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Cerebrovascular reactivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213564/seven-year-tolerability-profile-of-glucocorticoids-use-in-early-rheumatoid-arthritis-data-from-the-espoir-cohort
#1
Camille Roubille, Nathalie Rincheval, Maxime Dougados, René-Marc Flipo, Jean-Pierre Daurès, Bernard Combe
OBJECTIVE: To explore the 7-year tolerability profile of glucocorticoids (GC) for early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). METHODS: We examined data for 602 patients with RA from the early arthritis Etude et Suivi des POlyarthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) cohort (<6 months disease duration) stratified into two groups: with or without GC treatment at least once during follow-up (median 7 years (IQR 0.038-7.65)). The main outcome was a composite of death, cardiovascular disease (including myocardial ischaemia, cerebrovascular accident and heart failure), severe infection and fracture...
February 17, 2017: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212524/role-of-nrf2-and-protective-effects-of-metformin-against-tobacco-smoke-induced-cerebrovascular-toxicity
#2
Shikha Prasad, Ravi K Sajja, Mohammad Abul Kaisar, Jee Hyun Park, Heidi Villalba, Taylor Liles, Thomas Abbruscato, Luca Cucullo
Cigarette smoking (CS) is associated with vascular endothelial dysfunction in a causative way primarily related to the TS content of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nicotine, and inflammation. TS promotes glucose intolerance and increases the risk of developing type-2 diabetes mellitus (2DM) with which it shares other pathogenic traits including the high risk of cerebrovascular and neurological disorders like stroke via ROS generation, inflammation, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment. Herein we provide evidence of the role played by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in CS-induced cerebrobvascular/BBB impairments and how these cerebrovascular harmful effects can be circumvented by the use of metformin (MF; a widely prescribed, firstline anti-diabetic drug) treatment...
February 12, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152241/invalidation-of-fmri-experiments-secondary-to-neurovascular-uncoupling-in-patients-with-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
Andrea E Para, Kevin Sam, Julien Poublanc, Joseph A Fisher, Adrian P Crawley, David J Mikulis
PURPOSE: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a technique used to infer neuronal activity from the observed changes in blood flow. Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is the ability of arterioles to increase blood flow in response to vasodilatory stimulus. We hypothesize that in areas of disease where there is exhausted vascular reserve and impaired CVR there will be diminished blood flow response following neuronal activation, and that these areas would appear as false-negative tests on BOLD fMRI...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137973/a-critical-role-for-astrocytes-in-hypercapnic-vasodilation-in-brain
#4
C Howarth, B A Sutherland, H B Choi, C Martin, B L Lind, L Khennouf, J M LeDue, J M P Pakan, R W Ko, G C R Ellis-Davies, M J Lauritzen, N R Sibson, A M Buchan, B A MacVicar
: Cerebral blood flow (CBF) is controlled by arterial blood pressure, arterial CO2, arterial O2, and brain activity and is largely constant in the awake state. Although small changes in arterial CO2 are particularly potent to change CBF (1 mmHg variation in arterial CO2 changes CBF by 3-4%), the coupling mechanism is incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that astrocytic prostaglandin E2 (PgE2) plays a key role for cerebrovascular CO2 reactivity and that preserved synthesis of glutathione is essential for the full development of this response...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135841/annals-express-ten-year-standardization-of-lipids-and-high-sensitivity-c-reactive-protein-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-to-assess-effects-of-statins-on-secondary-stroke-prevention-japan-statin-treatment-against-recurrent-stroke-j-stars
#5
Masakazu Nakamura, Tatsuyuki Fukukawa, Kazuo Kitagawa, Yoji Nagai, Naohisa Hosomi, Masayasu Matsumoto, Kazuo Minematsu, Shinichiro Uchiyama, Yoshihiro Miyamoto
BACKGROUND: The Japan Statin Treatment Against Recurrent Stroke (J-STARS) is a clinical trial that administered pravastatin for secondary stroke prevention. Lipid levels are a well- established risk factor for cerebrovascular diseases. Elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) indicates a high risk of inflammatory reactions. In clinical trials, internationally approved standardization is essential for obtaining study results that are comparable with those from overseas. Therefore, total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TG), and hs-CRP were standardized throughout a 10-year study period...
