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Cerebral autoregulation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211916/role-of-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-endothelin-1-polymorphism-genes-with-the-pathogenesis-of-intraventricular-hemorrhage-in-preterm-infants
#1
Dawid Szpecht, Janusz Gadzinowski, Agnieszka Seremak-Mrozikiewicz, Grażyna Kurzawińska, Marta Szymankiewicz
In the pathogenesis of neonatal intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) in preterm infants, an important role is played by changes in venous and arterial cerebral flows. It has been shown that the ability of autoregulation of cerebral flows in response to variations in arterial blood pressure in preterm infants is impaired. This impaired autoregulation causes an increased risk of germinal matrix rupture and IVH occurrence. We examined three polymorphisms of genes, related to regulation of blood flow, for an association with IVH in 100 preterm infants born from singleton pregnancy, before 32 + 0 weeks of gestation, exposed to antenatal steroids therapy, and without congenital abnormalities...
February 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193707/arterial-pressure-heart-rate-and-cerebral-hemodynamics-across-the-adult-life-span
#2
Chang-Yang Xing, Takashi Tarumi, Rutger L Meijers, Marcel Turner, Justin Repshas, Li Xiong, Kan Ding, Wanpen Vongpatanasin, Li-Jun Yuan, Rong Zhang
Age-related alterations in systemic and cerebral hemodynamics are not well understood. The purpose of this study is to characterize age-related alterations in beat-to-beat oscillations in arterial blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), cerebral blood flow (CBF), cardiac baroreflex sensitivity, and dynamic cerebral autoregulation across the adult life span. We studied 136 healthy adults aged 21 to 80 years (60% women). Beat-to-beat BP, HR, and CBF velocity were measured at rest and during sit-stand maneuvers to mimic effects of postural changes on BP and CBF...
February 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151820/associations-between-impaired-cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-cerebral-oxygenation-and-biomarkers-of-brain-injury-and-postoperative-cognitive-dysfunction-in-elderly-patients-after-major-noncardiac-surgery
#3
Nicolai Goettel, Christoph S Burkhart, Ariane Rossi, Brenno C T Cabella, Manfred Berres, Andreas U Monsch, Marek Czosnyka, Luzius A Steiner
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence links postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) to surgery and anesthesia. POCD is recognized as an important neuropsychological adverse outcome in surgical patients, particularly the elderly. This prospective cohort study aimed to investigate whether POCD is associated with impaired intraoperative cerebral autoregulation and oxygenation, and increased levels of biomarkers of brain injury. METHODS: Study subjects were patients ≥65 years of age scheduled for major noncardiac surgery...
March 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141842/dopamine-therapy-does-not-affect-cerebral-autoregulation-during-hypotension-in-newborn-piglets
#4
Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen, Martin Bo Rasmussen, Gitte Holst Hahn, Gorm Greisen
BACKGROUND: Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe"...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141793/sex-specific-associations-between-cerebrovascular-blood-pressure-autoregulation-and-cardiopulmonary-injury-in-neonatal-encephalopathy-and-therapeutic-hypothermia
#5
Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Jamie Perin, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Charlamaine Parkinson, Maureen Gilmore, Jacky Jennings, Frances J Northington, Jennifer K Lee
BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary injury is common in neonatal encephalopathy, but the link with cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. We hypothesized that cerebral autoregulation is associated with cardiopulmonary injury in neonates treated with therapeutic hypothermia (TH) for neonatal encephalopathy. METHODS: The cerebral hemoglobin volume index (HVx) from near-infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) with optimal autoregulatory vasoreactivity (MAPOPT)...
January 31, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121918/intracranial-dermoid-cyst-rupture-related-brain-ischemia-case-report-and-hemodynamic-study
#6
Hang Jin, Zhen-Ni Guo, Yun Luo, Ren Zhao, Ming-Shuo Sun, Yi Yang
RATIONALE: Spontaneous rupture of intracranial dermoid cyst is a rare but serious clinical event that can result in cerebral ischemia. Cerebral vasospasm and vasculitis are considered as potential mechanisms of dermoid cyst rupture-related cerebral ischemia. However, the hemodynamic mechanisms between cerebral ischemia and dermoid cyst rupture are not well known. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 55-year-old, right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with sudden receptive aphasia and right-sided hypoalgesia...
