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Traumatic head injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430697/abusive-head-trauma-and-mortality-an-analysis-from-an-international-comparative-effectiveness-study-of-children-with-severe-traumatic-brain-injury
#1
Nikki Miller Ferguson, Ajit Sarnaik, Darryl Miles, Nadeem Shafi, Mark J Peters, Edward Truemper, Monica S Vavilala, Michael J Bell, Stephen R Wisniewski, James F Luther, Adam L Hartman, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Small series have suggested that outcomes after abusive head trauma are less favorable than after other injury mechanisms. We sought to determine the impact of abusive head trauma on mortality and identify factors that differentiate children with abusive head trauma from those with traumatic brain injury from other mechanisms. DESIGN: First 200 subjects from the Approaches and Decisions in Acute Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury Trial-a comparative effectiveness study using an observational, cohort study design...
April 20, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429734/neuroprotective-pentapeptide-cn-105-is-associated-with-reduced-sterile-inflammation-and-improved-functional-outcomes-in-a-traumatic-brain-injury-murine-model
#2
Daniel T Laskowitz, Haichen Wang, Tony Chen, David T Lubkin, Viviana Cantillana, Tian Ming Tu, Dawn Kernagis, Guanen Zhou, Gary Macy, Bradley J Kolls, Hana N Dawson
At present, there are no proven pharmacological treatments demonstrated to improve long term functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury(TBI). In the setting of non-penetrating TBI, sterile brain inflammatory responses are associated with the development of cerebral edema, intracranial hypertension, and secondary neuronal injury. There is increasing evidence that endogenous apolipoprotein E(apoE) modifies the neuroinflammatory response through its role in downregulating glial activation, however, the intact apoE holoprotein does not cross the blood-brain barrier due to its size...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429236/the-course-of-headache-in-patients-with-moderate-to-severe-headache-due-to-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-study
#3
Chang-Ki Hong, Jin-Yang Joo, Yu Shik Shim, Sook Young Sim, Min A Kwon, Yong Bae Kim, Joonho Chung
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the long-term course of headache in patients with moderate-to-severe headache due to traumatic brain injury (TBI). We evaluated the course of headache in patients with moderate-to-severe headache due to mild TBI. METHODS: Since September 2009, patients with TBI prospectively rated their headache using a numeric rating scale (NRS). From the database containing 935 patients with TBI between September 2009 and December 2013, 259 patients were included according to following criteria: (1) newly onset moderate-to-severe headache (NRS ≥ 4) due to head trauma; (2) age ≥ 15 years; (3) Glasgow Coma Scale ≥ 13; (4) transient loss of consciousness ≤ 30 min; and (5) radiographic evaluation, such as computed tomography or magnetic resonance image...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422895/diffusion-tensor-tractography-for-detection-of-concomitant-traumatic-brain-injury-in-patients-with-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Sung Ho Jang, Sang Ho Ahn, Yun Woo Cho, Ji Woon Lim, Ik Tae Cho
OBJECTIVES: We investigated concomitant traumatic brain injury in patients with traumatic spinal cord injury (TSCI) who had head trauma history, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). DESIGN: Retrospective survey. PARTICIPANTS: We recruited 14 consecutive patients with TSCI and coexisting head trauma history at the time of TSCI and 30 control subjects. METHODS: The corticospinal tract (CST), corticoreticulospinal tract (CRT), cingulum, and fornix were reconstructed using DTT, and DTT parameters (fractional anisotropy and fiber volume) and configuration were estimated...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420443/tau-phosphorylation-induced-by-severe-closed-head-traumatic-brain-injury-is-linked-to-the-cellular-prion-protein
#5
Richard Rubenstein, Binggong Chang, Natalia Grinkina, Eleanor Drummond, Peter Davies, Meir Ruditzky, Deep Sharma, Kevin Wang, Thomas Wisniewski
Studies in vivo and in vitro have suggested that the mechanism underlying Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathogenesis is initiated by an interaction between the cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) and amyloid-β oligomers (Aβo). This PrP(C)-Aβo complex activates Fyn kinase which, in turn, hyperphosphorylates tau (P-Tau) resulting in synaptic dysfunction, neuronal loss and cognitive deficits. AD transgenic mice lacking PrP(C) accumulate Aβ, but show normal survival and no loss of spatial learning and memory suggesting that PrP(C) functions downstream of Aβo production but upstream of intracellular toxicity within neurons...
