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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528444/assembly-and-egress-of-an-alphaherpesvirus-clockwork
#1
Gregory A Smith
All viruses produce infectious particles that possess some degree of stability in the extracellular environment yet disassemble upon cell contact and entry. For the alphaherpesviruses, which include many neuroinvasive viruses of mammals, these metastable virions consist of an icosahedral capsid surrounded by a protein matrix (referred to as the tegument) and a lipid envelope studded with glycoproteins. Whereas the capsid of these viruses is a rigid structure encasing the DNA genome, the tegument and envelope are dynamic assemblies that orchestrate a sequential series of events that ends with the delivery of the genome into the nucleus...
2017: Advances in Anatomy, Embryology, and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528264/baseline-and-longitudinal-variability-of-normal-tissue-uptake-values-of-18-f-fluorothymidine-pet-images
#2
Matthijs C F Cysouw, Gerbrand M Kramer, Virginie Frings, Adrianus J De Langen, Mariëlle J Wondergem, Laura M Kenny, Eric O Aboagye, Carsten Kobe, Jürgen Wolf, Otto S Hoekstra, Ronald Boellaard
PURPOSE: [(18)F]-fluorothymidine ([(18)F]-FLT) is a PET-tracer enabling in-vivo visualization and quantification of tumor cell proliferation. For qualitative and quantitative analysis, adequate knowledge of normal tissue uptake is indispensable. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate baseline tracer uptake of blood pool, lung, liver and bone marrow and their precision, and to assess the longitudinal effect of systemic treatment on biodistribution. METHODS: (18)F-FLT-PET(/CT) scans (dynamic or static) of 90 treatment-naïve oncological patients were retrospectively evaluated...
May 10, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528256/evaluation-of-artificial-time-series-microarray-data-for-dynamic-gene-regulatory-network-inference
#3
P Xenitidis, I Seimenis, S Kakolyris, A Adamopoulos
High-throughput technology like microarrays is widely used in the inference of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). We focused on time series data since we are interested in the dynamics of GRNs and the identification of dynamic networks. We evaluated the amount of information that exists in artificial time series microarray data and the ability of an inference process to produce accurate models based on them. We used dynamic artificial gene regulatory networks in order to create artificial microarray data. Key features that characterize microarray data such as the time separation of directly triggered genes, the percentage of directly triggered genes and the triggering function type were altered in order to reveal the limits that are imposed by the nature of microarray data on the inference process...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528255/molecular-structure-second-and-third-order-nonlinear-optical-properties-and-dft-studies-of-a-novel-non-centrosymmetric-chalcone-derivative-2e-3-4-fluorophenyl-1-4-1e-4-fluorophenyl-methylene-amino-phenyl-prop-2-en-1-one
#4
Shivaraj R Maidur, Parutagouda Shankaragouda Patil, Anusha Ekbote, Tze Shyang Chia, Ching Kheng Quah
In the present work, the title chalcone, (2E)-3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1-(4-{[(1E)-(4-fluorophenyl) methylene]amino}phenyl)prop-2-en-1-one (abbreviated as FAMFC), was synthesized and structurally characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The compound is crystallized in the monoclinic system with non-centrosymmetric space group P21 and hence it satisfies the essential condition for materials to exhibit second-order nonlinear optical properties. The molecular structure was further confirmed by using FT-IR and (1)H NMR spectroscopic techniques...
May 9, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528238/effects-of-grab-bar-on-utilized-friction-and-dynamic-stability-when-elderly-people-enter-the-bathtub
#5
Yusuke Sekiguchi, Tomohisa Kato, Keita Honda, Hiroyasu Kanetaka, Shin-Ichi Izumi
BACKGROUND: The effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability when elderly people enter the bathtub remains unclear. The purpose of the present study is to examine the age-related effect of the grab bar on dynamic stability during lateral stepping over an obstacle when entering bathtub. METHODS: Sixteen young, healthy adults and sixteen elderly adults participated. The subjects performed lateral stepping over an obstacle with and without vertical and horizontal bars...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Biomechanics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528214/nmr-structure-conformational-dynamics-and-biological-activity-of-psdef1-defensin-from-pinus-sylvestris
#6
Bulat I Khairutdinov, Elena A Ermakova, Yuri M Yusypovych, Elena K Bessolicina, Nadezhda B Tarasova, Yana Y Toporkova, Valentina Kovaleva, Yuriy F Zuev, Irina V Nesmelova
Plants have developed a complex defense response system against pests and pathogens. Defensins, produced by plants as part of their innate immune response, form the family of small, basic, cysteine-rich proteins with activity primarily directed against fungal pathogens. In addition, plant defensins can show antibacterial activity and protease and insect amylase inhibitory activities. However, in gymnosperms, only antifungal activity of defensins has been described thus far. Here, we report antibacterial and insect α-amylase inhibition activities for defensin PsDef1 from P...