January 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120178/journal-of-clinical-monitoring-and-computing-2016-end-of-year-summary-monitoring-cerebral-oxygenation-and-autoregulation
#7
REVIEW
Thomas W L Scheeren, Bernd Saugel
In the perioperative and critical care setting, monitoring of cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) and cerebral autoregulation enjoy increasing popularity in recent years, particularly in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Monitoring ScO2 is based on near infrared spectroscopy, and attempts to early detect cerebral hypoperfusion and thereby prevent cerebral dysfunction and postoperative neurologic complications. Autoregulation of cerebral blood flow provides a steady flow of blood towards the brain despite variations in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) and cerebral perfusion pressure, and is effective in a MAP range between approximately 50-150 mmHg...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108227/cerebral-blood-flow-autoregulation-is-impaired-in-schizophrenia-a-pilot-study
#8
Hsiao-Lun Ku, Jiunn-Kae Wang, Hsin-Chien Lee, Timothy Joseph Lane, I-Chao Liu, Yung-Chan Chen, Yao-Tung Lee, I-Cheng Lin, Chia-Pei Lin, Chaur-Jong Hu, Nai-Fang Chi
Patients with schizophrenia have a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases and higher mortality from them than does the general population; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Impaired cerebral autoregulation is associated with cerebrovascular diseases and their mortality. Increased or decreased cerebral blood flow in different brain regions has been reported in patients with schizophrenia, which implies impaired cerebral autoregulation. This study investigated the cerebral autoregulation in 21 patients with schizophrenia and 23 age- and sex-matched healthy controls...
January 17, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099160/phase-shift-between-respiratory-oscillations-in-cerebral-blood-flow-velocity-and-arterial-blood-pressure
#9
Agnieszka Uryga, Michał M Placek, Paweł Wachel, Tomasz Szczepański, Marek Czosnyka, Magdalena Kasprowicz
We aim to investigate whether phase shift between respiratory oscillations in cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and arterial blood pressure (ABP) is associated with changes in cerebral autoregulation (CA) or reflects the mechano-elastic properties of the cerebrovascular bed. The relationships between respiratory phase shift and slow wave phase shift versus cerebrovascular time constant (the product of cerebrovascular resistance and compliance) and the index of CA (Mx) were analyzed during breathing at 6, 10, and 15 breaths min(-1) in 39 volunteers...
January 18, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067688/perioperative-near-infrared-spectroscopy-monitoring-in-neonates-with-congenital-heart-disease-relationship-of-cerebral-tissue-oxygenation-index-variability-with-neurodevelopmental-outcome
#10
Michael C Spaeder, Darren Klugman, Kami Skurow-Todd, Penny Glass, Richard A Jonas, Mary T Donofrio
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the value of perioperative cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy monitoring using variability analysis in the prediction of neurodevelopmental outcomes in neonates undergoing surgery for congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Urban, academic, tertiary-care children's hospital. PATIENTS: Neonates undergoing surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass for congenital heart disease...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055302/t-type-ca-2-channels-and-autoregulation-of-local-blood-flow
#11
Lars Jørn Jensen, Morten Schak Nielsen, Max Salomonsson, Charlotte Mehlin Sørensen
L-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels are considered to be the primary source of calcium influx during the myogenic response. However, many vascular beds also express T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels. Recent studies suggest that these channels may also play a role in autoregulation. At low pressures (40-80 mmHg) T-type channels affect myogenic responses in cerebral and mesenteric vascular beds. T-type channels also seem to be involved in skeletal muscle autoregulation. This review discusses the expression and role of T-type voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in the autoregulation of several different vascular beds...
January 5, 2017: Channels
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040435/in-vitro-investigation-of-the-hemodynamic-responses-of-the-cerebral-coronary-and-renal-circulations-with-a-rotary-blood-pump-installed-in-the-descending-aorta
#12
M A Rezaienia, G Paul, E J Avital, S Mozafari, M Rothman, T Korakianitis
This study investigates the hemodynamic responses of the cardiovascular system when a rotary blood pump is operating in the descending aorta, with a focus on the cerebral, coronary and renal autoregulation, using our in-house cardiovascular emulator. Several improvements have been made from our previous studies. A novel coronary system was developed to replicate the native coronary perfusion. Three pinch valves actuated by stepper motors were used to simulate the regional autoregulation systems of the native cerebral, coronary and renal circulations...
December 28, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28038898/demographic-and-systemic-hemodynamic-influences-in-mechanisms-of-cerebrovascular-regulation-in-healthy-adults
#13
João Madureira, Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo
OBJECTIVES: A competent cerebrovascular regulation maintains an adequate cerebral blood flow by 3 major mechanisms: cerebral autoregulation (CA), vasomotor reactivity (VMR), namely to CO2, and neurovascular coupling (NVC). However, most studies generalize their results based on a response to a single parameter. Using a full battery of neurovascular stress tests, our study aims to evaluate the relationships among grades of CA, VMR, and NVC, and how their interplay is influenced by demographic and systemic hemodynamic factors...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017224/hemorrhagic-transformation-and-cerebral-edema-in-acute-ischemic-stroke-link-to-cerebral-autoregulation
#14
Pedro Castro, Elsa Azevedo, Jorge Serrador, Isabel Rocha, Farzaneh Sorond
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema are feared complications of acute ischemic stroke but mechanisms are poorly understood and reliable early markers are lacking. Early assessment of cerebrovascular hemodynamics may advance our knowledge in both areas. We examined the relationship between dynamic cerebral autoregulation (CA) in the early hours post ischemia, and the risk of developing hemorrhagic transformation and cerebral edema at 24h post stroke METHODS: We prospectively enrolled 46 patients from our center with acute ischemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28010806/cerebral-responses-to-exercise-and-the-influence-of-heat-stress-in-human-fatigue
#15
REVIEW
Caroline V Robertson, Frank E Marino
There are a number of mechanisms thought to be responsible for the onset of fatigue during exercise-induced hyperthermia. A greater understanding of the way in which fatigue develops during exercise could be gleaned from the studies which have examined the maintenance of cerebral blood flow through the process of cerebral autoregulation. Given that cerebral blood flow is a measure of the cerebral haemodynamics, and might reflect a level of brain activation, it is useful to understand the implications of this response during exercise and in the development of fatigue...