April 18, 2017: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417146/repeated-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-female-rats-increases-lipid-peroxidation-in-neurons
#6
Nathanael J Yates, Stephen Lydiard, Brooke Fehily, Gillian Weir, Aaron Chin, Carole A Bartlett, Jacqueline Alderson, Melinda Fitzgerald
Negative outcomes of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) can be exacerbated by repeated insult. Animal models of repeated closed-head mTBI provide the opportunity to define acute pathological mechanisms as the number of mTBI increases. Furthermore, little is known about the effects of mTBI impact site, and how this may affect brain function. We use a closed head, weight drop model of mTBI that allows head movement following impact, in adult female rats to determine the role of the number and location of mTBI on brain pathology and behaviour...
April 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415909/detecting-coached-neuropsychological-dysfunction-a-simulation-experiment-regarding-mild-traumatic-brain-injury
#7
Lily Lau, Michael R Basso, Eduardo Estevis, Ashley Miller, Douglas M Whiteside, Dennis Combs, Timothy J Arentsen
OBJECTIVE: Performance validity tests (PVTs) and symptom validity tests (SVTs) are often administered during neuropsychological evaluations. Examinees may be coached to avoid detection by measures of response validity. Relatively little research has evaluated whether graduated levels of coaching has differential effects upon PVT and SVT performance. Accordingly, the present experiment evaluated the effect of graduated levels of coaching upon the classification accuracy of commonly used PVTs and SVTs and the currently accepted criterion of failing two or more PVTs or SVTs...
April 18, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415054/-hemodialysis-increases-the-incidence-of-post-traumatic-seizure-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-traumatic-intracranial-hemorrhage
#8
Tomoya Oishi, Seiya Takehara, Yasuhiro Yamamura, Mamoru Tomida, Naoki Ikegaya, George Seki, Nobutaka Ohta
BACKGROUND: In Japan, the number of hemodialysis patients increases every year, along with the average age of this patient population. Further, certain complications of hemodialysis make the care of traumatic head injury(THI)patients particularly difficult. OBJECTIVE: This study was aimed at investigating the occurrence of and risk factors for post-traumatic seizures in hemodialysis patients with a history of THI, and determining patient outcomes. METHODS: Subjects were selected from patients who were admitted to Yaizu Municipal Hospital in Shizuoka, Japan for traumatic intracranial hemorrhage(TICH)...
April 2017: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415025/unusual-combination-of-femoral-head-dislocation-associated-acetabular-fracture-with-multipart-femoral-fractures-case-report
#9
Erdal Uzun, Ali Eray Günay, İbrahim Karaman
INTRODUCTION: Traumatic hip dislocation associated with femur intertrocanteric fracture is a rare and severe injury and it frequently occurs following a high energy trauma, Associated acetabular fractures with this injury are even more rare and potentially cause devastating consequences including avascular necrosis of the femoral head and subsequent early secondary osteoarthritis of the hip joint. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report, we present a 20year old polytraumatized patient with traumatic hip dislocation associated with ipsilateral acetabulum fracture and simultaneous fractures of the ipsilateral femur...
February 27, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413696/prevalence-of-potential-sports-associated-risk-factors-in-swiss-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients
#10
Nina Feddermann-Demont, Astrid Junge, Konrad P Weber, Michael Weller, Jiří Dvořák, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVES: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) has been reported to occur with increased incidence amongst physically active people. The role of extrinsic risk factors as physical activity, head trauma and drug/pesticide-exposure in the pathophysiology of ALS and especially in the context of practising sports remains controversial. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively studied exposure to extrinsic factors in 92 ALS patients in the presymptomatic stage. Metabolic equivalents (METs) were calculated and the association of physical activity, drug intake, head trauma and participation in specific sports (football [soccer], ice hockey) with age at symptom-onset was evaluated...
