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Cerebrovascular reactivity

J Wu, S Dehkharghani, F Nahab, J Allen, D Qiu
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Measuring cerebrovascular reactivity with the use of vasodilatory stimuli, such as acetazolamide, is useful for chronic cerebrovascular steno-occlusive disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of acetazolamide on the assessment of hemodynamic impairment and functional connectivity by using noninvasive resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 20-minute resting-state blood oxygen level-dependent MR imaging scan was acquired with infusion of acetazolamide starting at 5 minutes after scan initiation...
October 6, 2016: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Nuccia Morici, Laura Farioli, Laura Michelina Losappio, Giulia Colombo, Michele Nichelatti, Donatella Preziosi, Gianluigi Micarelli, Fabrizio Oliva, Cristina Giannattasio, Silvio Klugmann, Elide Anna Pastorello
OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between serum tryptase and the occurrence of major cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (MACCE) at 2-year follow-up in patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). To compare serum tryptase to other validated prognostic markers (maximum high-sensitivity troponin (hs-Tn), C reactive protein (CRP) levels at admission, Synergy between percutaneous coronary intervention with Taxus and Cardiac Surgery (SYNTAX) score). METHODS: We measured serum tryptase at admission in 140 consecutive patients with ACS and in 50 healthy controls...
2016: Open Heart
Davoud Kazemi-Saleh, Pooya Koosha, Masoumeh Sadeghi, Nizal Sarrafzadegan, Reza Karbasi-Afshar, Mansoureh Boshtam, Shahram Oveis-Gharan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have been conducted on the predictive effects of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) on cardiovascular events. Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of adiponectin for the prediction of the incident of cardiovascular events in the Middle East area. This study compared the predictive effect of hs-CRP and adiponectin on healthy volunteers for the prediction of cerebrovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: This nested case-control in original Isfahan Cohort Study (ICS) was conducted from 2001 to 2011...
May 2016: ARYA Atherosclerosis
Nolan S Hartkamp, Reinoud P H Bokkers, M J P van Osch, Gert J de Borst, Jeroen Hendrikse
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the effect of unilateral large vessel disease upon the cerebral hemodynamic autoregulatory status in the basal ganglia of patients with steno-occlusive internal carotid artery (ICA) disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-five healthy volunteers and 38 patients with a unilateral symptomatic steno-occlusive ICA lesion and were investigated; 20 with a stenosis >50% and 18 with an occlusion. Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) were assessed with pseudo-continuous arterial spin labeling (ASL) magnetic resonance (MR) imaging before and after administration of acetazolamide...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
Georgios Tsivgoulis, Andrei V Alexandrov
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Low cost, avoidance of irradiation, and high temporal resolution are inherent advantages of ultrasound imaging that translate into multiple clinical uses in many domains of neurology. This article presents clinical uses of ultrasound examination in cerebrovascular, neurodegenerative, and peripheral nervous system diseases. RECENT FINDINGS: Modern treatment and prevention of ischemic stroke rely on prompt diagnosis. Ultrasonography has found a place as a noninvasive screening test and bedside technique that provides estimates of the degree of stenosis as well as hemodynamic and structural information about intracranial and extracranial vessels in real time...
October 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
Jackie Leung, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher, Andrea Kassner
OBJECTIVES: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) measures the ability of cerebral blood vessels to change their diameter and, hence, their capacity to regulate regional blood flow in the brain. High resolution quantitative maps of CVR can be produced using blood-oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with a carbon dioxide stimulus, and these maps have become a useful tool in the clinical evaluation of cerebrovascular disorders. However, conventional CVR analysis does not fully characterize the BOLD response to a stimulus as certain regions of the brain are slower to react to the stimulus than others, especially in disease...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Bin Zhang, Ning Yang, Shao-Peng Lin, Feng Zhang
Cerebral infarction (CI) is a common clinical cerebrovascular disease, and to explore the pathophysiological mechanisms and seek effective treatment means are the hotspot and difficult point in medical research nowadays. Numerous studies have confirmed that uric acid plays an important role in CI, but the mechanism has not yet been clarified. When treating HT22 and BV-2 cells with different concentrations of uric acid, uric acid below 450 μM does not have significant effect on cell viability, but uric acid more than 500 μM can significantly inhibit cell viability...
