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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894428/an-integrative-perspective-on-interpersonal-coordination-in-interactive-team-sports
#1
Silvan Steiner, Anne-Claire Macquet, Roland Seiler
Interpersonal coordination is a key factor in team performance. In interactive team sports, the limited predictability of a constantly changing context makes coordination challenging. Approaches that highlight the support provided by environmental information and theories of shared mental models provide potential explanations of how interpersonal coordination can nonetheless be established. In this article, we first outline the main assumptions of these approaches and consider criticisms that have been raised with regard to each...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894206/caring-cooperators-and-powerful-punishers-differential-effects-of-induced-care-and-power-motivation-on-different-types-of-economic-decision-making
#2
G Chierchia, F H Parianen Lesemann, D Snower, M Vogel, T Singer
Standard economic theory postulates that decisions are driven by stable context-insensitive preferences, while motivation psychology suggests they are driven by distinct context-sensitive motives with distinct evolutionary goals and characteristic psycho-physiological and behavioral patterns. To link these fields and test how distinct motives could differentially predict different types of economic decisions, we experimentally induced participants with either a Care or a Power motive, before having them take part in a suite of classic game theoretical paradigms involving monetary exchange...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882507/stochastic-noncooperative-and-cooperative-evolutionary-game-strategies-of-a-population-of-biological-networks-under-natural-selection
#3
REVIEW
Bor-Sen Chen, Chin-Hsun Yeh
We review current static and dynamic evolutionary game strategies of biological networks and discuss the lack of random genetic variations and stochastic environmental disturbances in these models. To include these factors, a population of evolving biological networks is modeled as a nonlinear stochastic biological system with Poisson-driven genetic variations and random environmental fluctuations (stimuli). To gain insight into the evolutionary game theory of stochastic biological networks under natural selection, the phenotypic robustness and network evolvability of noncooperative and cooperative evolutionary game strategies are discussed from a stochastic Nash game perspective...
September 4, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879537/assessing-reserve-building-pursuits-and-person-characteristics-psychometric-validation-of-the-reserve-building-measure
#4
Carolyn E Schwartz, Wesley Michael, Jie Zhang, Bruce D Rapkin, Mirjam A G Sprangers
AIMS: A growing body of research suggests that regularly engaging in stimulating activities across multiple domains-physical, cultural, intellectual, communal, and spiritual-builds resilience. This project investigated the psychometric characteristics of the DeltaQuest Reserve-Building Measure for use in prospective research. METHODS: The study included Rare Patient Voice panel participants. The web-based survey included the Reserve-Building Measure with one-week re-test, measures of quality of life (QOL) and well-being (PROMIS General Health; NeuroQOL Cognitive Function and Positive Affect & Well-Being short-forms; Ryff Environmental Mastery subscale); and the Big Five Inventory-10 personality measure...
September 6, 2017: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878726/the-family-alliance-model-a-way-to-study-and-characterize-early-family-interactions
#5
Nicolas Favez, France Frascarolo, Hervé Tissot
The aim of this paper is to present the family alliance (FA) model, which is designed to conceptualize the relational dynamics in the early family. FA is defined as the coordination a family can reach when fulfilling a task, such as playing a game or having a meal. According to the model, being coordinated as a family depends on four interactive functions: participation (all members are included), organization (members assume differentiated roles), focalization (family shares a common theme of activity), affect sharing (there is empathy between members)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878023/maximal-aggregation-of-polynomial-dynamical-systems
#6
Luca Cardelli, Mirco Tribastone, Max Tschaikowski, Andrea Vandin
Ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with polynomial derivatives are a fundamental tool for understanding the dynamics of systems across many branches of science, but our ability to gain mechanistic insight and effectively conduct numerical evaluations is critically hindered when dealing with large models. Here we propose an aggregation technique that rests on two notions of equivalence relating ODE variables whenever they have the same solution (backward criterion) or if a self-consistent system can be written for describing the evolution of sums of variables in the same equivalence class (forward criterion)...
