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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536062/a-systematic-review-of-gamification-in-e-health
#1
REVIEW
Lamyae Sardi, Ali Idri, José Luis Fernández-Alemán
Gamification is a relatively new trend that focuses on applying game mechanics to non-game contexts in order to engage audiences and to inject a little fun into mundane activities besides generating motivational and cognitive benefits. While many fields such as Business, Marketing and e-Learning have taken advantage of the potential of gamification, the digital healthcare domain has also started to exploit this emerging trend. This paper aims to summarize the current knowledge regarding gamified e-Health applications...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535784/a-meta-regression-analysis-of-41-australian-problem-gambling-prevalence-estimates-and-their-relationship-to-total-spending-on-electronic-gaming-machines
#2
Francis Markham, Martin Young, Bruce Doran, Mark Sugden
BACKGROUND: Many jurisdictions regularly conduct surveys to estimate the prevalence of problem gambling in their adult populations. However, the comparison of such estimates is problematic due to methodological variations between studies. Total consumption theory suggests that an association between mean electronic gaming machine (EGM) and casino gambling losses and problem gambling prevalence estimates may exist. If this is the case, then changes in EGM losses may be used as a proxy indicator for changes in problem gambling prevalence...
May 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533405/spatial-evolutionary-games-with-weak-selection
#3
Mridu Nanda, Richard Durrett
Recently, a rigorous mathematical theory has been developed for spatial games with weak selection, i.e., when the payoff differences between strategies are small. The key to the analysis is that when space and time are suitably rescaled, the spatial model converges to the solution of a partial differential equation (PDE). This approach can be used to analyze all [Formula: see text] games, but there are a number of [Formula: see text] games for which the behavior of the limiting PDE is not known. In this paper, we give rules for determining the behavior of a large class of [Formula: see text] games and check their validity using simulation...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527791/neural-substrates-of-male-parochial-altruism-are-modulated-by-testosterone-and-behavioral-strategy
#4
Luise Reimers, Christian Büchel, Esther K Diekhof
Parochial altruism refers to ingroup favoritism and outgroup hostility and has recently been linked to testosterone. Here, we investigated the neurobiological mechanism of parochial altruism in male soccer fans playing the ultimatum game (UG) against ingroup and outgroup members (i.e., fans of the favorite or of a rivalling team) using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Our results suggest that individual differences in altruistic tendency influence the tendency for parochialism. While altruistic subjects rejected unfair offers independent of team membership, the more self-oriented 'pro-selfs' displayed a stronger ingroup bias and rejected outgroup offers more often...
May 17, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516927/locally-noisy-autonomous-agents-improve-global-human-coordination-in-network-experiments
#5
Hirokazu Shirado, Nicholas A Christakis
Coordination in groups faces a sub-optimization problem and theory suggests that some randomness may help to achieve global optima. Here we performed experiments involving a networked colour coordination game in which groups of humans interacted with autonomous software agents (known as bots). Subjects (n = 4,000) were embedded in networks (n = 230) of 20 nodes, to which we sometimes added 3 bots. The bots were programmed with varying levels of behavioural randomness and different geodesic locations...
May 17, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515893/evolutionary-stability-and-the-rarity-of-grandmothering
#6
Jared M Field, Michael B Bonsall
The provision of intergenerational care, via the Grandmother Hypothesis, has been implicated in the evolution of postfertile longevity, particularly in humans. However, if grandmothering does provide fitness benefits, a key question is why has it evolved so infrequently? We investigate this question with a combination of life-history and evolutionary game theory. We derive simple eligibility and stability thresholds, both of which must be satisfied if intergenerational care is first to evolve and then to persist in a population...