May 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528137/fuzzy-dynamic-output-feedback-h%C3%A2-control-for-continuous-time-t-s-fuzzy-systems-under-imperfect-premise-matching
#7
Tao Zhao, Songyi Dian
This paper addresses a fuzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ control design problem for continuous-time nonlinear systems via T-S fuzzy model. The stability of the fuzzy closed-loop system which is formed by a T-S fuzzy model and a fuProd. Type: FTPzzy dynamic output feedback H∞ controller connected in a closed loop is investigated with Lyapunov stability theory. The proposed fuzzy controller does not share the same membership functions and number of rules with T-S fuzzy systems, which can enhance design flexibility...
May 17, 2017: ISA Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528112/microencapsulation-and-characterization-of-liposomal-vesicles-using-a-supercritical-fluid-process-coupled-with-vacuum-driven-cargo-loading
#8
Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S H Rizvi
A new technique of liposomal microencapsulation, consisting of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion of the supercritical solution and vacuum-driven cargo loading, was successfully developed. It is a continuous flow-through process without usage of any toxic organic solvent. For use as a coating material, the solubility of soy phospholipids in supercritical carbon dioxide was first determined using a dynamic equilibrium system and the data was correlated with the Chrastil model with good agreement...
June 2017: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527889/enhanced-cardiomyogenic-induction-of-mouse-pluripotent-cells-by-cyclic-mechanical-stretch
#9
Akankshya Shradhanjali, Brandon D Riehl, Jeong Soon Lee, Ligyeom Ha, Jung Yul Lim
The cardiac milieu is mechanically active with spontaneous contraction beginning from early development and persistent through maturation and homeostasis, suggesting that mechanical loading may provide biomimetic myocardial developmental signal. In this study, we tested the role of cyclic mechanical stretch loading in the cardiomyogenesis of pluripotent murine embryonic (P19) stem cells. A Flexcell tension system was utilized to apply equiaxial stretch (12% strain, 1.25 Hz frequency) to P19 cell-derived embryoid bodies (EBs)...
May 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527792/3d-cmro2-mapping-in-human-brain-with-direct-17-o-mri-comparison-of-conventional-and-proton-constrained-reconstructions
#10
Dmitry Kurzhunov, Robert Borowiak, Marco Reisert, Axel Joachim Krafft, Ali Caglar Özen, Michael Bock
Oxygen metabolism is altered in brain tumor regions and is quantified by the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2). Direct dynamic (17)O MRI with inhalation of isotopically enriched (17)O2 gas can be used to quantify CMRO2; however, pixel-wise CMRO2 quantification in human brain is challenging due to low natural abundance of (17)O isotope and, thus, the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of (17)O MR images. To test the feasibility CMRO2 mapping at a clinical 3 T MRI system, a new iterative reconstruction was proposed, which uses the edge information contained in a co-registered (1)H gradient image to construct a non-homogeneous anisotropic diffusion (AD) filter...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527468/insight-into-electric-field-induced-rupture-mechanism-of-water-in-toluene-emulsion-films-from-a-model-system
#11
Desislava Dimova, Stoyan Pisov, Nikolay Panchev, Miroslava Nedyalkova, Sergio Madurga, Ana Proykova
This paper presents a model, which we have designed to get insight into the development of electro-induced instability of a thin toluene emulsion film in contact with the saline aqueous phase. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations demonstrate the role of charge accumulation in the toluene-film rupture induced by a DC electric field. Two ensembles-NVT and NPT-are used to determine the critical value of the external field at which the film ruptures, the charge distribution and capacitance of the thin film, number densities, and the film structure...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527457/role-of-quantum-coherence-in-shaping-the-line-shape-of-an-exciton-interacting-with-a-spatially-and-temporally-correlated-bath
#12
Rajesh Dutta, Kaushik Bagchi, Biman Bagchi
Kubo's fluctuation theory of line shape forms the backbone of our understanding of optical and vibrational line shapes, through such concepts as static heterogeneity and motional narrowing. However, the theory does not properly address the effects of quantum coherences on optical line shape, especially in extended systems where a large number of eigenstates are present. In this work, we study the line shape of an exciton in a one-dimensional lattice consisting of regularly placed and equally separated optical two level systems...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527452/structural-and-dynamic-inhomogeneities-induced-by-curvature-gradients-in-elliptic-colloidal-halos-of-paramagnetic-particles
#13
O A Ramírez-Garza, J M Méndez-Alcaraz, P González-Mozuelos
Paramagnetic colloidal particles distributed along an ellipse are used as a model system to study the effects of curvature gradients on the structure and dynamics of colloids in curved manifolds. Unlike what happens for circular and spherical systems, in the present case, the equilibrium one-particle distribution function displays inhomogeneities due to the changing curvature along the ellipse. The ensuing effects on the two-body correlations are also analyzed, leading to the observation of anisotropic and long-ranged effects...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527449/correlated-matrix-fluctuation-mediated-activated-transport-of-dilute-penetrants-in-glass-forming-liquids-and-suspensions
#14
Rui Zhang, Kenneth S Schweizer
