverage...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
Khushbu Shah, Xin Lin, Sherry F Queener, Vivian Cody, Jim Pace, Aleem Gangjee
To combine the potency of trimetrexate (TMQ) or piritrexim (PTX) with the species selectivity of trimethoprim (TMP), target based design was carried out with the X-ray crystal structure of human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) and the homology model of Pneumocystis jirovecii DHFR (pjDHFR). Using variation of amino acids such as Met33/Phe31 (in pjDHFR/hDHFR) that affect the binding of inhibitors due to their distinct positive or negative steric effect at the active binding site of the inhibitor, we designed a series of substituted-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidines...
April 17, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Jeffrey P Chance, Hannah Fejzic, Obiel Hernandez, Eva S Istvan, Armann Andaya, Nikolay Maslov, Ruby Aispuro, Teodulo Crisanto, Huyen Nguyen, Brian Vidal, Whitney Serrano, Bradley Kuwahara, Corey Pugne Andanado, Daniel E Goldberg, Jeremy P Mallari
The human parasite Plasmodium falciparum kills an estimated 445,000 people a year, with the most fatalities occurring in African children. Previous studies identified falcilysin (FLN) as a malarial metalloprotease essential for parasite development in the human host. Despite its essentiality, the biological roles of this protease are not well understood. Here we describe the optimization of a piperazine-based hydroxamic acid scaffold to develop the first reported inhibitors of FLN. Inhibitors were tested against cultured parasites, and parasiticidal activity correlated with potency against FLN...
April 19, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Deepak Kadam, Nirali Shah, Shanooba Palamthodi, S S Lele
Nigella sativa seedcake phenolic extract (NSE), as compared to tannic acid (TA), was evaluated for its effect on film-forming ability of chitosan. These films were evaluated for their tensile strength, elongation, water vapor permeability (WVP), type of bonding, color, surface morphology, polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activity release profile. At 7.5% (v/v of film-forming solution), NSE led to 42% decrease in tensile strength but improved the elongation by 66%, contradicting the effect of TA in chitosan films...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Tatiana Porto Santos, Rosiane Lopes Cunha
Gellan gels were produced using different approaches forming structures with varied potential applications. Gels were characterized from appearance, mechanical properties, water holding capacity (WHC) and microstructure. In addition, in vitro digestibility of these gels was evaluated to understand the effect of gastrointestinal environment on their structure stability. All gels presented high WHC (>80% w/w) but gels were stronger with salt or acid addition, which was associated to the reduction of double helices repulsion of the negatively charged carboxyl groups of gellan...
July 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Sayed Sadra Ale Saheb Fosoul, Arash Azarfar, Abbasali Gheisari, Heshmatollah Khosravinia
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of guanidinoacetic acid (GAA) on productive performance, intestinal morphometric features, blood parameters and energy utilisation in broiler chickens. A total of 390 male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were assigned to six dietary treatments based on a factorial arrangement (2×3) across 1-15 and 15-35-d periods. Experimental treatments consisted of two basal diets with standard (STD; starter: 12·56 MJ/kg and grower: 12·97 MJ/kg) and reduction (LME; starter: 11·93 MJ/kg and grower: 12·33 MJ/kg) of apparent metabolisable energy (AME) requirement of broiler chickens each supplemented with 0, 0·6 and 1·2 g/kg GAA...
April 25, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xin Chu, Qunyan Jin, Hui Chen, G Craig Wood, Anthony Petrick, William Strodel, Jon Gabrielsen, Peter Benotti, Tooraj Mirshahi, David J Carey, Christopher D Still, Johanna K DiStefano, Glenn S Gerhard
BACKGROUND: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a prevalent complication of extreme obesity. Loading of the liver with fat can progress to inflammation and fibrosis including cirrhosis. The molecular factors involved in the progression from simple steatosis to fibrosis remain poorly understood. METHODS: Gene expression profiling using microarray, PCR array, and RNA sequencing was performed on RNA from liver biopsy tissue from patients with extreme obesity...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Masayuki Wakioka, Natsumi Yamashita, Hiroki Mori, Yasushi Nishihara, Fumiyuki Ozawa
This paper reports the synthesis of D-A polymers containing 1,2-dithienylethene (DTE) units via palladium-catalyzed direct arylation polymerization (DArP). The reaction of dibromoisoindigo ( 1 - Br ) and DTE ( 2 - H ), in the presence of Pd₂(dba)₃·CHCl₃ (0.5 mol%), P(2-MeOC₆H₄)₃ ( L1 ) (2 mol%), pivalic acid (1 equiv) as catalyst precursors, and Cs₂CO₃ (3 equiv) as a base affords poly( 1 - alt - 2 ) with a high molecular weight ( M n up to 44,900). Although, it has been known that monomers, with plural C⁻H bonds, tend to form insoluble materials via direct arylation at undesirable C⁻H positions; the reaction of 1 - Br and 2 - H cleanly proceeds without insolubilization...