May 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495332/the-neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-and-their-role-during-empathy-and-the-game-of-chess-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#7
Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493042/on-the-stochastic-evolution-of-finite-populations
#8
Fabio A C C Chalub, Max O Souza
This work is a systematic study of discrete Markov chains that are used to describe the evolution of a two-types population. Motivated by results valid for the well-known Moran (M) and Wright-Fisher (WF) processes, we define a general class of Markov chains models which we term the Kimura class. It comprises the majority of the models used in population genetics, and we show that many well-known results valid for M and WF processes are still valid in this class. In all Kimura processes, a mutant gene will either fixate or become extinct, and we present a necessary and sufficient condition for such processes to have the probability of fixation strictly increasing in the initial frequency of mutants...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490419/development-usability-and-efficacy-of-a-serious-game-to-help-patients-learn-about-pain-management-after-surgery-an-evaluation-study
#9
Brynja Ingadottir, Katrin Blondal, David Thue, Sigridur Zoega, Ingela Thylen, Tiny Jaarsma
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pain is a persistent problem after surgery and can delay recovery and develop into chronic pain. Better patient education has been proposed to improve pain management of patients. Serious games have not been previously developed to help patients to learn how to manage their postoperative pain. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the development of a computer-based game for surgical patients to learn about postoperative pain management and to evaluate the usability, user experience, and efficacy of the game...
May 10, 2017: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489067/a-study-protocol-for-applying-user-participation-and-co-learning-lessons-learned-from-the-ebalance-project
#10
Anna Cristina Åberg, Kjartan Halvorsen, Ingrid From, Åsa Bergman Bruhn, Lars Oestreicher, Anita Melander-Wikman
The eBalance project is based on the idea that serious exergames-i.e., computer gaming systems with an interface that requires physical exertion to play-that are well adapted to users, can become a substantial part of a solution to recognized problems of insufficient engagement in fall-prevention exercise and the high levels of fall-related injuries among older people. This project is carried out as a collaboration between eight older people who have an interest in balance training and met the inclusion criteria of independence in personal activities of daily living, access to and basic knowledge of a computer, four staff working with the rehabilitation of older adults, and an interdisciplinary group of six research coordinators covering the areas of geriatric care and rehabilitation, as well as information technology and computer science...
May 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479977/the-foundations-of-plant-intelligence
#11
REVIEW
Anthony Trewavas
Intelligence is defined for wild plants and its role in fitness identified. Intelligent behaviour exhibited by single cells and systems similarity between the interactome and connectome indicates neural systems are not necessary for intelligent capabilities. Plants sense and respond to many environmental signals that are assessed to competitively optimize acquisition of patchily distributed resources. Situations of choice engender motivational states in goal-directed plant behaviour; consequent intelligent decisions enable efficient gain of energy over expenditure...
June 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476141/theory-of-mind-deficits-partly-mediate-impaired-social-decision-making-in-schizophrenia
#12
Liuqing Yang, Peifu Li, Haiying Mao, Huiling Wang, Chang Shu, Vibeke Bliksted, Yuan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Using paradigms from game theory, researchers have reported abnormal decision-making in social context in patients with schizophrenia. However, less is known about the underpinnings of the impairment. This study aimed to test whether theory of mind (ToM) deficits and/or neurocognitive dysfunctions mediate impaired social decision-making in patients with schizophrenia. METHODS: We compared thirty-five patients with schizophrenia to thirty-eight matched healthy controls with regard to social decision-making using the mini Ultimatum Game (mini UG), a paradigm from game theory...
May 5, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467496/approximation-of-nash-equilibria-and-the-network-community-structure-detection-problem
#13
Suciu Mihai-Alexandru, Gaskó Noémi, Lung Rodica Ioana
Game theory based methods designed to solve the problem of community structure detection in complex networks have emerged in recent years as an alternative to classical and optimization based approaches. The Mixed Nash Extremal Optimization uses a generative relation for the characterization of Nash equilibria to identify the community structure of a network by converting the problem into a non-cooperative game. This paper proposes a method to enhance this algorithm by reducing the number of payoff function evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458649/what-influences-chinese-adolescents-choice-intention-between-playing-online-games-and-learning-application-of-theory-of-planned-behavior-with-subjective-norm-manipulated-as-peer-support-and-parental-monitoring
#14
Jia Wang, Ru-De Liu, Yi Ding, Ying Liu, Le Xu, Rui Zhen
This study investigated how and why Chinese adolescents choose between playing online games and doing homework, using the model of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in which the subjective norm was manipulated as two sub-elements (peer support and parental monitoring). A total of 530 students from an elementary school and a middle school in China were asked to complete the measures assessing two predictors of TPB: attitude and perceived behavioral control (PBC). Next, they completed a survey about their choice intention between playing an online game and doing homework in three different situations, wherein a conflict between playing online games and doing homework was introduced and subjective norm was manipulated as peers supporting and parents objecting to playing online games...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445694/work-first-then-play-prior-task-difficulty-increases-motivation-related-brain-responses-in-a-risk-game
#15
Barbara Schmidt, Patrick Mussel, Roman Osinsky, Björn Rasch, Stefan Debener, Johannes Hewig
Task motivation depends on what we did before. A recent theory differentiates between tasks that we want to do and tasks that we have to do. After a have-to task, motivation shifts towards a want-to task. We measured this shift of motivation via brain responses to monetary feedback in a risk game that was used as want-to task in our study. We tested 20 healthy participants that were about 28 years old in a within-subjects design. Participants worked on a Stroop task (have-to task) or an easier version of the Stroop task as a control condition and played a risk game afterwards (want-to task)...