October 5, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
Somlak Chuengsamarn, Suthee Rattanamongkolgul, Gunya Sittithumcharee, Siwanon Jirawatnotai
AIMS: To determine an association between hs-CRP and metabolic control/diabetic chronic vascular complications (DCVCCxs) in the patients with type 2 diabetes (DM). In addition, the possibility of using hs-CRP levels to predict risk of DCVCCxs will also be validated. METHODS: This cohort study randomly enrolled 608 patients with DM during the 2007-2008 study period. We also recorded basic laboratory findings at baseline and at one year, to include fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hs-CRP...
August 22, 2016: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
Masoud Hatefi, Someyeh Behzadi, Masoud Moghadas Dastjerdi, Alireza Abootalebi Ghahnavieh, Asghar Rahmani, Fatemeh Madizadeh, Mohammad Reza Hafezi Ahmadi, Khairollah Asadollahi
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess any correlation between serum levels of homocysteine (Hcy) with markers of cerebral hemodynamic, endothelial dysfunction and cognition impairment in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS: By a cross-sectional study, all clinical data and serum levels of homocysteine of 85 TBI patients were collected. The pulsatility indices (PI) of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) were recorded by transcranial color-coded doppler ultrasonography (TCD) and cereberovascular reactivity (CVR)...
September 29, 2016: World Neurosurgery
Peiying Liu, Babu G Welch, Yang Li, Hong Gu, Darlene King, Yihong Yang, Marco Pinho, Hanzhang Lu
Diagnosis and treatment monitoring of cerebrovascular diseases routinely require hemodynamic imaging of the brain. Current methods either only provide part of the desired information or require the injection of multiple exogenous agents. In this study, we developed a multiparametric imaging scheme for the imaging of brain hemodynamics and function using gas-inhalation MRI. The proposed technique uses a single MRI scan to provide simultaneous measurements of baseline venous cerebral blood volume (vCBV), cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR), bolus arrival time (BAT), and resting-state functional connectivity (fcMRI)...
September 28, 2016: NeuroImage
Xin-Gang Li, Ning Ma, Bo Wang, Xiao-Qing Li, Sheng-Hui Mei, Kun Zhao, Yong-Jun Wang, Wei Li, Zhi-Gang Zhao, Shu-Sen Sun, Zhong-Rong Miao
The primary mechanism of clopidogrel resistance is still unclear. We aimed to investigate whether the methylation status of the P2Y12 promoter has effects on platelet function and clinical ischemic events. Patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease were enrolled into our study. Venous blood samples were drawn for thrombelastograpy (TEG) and active metabolite assay. Patients were divided into a case- or control-group based on the occurrence of ischemic events during a one year follow-up. Two TEG parameters between the case and control groups were statistically significant [ADP inhibition rate (ADP%): P = 0...
September 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lu Wang, Junzhong Wang, Yana Liu, Baoju Wang, Shangqing Yang, Qing Yu, Michael Roggendorf, Mengji Lu, Jia Liu, Dongliang Yang
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an important cytokine with pleiotropic regulatory functions in the immune system and in the responses against viral infections. TGF-β acts on a variety of immune cells through the cell surface TGF-β receptor (University of Duisburg-EssenTGFBR). The woodchuck has been used as a biomedical model for studies of obesity and energy balance, endocrine and metabolic function, cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and neoplastic disease. Woodchucks infected with woodchuck hepatitis virus (WHV) represent an informative animal model to study hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection...
September 13, 2016: Gene
Paulo Matafome, Tiago Rodrigues, Cristina Sena, Raquel Seiça
Glucose and fructose metabolism originates the highly reactive byproduct methylglyoxal (MG), which is a strong precursor of advanced glycation end products (AGE). The MG has been implicated in classical diabetic complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy, but has also been recently associated with cardiovascular diseases and central nervous system disorders such as cerebrovascular diseases and dementia. Recent studies even suggested its involvement in insulin resistance and beta-cell dysfunction, contributing to the early development of type 2 diabetes and creating a vicious circle between glycation and hyperglycemia...