April 2017: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413530/outcome-after-operative-intervention-for-traumatic-brain-injuries-in-the-elderly
#11
Lai-Fung Li, Wai-Man Lui, Heidi Hay-Tai Wong, Wai-Kei Yuen, Gilberto Ka-Kit Leung
INTRODUCTION: The management of traumatic brain injuries in the elderly (age ≥ 65 years) is a constant dilemma. The aim of this study is to investigate for factors that may predict outcome of operative treatment in this group of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted on 68 elderly patients who had been operated in a designated center from 2006 to 2010. Patients' age, Glasgow Coma score (GCS), pupillary responses, imaging findings, medical conditions, and the use of anticoagulant/antiplatelet agents on patient outcomes were studied...
January 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410792/accuracy-of-pecarn-catch-and-chalice-head-injury-decision-rules-in-children-a-prospective-cohort-study
#12
Franz E Babl, Meredith L Borland, Natalie Phillips, Amit Kochar, Sarah Dalton, Mary McCaskill, John A Cheek, Yuri Gilhotra, Jeremy Furyk, Jocelyn Neutze, Mark D Lyttle, Silvia Bressan, Susan Donath, Charlotte Molesworth, Kim Jachno, Brenton Ward, Amanda Williams, Amy Baylis, Louise Crowe, Ed Oakley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Clinical decision rules can help to determine the need for CT imaging in children with head injuries. We aimed to validate three clinical decision rules (PECARN, CATCH, and CHALICE) in a large sample of children. METHODS: In this prospective observational study, we included children and adolescents (aged <18 years) with head injuries of any severity who presented to the emergency departments of ten Australian and New Zealand hospitals. We assessed the diagnostic accuracy of PECARN (stratified into children aged <2 years and ≥2 years), CATCH, and CHALICE in predicting each rule-specific outcome measure (clinically important traumatic brain injury [TBI], need for neurological intervention, and clinically significant intracranial injury, respectively)...
April 11, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406438/u-s-trends-of-ed-visits-for-pediatric-traumatic-brain-injuries-implications-for-clinical-trials
#13
Cheng Chen, Junxin Shi, Rachel M Stanley, Eric A Sribnick, Jonathan I Groner, Henry Xiang
Our goal in this paper was to use the 2006-2013 Nationwide Emergency Department Sample (NEDS) database to describe trends of annual patient number, patient demographics and hospital characteristics of pediatric traumatic brain injuries (TBI) treated in U.S. emergency departments (EDs); and to use the same database to estimate the available sample sizes for various clinical trials of pediatric TBI cases. National estimates of patient demographics and hospital characteristics were calculated for pediatric TBI...
April 13, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404801/serum-neurofilament-light-as-a-biomarker-for-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-contact-sports
#14
Pashtun Shahim, Henrik Zetterberg, Yelverton Tegner, Kaj Blennow
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether the axonal protein neurofilament light (NFL) in serum is a sensitive biomarker to detect subtle brain injury or concussion in contact sports athletes. METHODS: Two prospective cohort studies involving (1) 14 Swedish amateur boxers who underwent fluid biomarker assessments at 7-10 days after bout and after 3 months of rest from boxing and (2) 35 Swedish professional hockey players who underwent blood biomarker assessment at 1, 12, 36, and 144 hours after concussion and when the players returned to play were performed...
April 12, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400667/epidemiology-of-lower-limb-musculoskeletal-trauma-with-associated-vascular-injuries-in-a-tertiary-care-institute-in-india
#15
Nirmal Raj Gopinathan, Siva Swaminathan Santhanam, Balaji Saibaba, Mandeep Singh Dhillon
BACKGROUND: Vascular trauma associated with bony injuries is an orthopaedic emergency. Lack of timely intervention can lead to loss of limb or even life. Inspite of the rising incidence of high speed road traffic accidents in India, there is paucity of literature regarding the demographic pattern, clinical morbidity, management strategies and outcome of arterial injuries associated with lower limb trauma. The aim of this study is to describe the epidemiology and outcome of lower extremity musculoskeletal trauma with associated vascular injuries in a tertiary care institute in India...
