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Traumatic head injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#1
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710533/performance-evaluation-of-a-pre-computed-brain-response-atlas-in-dummy-head-impacts
#2
Wei Zhao, Calvin Kuo, Lyndia Wu, David B Camarillo, Songbai Ji
A pre-computed brain response atlas (pcBRA) may have the potential to accelerate the investigation of the biomechanical mechanisms of traumatic brain injury on a large-scale. In this study, we further enhance the technique and evaluate its performance using six degree-of-freedom angular velocity profiles from dummy head impacts. Using the pcBRA to simplify profiles into acceleration-only shapes, sufficiently accurate strain estimates were obtained for impacts with a major dominating velocity peak. However, they were largely under-estimated when substantial deceleration occurred that reversed the direction of the angular velocity...
July 14, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709049/idiopathic-spontaneous-pulmonary-torsion-of-the-lingula-a-case-report
#3
Masatoshi Kanayama, Toshihiro Osaki, Natsumasa Nishizawa, Makoto Nakagawa, Tomoko So, Mantaro Kodate
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous pulmonary torsion is an extremely rare event and is known to occur as a complication of thoracic surgery and traumatic injuries. PRESENTATION OF CASE: An 18-year-old man presented to our hospital with pain in the left back region. Clinical examination, computed tomography and bronchoscopy are crucial for diagnosis of pulmonary torsion. During thoracotomy, the lingula segment was observed to be bent on the head side and turned 180° counterclockwise; subsequently, lingulectomy was performed...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702386/disorders-of-the-long-head-of-the-biceps-tenotomy-versus-tenodesis
#4
Fabiano Rebouças Ribeiro, André Petry Sandoval Ursolino, Vinicius Ferreira Lima Ramos, Fernando Hovaguim Takesian, Antonio Carlos Tenor Júnior, Miguel Pereira da Costa
Disorders of the long head of biceps tendon are common in clinical practice. Their causes could be degenerative, inflammatory, instability (subluxation or luxation) or traumatic. They are generally associated to other diseases of the shoulder, mainly rotator cuff injuries. Currently, there is controversy in the literature regarding the indications for surgical treatment and the choice of the best technique for each case, due to the possibility of esthetic deformity, loss of muscle strength, and residual pain...
May 2017: Revista Brasileira de Ortopedia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698487/multiple-mild-traumatic-brain-injuries-are-associated-with-increased-rates-of-health-symptoms-and-gulf-war-illness-in-a-cohort-of-1990-1991-gulf-war-veterans
#5
Megan K Yee, Patricia A Janulewicz, Daniel R Seichepine, Kimberly A Sullivan, Susan P Proctor, Maxine H Krengel
Recent research demonstrated a relation between traumatic brain injury (TBI), health symptoms and diagnosis of Gulf War Illness (GWI) in Gulf War Veterans, but no study has examined the impact of multiple mild TBIs (mTBIs). A total of 229 male Gulf War Veterans from the Ft Devens Cohort were categorized by a number of mTBIs reported. One-way ANOVA and chi-square test of independence were used to test for differences in total reported health symptoms and diagnosis of chronic multisymptom illness (CMI) or Kansas GWI criteria, two of the most common case definitions of GWI...
July 9, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696288/inhibition-of-the-integrated-stress-response-reverses-cognitive-deficits-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#6
Austin Chou, Karen Krukowski, Timothy Jopson, Ping Jun Zhu, Mauro Costa-Mattioli, Peter Walter, Susanna Rosi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of long-term neurological disability, yet the mechanisms underlying the chronic cognitive deficits associated with TBI remain unknown. Consequently, there are no effective treatments for patients suffering from the long-lasting symptoms of TBI. Here, we show that TBI persistently activates the integrated stress response (ISR), a universal intracellular signaling pathway that responds to a variety of cellular conditions and regulates protein translation via phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α...
July 10, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692623/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-usage-of-protective-headgear-during-equestrian-activities
#7
Donna S Lemoine, Bradley J Tate, Jennifer A Lacombe, Theresa C Hood
Some of the more popular sporting activities for those living in rural areas include equestrian activities such as rodeo events and horseback riding. The lack of helmet use poses a concern for those who participate in these activities due to the risk of sustaining a traumatic brain injury (TBI) and ultimately having a negative effect on their future. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a trauma center comparing the data on animal-riding patients and their use or lack of use of headgear and incidence of TBI...