April 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Emeline Tanguy, Nawal Kassas, Nicolas Vitale
Cellular membranes are composed of thousands of different lipids usually maintained within a narrow range of concentrations. In addition to their well-known structural and metabolic roles, signaling functions for many lipids have also emerged over the last two decades. The latter largely depend on the ability of particular classes of lipids to interact specifically with a great variety of proteins and to regulate their localization and activity. Among these lipids, phosphatidic acid (PA) plays a unique role in a large repertoire of cellular activities, most likely in relation to its unique biophysical properties...
April 23, 2018: Biomolecules
Lynda Frassetto, Tanushree Banerjee, Neil Powe, Anthony Sebastian
Modern Western diets, with higher contents of animal compared to fruits and vegetable products, have a greater content of acid precursors vs. base precursors, which results in a net acid load to the body. To prevent inexorable accumulation of acid in the body and progressively increasing degrees of metabolic acidosis, the body has multiple systems to buffer and titrate acid, including bone which contains large quantities of alkaline salts of calcium. Both in vitro and in vivo studies in animals and humans suggest that bone base helps neutralize part of the dietary net acid load...
April 21, 2018: Nutrients
Lide Gu, Wanli Yan, Le Liu, Shujun Wang, Xu Zhang, Mingsheng Lyu
Enhancing the limit of detection (LOD) is significant for crucial diseases. Cancer development could take more than 10 years, from one mutant cell to a visible tumor. Early diagnosis facilitates more effective treatment and leads to higher survival rate for cancer patients. Rolling circle amplification (RCA) is a simple and efficient isothermal enzymatic process that utilizes nuclease to generate long single stranded DNA (ssDNA) or RNA. The functional nucleic acid unit (aptamer, DNAzyme) could be replicated hundreds of times in a short period, and a lower LOD could be achieved if those units are combined with an enzymatic reaction, Surface Plasmon Resonance, electrochemical, or fluorescence detection, and other different kinds of biosensor...
April 21, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
Tsukasa Waki, Shimpei F Hiruta, Satoshi Shimano
A new mite species, Riccardoella (Proriccardoella) tokyoensis n. sp., is described from the lungs of the terrestrial gastropod Tauphaedusa tau (Boettger, 1877) (Clausliidae) collected in a forest city park of Tokyo, Japan. The new species is distinguished from other Riccardoella species by the following morphological characters: tibia II bears 2 setae (vs. 3 setae in other species); femur I bears 5 setae (vs. 4 or 6 setae in other species); seta of trochanter I is absent (vs. 1 seta in other species). Our phylogenetic tree based on amino acid sequences of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) confirmed that another member of the family Ereynetidae, "Ereynetidae sp...
March 27, 2018: Zootaxa
Mohammad Asaduzzaman, Martin Kerschbaumer, Matteo Scampicchio
RATIONALE: A rapid and non-invasive method for the control of milk by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry was developed. The approach has the potential to verify the geographic origin and altitude of dairy farms, provided that the cows were extensively grazed with forage that reflects the botanical composition of the mountain environment. METHODS: Over a month period, a total of 116 samples were analysed by proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTRMS)...
April 24, 2018: Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry: RCM
Masahiko Kawai
Growth failure caused by undernutrition is considered one of the major causes for psychomotor delay in extremely preterm infants, and the concept for "aggressive nutritional approach" is widely accepted worldwide. Based on this, postnatal early catch-up growth due to sufficient supply of nutrients including sufficient amounts of amino acids is believed to be essential for a better outcome; however, there is no definitive evidence of aggressive nutrition on better outcomes in mortality, growth, and neurodevelopment...
April 24, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
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