March 2017: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399527/blunt-traumatic-extracranial-cerebrovascular-injury-and-ischemic-stroke
#16
Paul M Foreman, Mark R Harrigan
BACKGROUND: Ischemic stroke occurs in a significant subset of patients with blunt traumatic cerebrovascular injury (TCVI). The patients are victims of motor vehicle crashes, assaults or other high-energy collisions, and suffer ischemic stroke due to injury to the extracranial carotid or vertebral arteries. SUMMARY: An increasing number of patients with TCVI are being identified, largely because of the expanding use of computed tomography angiography for screening patients with blunt trauma...
April 11, 2017: Cerebrovascular Diseases Extra
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398105/management-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-at-the-emergency-department-and-hospital-admission-in-europe-a-survey-of-71-neurotrauma-centers-participating-in-the-center-tbi-study
#17
Kelly A Foks, Maryse C Cnossen, Diederik W J Dippel, Andrew Maas, David Menon, Joukje van der Naalt, Ewout W Steyerberg, Hester Lingsma, Suzanne Polinder
Previous studies have indicated that there is no consensus about management of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) at the emergency department (ED) and during hospital admission. We aim to study variability between management policies for TBI patients at the ED and hospital ward across Europe. Centers participating in the Collaborative European NeuroTrauma Effectiveness Research in Traumatic Brain Injury (CENTER-TBI) study received questionnaires about different phases of TBI care. These questionnaires included 71 questions about TBI management at the ED and at the hospital ward...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395982/cardiopulmonary-resuscitation-of-out-of-hospital-traumatic-cardiac-arrest-in-qatar-a-nationwide-population-based-study
#18
Furqan B Irfan, Rafael Consunji, Ayman El-Menyar, Pooja George, Ruben Peralta, Hassan Al-Thani, Stephen Hodges Thomas, Guillaume Alinier, Ashfaq Shuaib, Jassim Al-Suwaidi, Rajvir Singh, Maaret Castren, Peter A Cameron, Therese Djarv
BACKGROUND: Traumatic cardiac arrest studies have reported improved survival rates recently, ranging from 1.7-7.5%. This population-based nationwide study aims to describe the epidemiology, interventions and outcomes, and determine predictors of survival from out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) in Qatar. METHODS: An observational retrospective population-based study was conducted on OHTCA patients in Qatar, from January 2010 to December 2015. Traumatic cardiac arrest was redefined to include out-of-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (OHTCA) and in-hospital traumatic cardiac arrest (IHTCA)...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28394205/a-three-dimensional-computational-human-head-model-that-captures-live-human-brain-dynamics
#19
Shailesh Ganpule, Nitin P Daphalapurkar, Kaliat T Ramesh, Andrew K Knutsen, Dzung L Pham, Philip V Bayly, Jerry L Prince
Diffuse axonal injury (DAI) is a debilitating consequence of traumatic brain injury (TBI) attributed to abnormal stretching of axons caused by blunt head trauma or acceleration of the head. We developed an anatomically accurate, subject-specific, three-dimensional (3D) computational model of the human brain, and used it to study the dynamic deformations in the substructures of the brain when the head is subjected to rotational accelerations. The computational head models use anatomy and morphology of the white matter fibers obtained using MRI...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392325/trajectories-of-functional-recovery-following-inpatient-rehabilitation-for-traumatic-brain-injury
#20
Bret T Howrey, James E Graham, Monique R Pappadis, Carl V Granger, Kenneth J Ottenbacher
OBJECTIVE: To examine trajectories of functional recovery following rehabilitation for Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Inpatient rehabilitation hospitals in the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR). PARTICIPANTS: A subset of Individuals receiving inpatient rehabilitation services for TBI in 2002-2010 who also had post-discharge measurement of functional independence (N=16,583)...
April 6, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
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