July 2017: Journal of Trauma Nursing: the Official Journal of the Society of Trauma Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692515/criteria-for-performing-cranial-computed-tomography-for-chinese-patients-with-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-canadian-computed-tomography-head-rule-or-new-orleans-criteria
#8
Xiao-Feng Yang, Yuan-Yuan Meng, Liang Wen, Hao Wang
Computed tomography (CT) provides the primary diagnostic evidence for traumatic brain injury (TBI), but few positive traumatic findings are discovered in patients with mild TBI. In China, there are no existing criteria for selecting patients with mild TBI to undergo CT, and almost all of these patients undergo cranial CT in the emergency department. This retrospective study was performed to evaluate the necessity of cranial CT among patients with mild TBI, as well as the feasibility of 2 popular criteria (Canadian CT head rule [CCHR] and New Orleans Criteria [NOC]) in China...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690173/immediate-and-delayed-hyperbaric-oxygen-therapy-as-a-neuroprotective-treatment-for-traumatic-brain-injury-in-mice
#9
Renana Baratz-Goldstein, Shlomi Toussia-Cohen, Aviya Elpaz, Vardit Rubovitch, Chaim G Pick
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury is the most common cause of death or chronic disability among people under-35-years-old. There is no effective pharmacological treatment currently existing for TBI. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) is defined as the inhalation of pure oxygen in a hyperbaric chamber that is pressurized higher than 1atm. HBOT offers physiological and mechanical effects by inducing a state of increased pressure and hyperoxia. HBOT has been proposed as an effective treatment for moderate traumatic brain injury (mTBI), yet the exact therapeutic window and mechanism that underlies this effect is not completely understood...
July 8, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689194/risk-factors-and-outcomes-associated-with-post-traumatic-headache-after-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#10
Yilmaz Tansel, Gerwin Roks, Myrthe de Koning, Myrthe Scheenen, Harm van der Horn, Gerben Plas, Gerard Hageman, Guus Schoonman, Jacoba Spikman, Joukje van der Naalt
OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and potential risk factors of acute and chronic post-traumatic headache (PTH) in patients with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in a prospective longitudinal observational multicentre study. Acute PTH (aPTH) is defined by new or worsening of pre-existing headache occurring within 7 days after trauma, whereas chronic PTH (cPTH) is defined as persisting aPTH >3 months after trauma. An additional goal was to study the impact of aPTH and cPTH in terms of return to work (RTW), anxiety and depression...
July 8, 2017: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688660/impact-of-tranexamic-acid-on-coagulation-and-inflammation-in-murine-models-of-traumatic-brain-injury-and-hemorrhage
#11
Ryan M Boudreau, Mark Johnson, Rosalie Veile, Lou Ann Friend, Holly Goetzman, Timothy A Pritts, Charles C Caldwell, Amy T Makley, Michael D Goodman
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic coagulopathy and inflammation can exacerbate secondary cerebral damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown clinically to reduce mortality in hemorrhaging and head-injured trauma patients and has the potential to mitigate secondary brain injury with its reported antifibrinolytic and antiinflammatory properties. We hypothesized that TXA would improve posttraumatic coagulation and inflammation in a murine model of TBI alone and in a combined injury model of TBI and hemorrhage (TBI/H)...
July 2017: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681141/epidemiology-of-traumatic-injuries-at-an-urban-hospital-in-port-au-prince-haiti
#12
Christopher Zuraik, John Sampalis
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injuries represent a major burden of disease worldwide. Haiti lacks statistics on the epidemiology of traumatic injuries, as there is no formal injury surveillance program. This study will assess the burden of traumatic injuries in an urban trauma center in the capital city of Port-au-Prince, Haiti. METHODS: A retrospective, cross-sectional chart review study at an urban trauma hospital was carried out for the period December 1, 2015, to January 31, 2016...
July 5, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678393/catechin-attenuates-traumatic-brain-injury-induced-impairments-of-blood-brain-barrier-damage-and-improve-longer-term-neurological-outcomes-in-rats
#13
Zhixian Jiang, Jinning Zhang, Yonghui Cai, Jiaxin Huang, Lingtong You
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from external force on the head usually lead to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Catechin has shown neuroprotective effect in neurodegenerative diseases and ischemia models. The present study therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of catechin after TBI and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with catechin. Brain damages, motor and cognitive functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and neuro-inflammation were examined...