January 1, 2017: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131914/regulation-of-high-glucose-induced-apoptosis-of-brain-pericytes-by-mitochondrial-ca-va-a-specific-target-for-prevention-of-diabetic-cerebrovascular-pathology
#6
Tulin O Price, Nader Sheibani, Gul N Shah
Events responsible for cerebrovascular disease in diabetes are not fully understood. Pericyte loss is an early event that leads to endothelial cell death, microaneurysms, and cognitive impairment. A biochemical mechanism underlying pericyte loss is rapid respiration (oxidative metabolism of glucose). This escalation in respiration results from free influx of glucose into insulin-insensitive tissues in the face of high glucose levels in the blood. Rapid respiration generates superoxide, the precursor to all reactive oxygen species (ROS), and results in pericyte death...
January 26, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061015/impact-of-vessel-wall-lesions-and-vascular-stenoses-on-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-intracranial-stenotic-disease
#7
Petrice M Cogswell, Taylor L Davis, Megan K Strother, Carlos C Faraco, Allison O Scott, Lori C Jordan, Matthew R Fusco, Blaise deB Frederick, Jeroen Hendrikse, Manus J Donahue
PURPOSE: To compare cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and CVR lagtimes in flow territories perfused by vessels with vs. without proximal arterial wall disease and/or stenosis, separately in patients with atherosclerotic and nonatherosclerotic (moyamoya) intracranial stenosis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Atherosclerotic and moyamoya patients with >50% intracranial stenosis and <70% cervical stenosis underwent angiography, vessel wall imaging (VWI), and CVR-weighted imaging (n = 36; vessel segments evaluated = 396)...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056529/anterior-tragal-crease-is-associated-with-atherosclerosis
#8
Pawinee Rerknimitr, Korbkarn Pongpairoj, Chanat Kumtornrat, Ratchathorn Panchaprateep, Cameron P Hurst, Aurauma Chutinet, Pravit Asawanonda, Nijasri C Suwanwela
The utility of the ear crease sign, anterior tragal crease (ATC), as a marker of atherosclerosis is yet to be established. The intima-media thickness of the common carotid artery (IMT-CCA) has been used as a noninvasive surrogate marker for atherosclerosis. History of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis was obtained from 147 volunteers; ear examination was also performed and venous blood was drawn for laboratory analysis. The volunteers then underwent an ultrasonography measurement of the IMT-CCA. In univariate analysis, presence of ATC, age, underlying hypertension, diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, cigarette smoking, low-density lipoprotein, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were significantly associated with the IMT-CCA...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047432/su-g-iep1-11-resting-state-fluctuation-of-bold-signal-amplitude-for-mapping-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-presurgical-functional-mri
#9
P Wang, P Hou, S Kesler, R Colen, A Kumar, S Prabhu, H Liu
PURPOSE: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) MRI with hypercapnia challenges, such as a breath-hold (BH) task, has been proposed to indicate areas with neurovascular uncoupling potentials for presurgical functional MRI (fMRI). This study aimed to explore the use of resting-state (RS) fMRI, in particular, the RS fluctuation of amplitude (RSFA) for detecting the impaired CVR and compare with BH MRI in patients with gliomas. METHODS: The BH and RS fMRI from six patients as part of their presurgical fMRI studies were analyzed...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038898/demographic-and-systemic-hemodynamic-influences-in-mechanisms-of-cerebrovascular-regulation-in-healthy-adults
#10
João Madureira, Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: A competent cerebrovascular regulation maintains an adequate cerebral blood flow by 3 major mechanisms: cerebral autoregulation (CA), vasomotor reactivity (VMR), namely to CO2, and neurovascular coupling (NVC). However, most studies generalize their results based on a response to a single parameter. Using a full battery of neurovascular stress tests, our study aims to evaluate the relationships among grades of CA, VMR, and NVC, and how their interplay is influenced by demographic and systemic hemodynamic factors...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029271/hemodynamic-mechanisms-underlying-elevated-oxygen-extraction-fraction-oef-in-moyamoya-and-sickle-cell-anemia-patients
#11
Jennifer M Watchmaker, Meher R Juttukonda, Larry T Davis, Allison O Scott, Carlos C Faraco, Melissa C Gindville, Lori C Jordan, Petrice M Cogswell, Angela L Jefferson, Howard S Kirshner, Manus J Donahue
Moyamoya is a bilateral, complex cerebrovascular condition characterized by progressive non-atherosclerotic intracranial stenosis and collateral vessel formation. Moyamoya treatment focuses on restoring cerebral blood flow (CBF) through surgical revascularization, however stratifying patients for revascularization requires abilities to quantify how well parenchyma is compensating for arterial steno-occlusion. Globally elevated oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) secondary to CBF reduction may serve as a biomarker for tissue health in moyamoya patients, as suggested in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA) and reduced oxygen carrying capacity...