January 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009319/-ultrasound-monitoring-of-central-and-cerebral-hemodynamics-during-the-treatment-of-arterial-hypotension-in-preterm-infants
#16
A Zakrevskyy, O Karapetyan, V Agashkov, K Kosenko
The purpose of the study was to evaluate and identify patterns of changes in central and cerebral hemodynamics in neonates with low and extremely low birth weight and birth asphyxia, in order to achieve the early diagnosis of disorders of the central hemodynamics and autoregulation of cerebral blood flow, for timely fluid correction and inotropic therapy. Observation data on 44 preterm infants who were treated at the Kharkiv City Perinatal Centre and Regional Children's Clinical Hospital №1 of Kharkiv has been analyzed...
November 2016: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009098/high-speed-photoacoustic-microscopy-of-mouse-cortical-microhemodynamics
#17
Li Lin, Junjie Yao, Ruiying Zhang, Chun-Cheng Chen, Chih-Hsien Huang, Yang Li, Lidai Wang, William Chapman, Jun Zou, Lihong V Wang
We applied high-speed photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) for both cortical microenvironment studies and dynamic brain studies, with micrometer-level optical resolution and a millisecond-level cross-sectional imaging speed over a millimeter-level field of view. We monitored blood flow redistribution in mini-stroke mouse models and cerebral autoregulation induced by a vasoactive agent. Our results collectively suggest that high-speed PAM is a promising tool for understanding dynamic neurophysiological phenomena, complementing conventional imaging modalities...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995510/mechanisms-of-global-cerebral-edema-formation-in-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#18
Erik G Hayman, Aaron Wessell, Volodymyr Gerzanich, Kevin N Sheth, J Marc Simard
A growing body of clinical literature emphasizes the impact of cerebral edema in early brain injury following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Aneurysm rupture itself initiates global cerebral edema in up to two thirds of cases. Although cerebral edema is not a universal feature of aSAH, it portends a poor clinical course, with quantitative analysis revealing a direct correlation between cerebral edema and poor outcome, including mortality and cognitive deficits. Mechanistically, global cerebral edema has been linked to global ischemia at the time of aneurysm rupture, dysfunction of autoregulation, blood breakdown products, neuroinflammation, and hyponatremia/endocrine abnormalities...
December 19, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978510/optimizing-cerebral-autoregulation-may-decrease-neonatal-regional-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#19
Jennifer K Lee, Andrea Poretti, Jamie Perin, Thierry A G M Huisman, Charlamaine Parkinson, Raul Chavez-Valdez, Matthew O'Connor, Michael Reyes, Jillian Armstrong, Jacky M Jennings, Maureen M Gilmore, Raymond C Koehler, Frances J Northington, Aylin Tekes
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic hypothermia provides incomplete neuroprotection for neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). We examined whether hemodynamic goals that support autoregulation are associated with decreased brain injury and whether these relationships are affected by birth asphyxia or vary by anatomic region. METHODS: Neonates cooled for HIE received near-infrared spectroscopy autoregulation monitoring to identify the mean arterial blood pressure with optimized autoregulatory function (MAPOPT)...
December 16, 2016: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939486/changes-in-cerebral-autoregulation-in-the-second-half-of-pregnancy-and-compared-to-non-pregnant-controls
#20
Teelkien R van Veen, Ronney B Panerai, Sina Haeri, Paul P van den Berg, Gerda G Zeeman, Michael A Belfort
OBJECTIVE: The mechanism by which pregnancy affects the cerebral circulation is unknown, but it has a central role in the development of neurological complications in preeclampsia, which is believed to be related to impaired autoregulation. We evaluated the cerebral autoregulation in the second half of pregnancy, and compared this with a control group of healthy, fertile non-pregnant women. METHODS: In a prospective cohort analysis, cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral artery (determined by transcranial Doppler), blood pressure (noninvasive arterial volume clamping), and end-tidal carbon dioxide (EtCO2) were simultaneously collected for 7min...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
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