April 23, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439031/explaining-negative-kin-discrimination-in-a-cooperative-mammal-society
#16
Faye J Thompson, Michael A Cant, Harry H Marshall, Emma I K Vitikainen, Jennifer L Sanderson, Hazel J Nichols, Jason S Gilchrist, Matthew B V Bell, Andrew J Young, Sarah J Hodge, Rufus A Johnstone
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongooses, Mungos mungo, showing that females that are more closely related to dominant individuals are specifically targeted for forcible eviction from the group, often suffering severe injury, and sometimes death, as a result...
April 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436914/a-time-variant-log-linear-learning-approach-to-the-set-k-cover-problem-in-wireless-sensor-networks
#17
Changhao Sun
Toward the global optimality of the SET K-COVER problem in wireless sensor networks, we view each sensor node as a rational player and propose a time variant log-linear learning algorithm (TVLLA) that relies on local information only. By defining the local utility as the normalized area covered by one node alone, we formulate the problem as a spatial potential game. The resulting optimal Nash equilibria correspond to the optimal partition. Such equilibria are obtained by designing a time varying parameter β that approaches infinity with time...
April 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429636/differences-in-game-reading-between-selected-and-non-selected-youth-soccer-players
#18
Ruud J R Den Hartigh, Steffie Van Der Steen, Bas Hakvoort, Wouter G P Frencken, Koen A P M Lemmink
Applying an established theory of cognitive development-Skill Theory-the current study compares the game-reading skills of youth players selected for a soccer school of a professional soccer club (n = 49) and their non-selected peers (n = 38). Participants described the actions taking place in videos of soccer game plays, and their verbalisations were coded using Skill Theory. Compared to the non-selected players, the selected players generally demonstrated higher levels of complexity in their game-reading, and structured the information of game elements-primarily the player, teammate and field-at higher complexity levels...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422062/cross-layer-design-for-optimizing-transmission-reliability-energy-efficiency-and-lifetime-in-body-sensor-networks
#19
Xi Chen, Yixuan Xu, Anfeng Liu
High transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and long lifetime are pivotal issues for wireless body area networks (WBANs. However, these performance metrics are not independent of each other, making it hard to obtain overall improvements through optimizing one single aspect. Therefore, a Cross Layer Design Optimal (CLDO) scheme is proposed to simultaneously optimize transmission reliability, energy efficiency, and lifetime of WBANs from several layers. Firstly, due to the fact that the transmission power of nodes directly influences the reliability of links, the optimized transmission power of different nodes is deduced, which is able to maximize energy efficiency in theory under the premise that requirements on delay and jitter are fulfilled...
April 19, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419682/game-theoretical-mapping-of-causal-interactions-underlying-visuo-spatial-attention-in-the-human-brain-based-on-stroke-lesions
#20
Monica N Toba, Melissa Zavaglia, Federica Rastelli, Romain Valabrégue, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Antoni Valero-Cabré, Claus C Hilgetag
Anatomical studies conducted in neurological conditions have developed our understanding of the causal relationships between brain lesions and their clinical consequences. The analysis of lesion patterns extended across brain networks has been particularly useful in offering new insights on brain-behavior relationships. Here we applied multiperturbation Shapley value Analysis (MSA), a multivariate method based on coalitional game theory inferring causal regional contributions to specific behavioral outcomes from the characteristic functional deficits after stroke lesions...
April 17, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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