September 16, 2016: Medicinal Research Reviews
Michael M Tymko, Caroline A Rickards, Rachel J Skow, Nathan C Ingram-Cotton, Michael K Howatt, Trevor A Day
Steady-state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head-up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head-down tilt (HDT; increased central blood volume and intracranial pressure), and LBNP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Helmet Karim, Dana Larisa Tudorascu, Howard Aizenstein, Sarah Walker, Rachel Good, Carmen Andreescu
OBJECTIVE: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) in older adults is associated with persistent deficits in emotion reactivity (ER) and regulation, yet the neural basis of these deficits has not been explored. This study focuses on the neural basis of ER deficits in late-life GAD and the association with cerebrovascular burden. METHODS: Twenty elderly nonanxious participants and 17 late-life GAD participants were included. The faces-shapes functional magnetic resonance imaging task was used to assess ER; the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the Penn State Worry Questionnaire to measure global anxiety and worry, respectively; linear regression models to examine the association between ER and global anxiety severity and between ER and worry severity; and mediation analysis to explore the effect of ER on the relationship between global anxiety/worry severity and cerebrovascular burden...
November 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Jinchao Ai, Haitong Wan, Mingchun Shu, Huifen Zhou, Tao Zhao, Wei Fu, Yu He
Guhong injection (GHI), composed of aceglutamide and safflower aqueous extract, has been used clinically for the treatment of cerebrovascular diseases such as cerebral embolism, hemorrhage and mental deterioration. In this paper, we reported the results of the first study on the anti-inflammatory effects of GHI in murine focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: Sham group, I/R group, GHI-L group (2.5 mL/kg), GHI-M group (5 mL/kg), GHI-H group (10 mL/kg) and Nimodipine group...
September 13, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
Fen Yang, Wenqian Shi, Jin Shi, Yingqian Zhang, Yanwei Yin, Huiping Shi, DaWei Chen
PURPOSE/AIM OF THE STUDY: Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important marker for assessing cerebrovascular disease. This study assessed the CVR by perfusion computed tomography (CT) and CO2 inhalation tests in patients with unilateral middle cerebral artery (MCA) stenosis disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-one patients with unilateral MCA stenosis disease diagnosed by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were studied. Patients were divided into two groups according to the degree of stenosis: severe and moderate...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Neuroscience
Anusha Mishra
Astrocytes are the most common glial cells in the brain with fine processes and endfeet that intimately contact both neuronal synapses and the cerebral vasculature. They play an important role in mediating neurovascular coupling (NVC) via several astrocytic Ca(2+) -dependent signalling pathways such as K(+) release through BK channels, and the production and release of arachidonic acid metabolites. They are also involved in maintaining the resting tone of the cerebral vessels by releasing ATP and COX-1 derivatives...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Christina D Bruce, Craig D Steinback, Uday V Chauhan, Jamie R Pfoh, Maria Abrosimova, Emily R Vanden Berg, Rachel J Skow, Margie H Davenport, Trevor A Day
The central respiratory chemoreflex contributes to blood gas homeostasis, particularly in response to accumulation of brainstem CO2 . Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) affects chemoreceptor stimulation inversely through CO2 washout from brainstem tissue. Voluntary breath-holding imposes alterations in blood gases, eliciting respiratory chemoreflexes, potentially contributing to breath-hold duration (i.e., break-point). However, the effects of cerebrovascular reactivity on break-point have yet to be determined...
September 12, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Qiang Shen, Lora Tally Watts, Wei Li, Timothy Q Duong
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in the USA. Common causes of TBI include falls, violence, injuries from wars, and vehicular and sporting accidents. The initial direct mechanical damage in TBI is followed by progressive secondary injuries such as brain swelling, perturbed cerebral blood flow (CBF), abnormal cerebrovascular reactivity (CR), metabolic dysfunction, blood-brain-barrier disruption, inflammation, oxidative stress, and excitotoxicity, among others. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the means to noninvasively probe many of these secondary injuries...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
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