September 6, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875359/volatile-chemical-emission-as-a-weapon-of-rearguard-action-a-game-theoretic-model-of-contest-behavior
#7
Mike Mesterton-Gibbons, Yao Dai, Marlène Goubault, Ian C W Hardy
We use a game-theoretic model to explore whether volatile chemical (spiroacetal) emissions can serve as a weapon of rearguard action. Our basic model explores whether such emissions serve as a means of temporary withdrawal, preventing the winner of the current round of a contest from translating its victory into permanent possession of a contested resource. A variant of this model explores an alternative possibility, namely, that such emissions serve as a means of permanent retreat, attempting to prevent a winner from inflicting costs on a fleeing loser...
September 5, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867224/optional-interactions-and-suspicious-behaviour-facilitates-trustful-cooperation-in-prisoners-dilemma
#8
Tadeas Priklopil, Krishnendu Chatterjee, Martin Nowak
In evolutionary game theory interactions between individuals are often assumed obligatory. However, in many real-life situations, individuals can decide to opt out of an interaction depending on the information they have about the opponent. We consider a simple evolutionary game theoretic model to study such a scenario, where at each encounter between two individuals the type of the opponent (cooperator/defector) is known with some probability, and where each individual either accepts or opts out of the interaction...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858792/joint-machine-learning-and-game-theory-for-rate-control-in-high-efficiency-video-coding
#9
Wei Gao, Sam Kwong, Yuheng Jia
In this paper, a joint machine learning and game theory modeling (MLGT) framework is proposed for inter frame coding tree unit (CTU) level bit allocation and rate control (RC) optimization in High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). First, a support vector machine (SVM) based multi-classification scheme is proposed to improve the prediction accuracy of CTU-level Rate-Distortion (R-D) model. The legacy "chicken-and-egg" dilemma in video coding is proposed to be overcome by the learning-based R-D model. Second, a mixed R-D model based cooperative bargaining game theory is proposed for bit allocation optimization, where the convexity of the mixed R-D model based utility function is proved, and Nash bargaining solution (NBS) is achieved by the proposed iterative solution search method...
August 25, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846726/statistical-physics-of-balance-theory
#10
Andres M Belaza, Kevin Hoefman, Jan Ryckebusch, Aaron Bramson, Milan van den Heuvel, Koen Schoors
Triadic relationships are accepted to play a key role in the dynamics of social and political networks. Building on insights gleaned from balance theory in social network studies and from Boltzmann-Gibbs statistical physics, we propose a model to quantitatively capture the dynamics of the four types of triadic relationships in a network. Central to our model are the triads' incidence rates and the idea that those can be modeled by assigning a specific triadic energy to each type of triadic relation. We emphasize the role of the degeneracy of the different triads and how it impacts the degree of frustration in the political network...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841643/towards-a-category-theory-approach-to-analogy-analyzing-re-representation-and-acquisition-of-numerical-knowledge
#11
Jairo A Navarrete, Pablo Dartnell
Category Theory, a branch of mathematics, has shown promise as a modeling framework for higher-level cognition. We introduce an algebraic model for analogy that uses the language of category theory to explore analogy-related cognitive phenomena. To illustrate the potential of this approach, we use this model to explore three objects of study in cognitive literature. First, (a) we use commutative diagrams to analyze an effect of playing particular educational board games on the learning of numbers. Second, (b) we employ a notion called coequalizer as a formal model of re-representation that explains a property of computational models of analogy called "flexibility" whereby non-similar representational elements are considered matches and placed in structural correspondence...
August 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837338/practical-density-functionals-beyond-the-overdelocalization-underbinding-zero-sum-game
#12
Benjamin G Janesko, Emil Proynov, Jing Kong, Giovanni Scalmani, Michael J Frisch
Density functional theory (DFT) uses a density functional approximation (DFA) to add electron correlation to mean-field electronic structure calculations. Standard strategies (generalized gradient approximations GGAs, meta-GGAs, hybrids, etc.) for building DFAs, no matter whether based on exact constraints or empirical parametrization, all face a zero-sum game between overdelocalization (fractional charge error, FC) and underestimation of covalent bonding (fractional spin error, FS). This work presents an alternative strategy...
August 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836397/stochastic-cell-fate-and-longevity-of-offspring
#13
Faezeh Dorri, Hamid Pezeshk, Mehdi Sadeghi
OBJECTIVE: Cellular decision-making is a key process in which cells with similar geneticand environmental background make dissimilar decisions. This stochastic process, which happens in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells including stem cells, causes cellular diversity and phenotypic variation. In addition, fitness predicts and describes changes in the genetic composition of populations throughout the evolutionary history. Fitness may thus be defined as the ability to adapt and produce surviving offspring...