We formulate a microscopic, force-level statistical mechanical theory for the activated diffusion of dilute penetrants in dense liquids, colloidal suspensions, and glasses. The approach explicitly and self-consistently accounts for coupling between penetrant hopping and matrix dynamic displacements that actively facilitate the hopping event. The key new ideas involve two mechanistically (at a stochastic trajectory level) coupled dynamic free energy functions for the matrix and spherical penetrant particles...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527447/nanoscopic-length-scale-dependence-of-hydrogen-bonded-molecular-associates-dynamics-in-methanol
#15
C E Bertrand, J L Self, J R D Copley, A Faraone
In a recent paper [C. E. Bertrand et al., J. Chem. Phys. 145, 014502 (2016)], we have shown that the collective dynamics of methanol shows a fast relaxation process related to the standard density-fluctuation heat mode and a slow non-Fickian mode originating from the hydrogen bonded molecular associates. Here we report on the length scale dependence of this slow relaxation process. Using quasielastic neutron scattering and molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the dynamics of the slow process is affected by the structuring of the associates, which is accessible through polarized neutron diffraction experiments...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527433/partial-hydrodynamic-representation-of-quantum-molecular-dynamics
#16
Bing Gu, Ignacio Franco
A hybrid method is proposed to propagate system-bath quantum dynamics that use both basis functions and coupled quantum trajectories. In it, the bath is represented with an ensemble of Bohmian trajectories while the system degrees of freedom are accounted through reduced density matrices. By retaining the Hilbert space structure for the system, the method is able to capture interference processes that are challenging to describe in Bohmian dynamics due to singularities that these processes introduce in the quantum potential...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527431/osmotic-and-diffusio-osmotic-flow-generation-at-high-solute-concentration-ii-molecular-dynamics-simulations
#17
Hiroaki Yoshida, Sophie Marbach, Lydéric Bocquet
In this paper, we explore osmotic transport by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. We first consider osmosis through a membrane and investigate the reflection coefficient of an imperfectly semi-permeable membrane, in the dilute and high concentration regimes. We then explore the diffusio-osmotic flow of a solute-solvent fluid adjacent to a solid surface, driven by a chemical potential gradient parallel to the surface. We propose a novel non-equilibrium MD (NEMD) methodology to simulate diffusio-osmosis, by imposing an external force on every particle, which properly mimics the chemical potential gradient on the solute in spite of the periodic boundary conditions...
May 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527389/dynamics-of-dissolved-organic-matter-in-riverine-sediments-affected-by-weir-impoundments-production-benthic-flux-and-environmental-implications
#18
Meilian Chen, Sung-Han Kim, Heon-Jae Jung, Jung-Ho Hyun, Jung Hyun Choi, Hyo-Jin Lee, In-Ae Huh, Jin Hur
In order to understand the characteristics and dynamics of dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the sediment of rivers affected by impoundments, we examined the vertical profiles and the benthic fluxes of DOM in four different core sediments located at upstream sites of weirs in major rivers of South Korea. In three out of four sites, exponential accumulation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) with depth was observed with the signature of seasonal variability. Except for the site displaying a below-detection limit of Fe(II), the general accumulation trends of DOC with depth was concurrent with the increases of Fe(II) and NH4(+) and the decrease of PO4(3-), signifying a close linkage of the DOM dynamics with anaerobic respiration via iron reduction, an important early diagenesis pathway...
May 12, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527321/short-term-exposure-to-gold-nanoparticle-suspension-impairs-swimming-behavior-in-a-widespread-calanoid-copepod
#19
François-Gaël Michalec, Markus Holzner, Alexandre Barras, Anne-Sophie Lacoste, Loïc Brunet, Jae-Seong Lee, Christian Slomianny, Rabah Boukherroub, Sami Souissi
Calanoid copepods play an important role in the functioning of marine and brackish ecosystems. Information is scarce on the behavioral toxicity of engineered nanoparticles to these abundant planktonic organisms. We assessed the effects of short-term exposure to nonfunctionalized gold nanoparticles on the swimming behavior of the widespread estuarine copepod Eurytemora affinis. By means of three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry, we reconstructed the trajectories of males, ovigerous and non-ovigerous females...
May 17, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527217/protein-phosphorylation-is-a-key-mechanism-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Joana Oliveira, Márcio Costa, Maria Soares Cachide de Almeida, Odete A B da Cruz E Silva, Ana Gabriela Henriques
Altered protein phosphorylation states of several proteins are closely associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Among these are the amyloid-β precursor protein (AβPP) and the tau protein. In fact, altered protein phosphorylation states already provide strong biomarkers for AD diagnosis, as is the case with hyperphosphorylated tau. It follows that modulating signaling cascades provides an attractive avenue for exploring novel therapeutic strategies. This review focuses on some of the major protein kinases and protein phosphatases relevant to AD...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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