January 1, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029027/prevalent-rate-of-nonalbuminuric-renal-insufficiency-and-its-association-with-cardiovascular-disease-event-in-korean-type-2-diabetes
#12
Hye Won Lee, A Ra Jo, Dong Won Yi, Yang Ho Kang, Seok Man Son
BACKGROUND: Nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency is a unique category of diabetic kidney diseases. The objectives of the study were to evaluate prevalent rate of nonalbuminuric renal insufficiency and to investigate its relationship with previous cardiovascular disease (CVD) event in Korean patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: Laboratory and clinical data of 1,067 subjects with T2DM were obtained and reviewed. Study subjects were allocated into four subgroups according to the CKD classification...
December 2016: Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028723/shenfu-injection-inhibits-inflammation-in-patients-with-acute-myocardial-infarction-complicated-by-cardiac-shock
#13
Yan-Yan Jin, Hai Gao, Xin-Yong Zhang, Hui Ai, Xiao-Lin Zhu, Jing Wang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effect of Shenfu Injection (, SFI) on inflammatory factors in patients with acute myocardial infarction complicated by cardiogenic shock (CS) treated with and intra-aortic balloon pump (IABP). METHODS: This study enrolled 60 patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated by CS. Patients underwent IABP and emergency percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were randomly divided into two groups by random number table with 30 cases in each group, one given SFI treatment (100 mL/24 h), one not...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017753/amplitude-of-tissue-oxygenation-index-change-predicts-cerebral-hyperperfusion-syndrome-during-carotid-artery-stenting
#14
Hun Soo Park, Ichiro Nakagawa, Shohei Yokoyama, Yasushi Motoyama, Young Su Park, Takeshi Wada, Kimihiko Kichikawa, Hiroyuki Nakase
OBJECTIVE: Hyperperfusion syndrome (HPS) following carotid artery stenting (CAS) is a rare but serious complication. HPS is associated with preoperative hemodynamic impairment due to poor collateral flow and intraoperative cerebral ischemia. Filter-type embolic protection devices (EPDs) maintain anterograde carotid flow during CAS and somewhat prevent HPS. Early treatment of patients undergoing CAS and at risk for HPS is essential. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) allows non-invasive, real-time measurement of frontal lobe regional cerebral O2 saturation (TOI; tissue oxygenation index)...
December 22, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007622/control-of-ventilation-in-health-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Susmita Chowdhuri, M Safwan Badr
Control of ventilation occurs at different levels of the respiratory system via a negative feedback system that allows for precise regulation of levels of arterial carbon dioxide and oxygen. Mechanisms for ventilatory instability leading to sleep disordered breathing include changes in respiratory rhythm genesis and chemoresponsiveness to hypoxia and hypercapnia, cerebrovascular reactivity, abnormal chest wall and airway reflexes, and sleep state oscillations. One can potentially stabilize breathing during sleep-related breathing disorders by identifying one or more of these pathophysiological mechanisms...