October 2017: Cell Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836151/it-s-time-to-start-changing-the-game-a-12-week-workplace-team-sport-intervention-study
#14
Andrew Brinkley, Hilary McDermott, Rachel Grenfell-Essam, Fehmidah Munir
BACKGROUND: A 12-week multi-team sport programme was provided to employees of a large services organisation and conducted in workplaces. This programme was used to investigate the short-term effect of regular sports team participation on individual employee and organisational health. METHODS: A large services organisation participated in this study. Two regional worksites of office workers were assigned as the team sport (intervention) (n = 28 participants) or control (n = 20 participants) groups...
August 23, 2017: Sports Medicine—Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822896/giving-what-one-should-explanations-for-the-knowledge-behavior-gap-for-altruistic-giving
#15
REVIEW
Peter R Blake
Several studies have shown that children struggle to give what they believe that they should: the so-called knowledge-behavior gap. Over a dozen recent Dictator Game studies find that, although young children believe that they should give half of a set of resources to a peer, they typically give less and often keep all of the resources for themselves. This article reviews recent evidence for five potential explanations for the gap and how children close it with age: self-regulation, social distance, theory of mind, moral knowledge and social learning...
August 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822485/game-theory-as-a-conceptual-framework-for-managing-insect-pests
#16
REVIEW
Joel S Brown, Kateřina Staňková
For over 100 years it has been recognized that insect pests evolve resistance to chemical pesticides. More recently, managers have advocated restrained use of pesticides, crop rotation, the use of multiple pesticides, and pesticide-free sanctuaries as resistance management practices. Game theory provides a conceptual framework for combining the resistance strategies of the insects and the control strategies of the pest manager into a unified conceptual and modelling framework. Game theory can contrast an ecologically enlightened application of pesticides with an evolutionarily enlightened one...
June 2017: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818063/variations-in-adolescents-motivational-characteristics-across-gender-and-physical-activity-patterns-a-latent-class-analysis-approach
#17
Margaret Lawler, Caroline Heary, Elizabeth Nixon
BACKGROUND: Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA) that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents' PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents' leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. METHODS: Nine hundred ninety-five students (61...
August 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806121/social-capital-accumulation-in-location-based-mobile-game-playing-a-multiple-process-approach
#18
Hei-Tung Sung, Leif Sigerson, Cecilia Cheng
In the summer of 2016, the widespread popularization of the game Pokémon Go brought the public's attention to the possible socialization benefits associated with location-based mobile games (LBMGs), yet no studies to date have investigated this issue. LBMGs deserve greater research attention because this type of game provides a unique gaming experience that encourages players to leave their homes and navigate around their neighborhood. This distinctive feature may promote more face-to-face interactions among LBMG players...
August 2017: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798553/exploring-individual-differences-in-online-addictions-the-role-of-identity-and-attachment
#19
Lucia Monacis, Valeria de Palo, Mark D Griffiths, Maria Sinatra
Research examining the development of online addictions has grown greatly over the last decade with many studies suggesting both risk factors and protective factors. In an attempt to integrate the theories of attachment and identity formation, the present study investigated the extent to which identity styles and attachment orientations account for three types of online addiction (i.e., internet addiction, online gaming addiction, and social media addiction). The sample comprised 712 Italian students (381 males and 331 females) recruited from schools and universities who completed an offline self-report questionnaire...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790343/strategic-tradeoffs-in-competitor-dynamics-on-adaptive-networks
#20
Laurent Hébert-Dufresne, Antoine Allard, Pierre-André Noël, Jean-Gabriel Young, Eric Libby
Recent empirical work highlights the heterogeneity of social competitions such as political campaigns: proponents of some ideologies seek debate and conversation, others create echo chambers. While symmetric and static network structure is typically used as a substrate to study such competitor dynamics, network structure can instead be interpreted as a signature of the competitor strategies, yielding competition dynamics on adaptive networks. Here we demonstrate that tradeoffs between aggressiveness and defensiveness (i...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
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