July 5, 2017: Experimental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677245/does-age-matter-a-mixed-methods-study-examining-determinants-of-good-recovery-and-resilience-in-young-and-middle-aged-adults-following-moderate-to-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#14
Caroline Arbour, Nadia Gosselin, Marie-Josée Levert, Jérôme Gauvin-Lepage, Bernard Michallet, Hélène Lefebvre
AIM: To examine whether age contributes to functional recovery and resilience after moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. BACKGROUND: The ability to recover may change across the lifespan, but the influence of age on brain injury outcome is understudied. DESIGN: Mixed methods study. METHODS: All adults of working-age (18-64 years), discharged from a Level I trauma center between 2010-2013 after sustaining a moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury were considered...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675308/traumatic-bifrontoparietal-extradural-hematomas-with-detachment-of-superior-sagittal-sinus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Boru Hou, Xiumei Guo, Dengfeng Wang, Yinian Zhang, Zhiyong Zhao, Wenzhen Yang, Gang Wang, Guizhong Yan, Baoyuan Zhou, Haijun Ren
A 45-year-old man suffered bifrontoparietal extradural hematoma resulting from head injury, which cause superior sagittal sinus detachment from its subperiosteal loggia. We present the patient who was treated by early surgical evacuation of the hematoma with an excellent outcome and we also perform a review of the current literature.
July 4, 2017: British Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674910/diagnostic-imaging-in-pediatric-thoracic-trauma
#16
Claudia Lucia Piccolo, Stefania Ianniello, Margherita Trinci, Michele Galluzzo, Michele Tonerini, Massimo Zeccolini, Giuseppe Guglielmi, Vittorio Miele
Thoracic trauma accounts for approximately 14% of blunt force traumatic deaths, second only to head injuries. Chest trauma can be blunt (90% of cases) or penetrating. In young patients, between 60 and 80% of chest injuries result from blunt trauma, with over half as a consequence of impact with motor vehicles, whereas in adolescents and adults, penetrating trauma has a statistically more prominent role. Pulmonary contusions and rib fractures are the most frequent injuries occurring. Chest X-ray is the first imaging modality of choice to identify patients presenting with life-threatening conditions (i...
July 4, 2017: La Radiologia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674346/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-traumatic-cerebrovascular-injury-pitfalls-in-the-management-of-neurotrauma
#17
Hitoshi Kobata
Traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI) is an uncommon clinical entity in traumatic brain injury (TBI), yet it may cause devastating brain injury with high morbidity and mortality. Early recognition and prioritized strategic treatment are of paramount importance. A total of 1966 TBI patients admitted between 1999 and 2015 in our tertiary critical care center were reviewed. Screening of TCVI was based on the Guidelines for the Management of Severe Head Injury in Japan. TCVI was confirmed in 33 (1.7%) patients; 29 blunt and 4 penetrating injuries...
June 30, 2017: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673673/bilateral-traumatic-abducens-nerve-avulsion-a-case-series-and-literature-review
#18
REVIEW
Krishnan Ravindran, Bruno Lorensini, Frank Gaillard, Sarah Kalus
Although abducens nerve palsy is an established sequela of head trauma - given the prolonged intracranial course of the nerve - bilateral injury is rare. Here, we present two cases of bilateral traumatic abducens nerve avulsion, in the absence of regional fractures, one of which presented two months following the initial trauma. Additionally, we review the current literature on bilateral abducens nerve palsy secondary to trauma, discussing the anatomy of the nerve's course and potential mechanisms of injury...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673666/the-peculiar-properties-of-the-falx-and-tentorium-in-brain-injury-biomechanics
#19
Johnson Ho, Zhou Zhou, Xiaogai Li, Svein Kleiven
The influence of the falx and tentorium on brain injury biomechanics during impact was studied with finite element (FE) analysis. Three detailed 3D FE head models were created based on the images of a healthy, normal size head. Two of the models contained the addition of falx and tentorium with material properties from previously published experiments. Impact loadings from a reconstructed concussive case in a sport accident were applied to the two players involved. The results suggested that the falx and tentorium could induce large strains to the surrounding brain tissues, especially to the corpus callosum and brainstem...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665089/post-traumatic-tension-pneumocephalus-the-mount-fuji-sign
#20
J Ryan, G Shields, E Finegan, A Moughty
Pneumocephalus is defined as the presence of intracranial air. This is most commonly secondary to a traumatic head injury. Tension pneumocephalus presents radiologically with compression of the frontal lobes and widening of the interhemispheric space between the frontal lobes. It is often termed the Mount Fuji sign due to a perceived similarity with an iconic mountain peak in Japan. We present the case of a 52-year-old gentleman who presented to the emergency department shortly before 8am on a Saturday morning following an assault...
April 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
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