December 19, 2016: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27998900/randomised-double-blind-placebo-controlled-study-investigating-the-effects-of-inorganic-nitrate-on-vascular-function-platelet-reactivity-and-restenosis-in-stable-angina-protocol-of-the-nitrate-oct-study
#16
Krishnaraj S Rathod, Daniel A Jones, T J A Van-Eijl, Hilda Tsang, Helen Warren, Stephen M Hamshere, Vikas Kapil, Ajay K Jain, Andrew Deaner, Neil Poulter, Mark J Caulfield, Anthony Mathur, Amrita Ahluwalia
INTRODUCTION: The mainstay treatment for reducing the symptoms of angina and long-term risk of heart attacks in patients with heart disease is stent implantation in the diseased coronary artery. While this procedure has revolutionised treatment, the incidence of secondary events remains a concern. These repeat events are thought to be due, in part, to continued enhanced platelet reactivity, endothelial dysfunction and ultimately restenosis of the stented artery. In this study, we will investigate whether a once a day inorganic nitrate administration might favourably modulate platelet reactivity and endothelial function leading to a decrease in restenosis...
December 20, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989553/cerebrovascular-function-in-presymptomatic-and-symptomatic-individuals-with-hereditary-cerebral-amyloid-angiopathy-a-case-control-study
#17
Anna M van Opstal, Sanneke van Rooden, Thijs van Harten, Eidrees Ghariq, Gerda Labadie, Panagiotis Fotiadis, M Edip Gurol, Gisela M Terwindt, Marieke J H Wermer, Mark A van Buchem, Steven M Greenberg, Jeroen van der Grond
BACKGROUND: Previous work suggests that impairments of cerebrovascular flow or reactivity might be early markers of cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA). Hereditary cerebral haemorrhage with amyloidosis-Dutch type (HCHWA-D) is a genetic form of CAA that can be diagnosed before the onset of clinical symptoms by DNA testing. We aimed to investigate whether haemodynamic measures are decreased in presymptomatic and symptomatic HCHWA-D mutation carriers compared with healthy controls. METHODS: In this case-control study, we included presymptomatic and symptomatic HCHWA-D mutation carriers diagnosed through genetic testing and recruited through the HCHWA-D patient association (Katwijk, Netherlands) and the outpatient clinic of the Department of Neurology of the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, Netherlands), and healthy controls...
February 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978784/correlation-between-decreased-parasympathetic-activity-and-reduced-cerebrovascular-reactivity-in-patients-with-lacunar-infarct
#18
Kannakorn Intharakham, Kesorn Suwanprasert, Sombat Muengtaweepongsa
Reduced cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) was found in patients with recent lacunar infarct. However, its mechanisms were controversial. The breath holding maneuver as vasodilatory stimulus is clinically useful for an estimation of cerebrovasomotor reactivity in well co-operative patients. Patients with lacunar infarct have no higher cortical dysfunction and remain well co-operation. The breath holding maneuver is feasible and safe to perform in patients with lacunar infarct. Autonomic nervous system regulates systemic vascular activity...
13, 2016: Current Neurovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27965905/stroke-as-the-sole-manifestation-of-takayasu-arteritis-in-a-15-year-old-boy-with-latent-tuberculosis
#19
Espen Benjaminsen, Anne Reigstad, Vanja Cengija, Vibke Lilleby, Maria Carlsson
Introduction. Takayasu arteritis is a rare disease affecting the aorta and its main branches, causing arterial claudication and end-organ ischemia, including stroke. The etiology is unknown but is believed to be autoimmune. An association between Takayasu arteritis and tuberculosis has been suggested, but the possible relation is unclear. Case Presentation. A 15-year-old Somali boy was diagnosed with latent tuberculosis. He had a lesion in the right lung, and both the tuberculin skin test by the Mantoux method and Quantiferon GOLD test turned out positive...
2016: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960192/transcranial-doppler
#20
Vijay K Sharma, Ka Sing Wong, Andrei V Alexandrov
Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD) is the only diagnostic modality that provides a reliable evaluation of intracranial blood flow patterns in real-time. The physiological information obtained from TCD is complementary to the anatomical details obtained from other neuroimaging modalities. TCD is relatively cheap, can be performed bedside, and allows monitoring in acute emergency settings. TCD criteria for intracranial stenosis have been validated against various forms of angiographic studies and serve as reliable tools for screening, diagnostic as well as follow up purposes...
2016: Frontiers of Neurology and Neuroscience
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