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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779008/intervention-planning-for-the-reduce-maintenance-intervention-a-digital-intervention-to-reduce-reulceration-risk-among-patients-with-a-history-of-diabetic-foot-ulcers
#1
Kate Greenwell, Katy Sivyer, Kavita Vedhara, Lucy Yardley, Frances Game, Trudie Chalder, Gayle Richards, Nikki Drake, Katie Gray, John Weinman, Katherine Bradbury
OBJECTIVES: To develop a comprehensive intervention plan for the REDUCE maintenance intervention to support people who have had diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) to sustain behaviours that reduce reulceration risk. METHODS: Theory-based, evidence-based and person-based approaches to intervention development were used. In phase I of intervention planning, evidence was collated from a scoping review of the literature and qualitative interviews with patients who have had DFUs (n=20)...
May 18, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29763610/sequential-interactions-in-which-one-player-plays-first-and-another-responds-promote-cooperation-in-evolutionary-dynamical-simulations-of-single-shot-prisoner-s-dilemma-and-snowdrift-games
#2
Robert A Laird
Cooperation is a central topic in evolutionary biology because (a) it is difficult to reconcile why individuals would act in a way that benefits others if such action is costly to themselves, and (b) it underpins many of the 'major transitions of evolution', making it essential for explaining the origins of successively higher levels of biological organization. Within evolutionary game theory, the Prisoner's Dilemma and Snowdrift games are the main theoretical constructs used to study the evolution of cooperation in dyadic interactions...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758674/heterogeneous-update-mechanisms-in-evolutionary-games-mixing-innovative-and-imitative-dynamics
#3
Marco Antonio Amaral, Marco Alberto Javarone
Innovation and evolution are two processes of paramount relevance for social and biological systems. In general, the former allows the introduction of elements of novelty, while the latter is responsible for the motion of a system in its phase space. Often, these processes are strongly related, since an innovation can trigger the evolution, and the latter can provide the optimal conditions for the emergence of innovations. Both processes can be studied by using the framework of evolutionary game theory, where evolution constitutes an intrinsic mechanism...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745712/signaling-emotion-and-reason-in-cooperation
#4
Emma E Levine, Alixandra Barasch, David Rand, Jonathan Z Berman, Deborah A Small
We explore the signal value of emotion and reason in human cooperation. Across four experiments utilizing dyadic prisoner dilemma games, we establish three central results. First, individuals infer prosocial feelings and motivations from signals of emotion. As a result, individuals believe that a reliance on emotion signals that one will cooperate more so than a reliance on reason. Second, these beliefs are generally accurate-those who act based on emotion are more likely to cooperate than those who act based on reason...
May 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29743670/vector-based-navigation-using-grid-like-representations-in-artificial-agents
#5
Andrea Banino, Caswell Barry, Benigno Uria, Charles Blundell, Timothy Lillicrap, Piotr Mirowski, Alexander Pritzel, Martin J Chadwick, Thomas Degris, Joseph Modayil, Greg Wayne, Hubert Soyer, Fabio Viola, Brian Zhang, Ross Goroshin, Neil Rabinowitz, Razvan Pascanu, Charlie Beattie, Stig Petersen, Amir Sadik, Stephen Gaffney, Helen King, Koray Kavukcuoglu, Demis Hassabis, Raia Hadsell, Dharshan Kumaran
Deep neural networks have achieved impressive successes in fields ranging from object recognition to complex games such as Go1,2 . Navigation, however, remains a substantial challenge for artificial agents, with deep neural networks trained by reinforcement learning3-5 failing to rival the proficiency of mammalian spatial behaviour, which is underpinned by grid cells in the entorhinal cortex 6 . Grid cells are thought to provide a multi-scale periodic representation that functions as a metric for coding space7,8 and is critical for integrating self-motion (path integration)6,7,9 and planning direct trajectories to goals (vector-based navigation)7,10,11 ...
May 9, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740366/human-consciousness-where-is-it-from-and-what-is-it-for
#6
REVIEW
Boris Kotchoubey
Consciousness is not a process in the brain but a kind of behavior that, of course, is controlled by the brain like any other behavior. Human consciousness emerges on the interface between three components of animal behavior: communication, play, and the use of tools. These three components interact on the basis of anticipatory behavioral control, which is common for all complex forms of animal life. All three do not exclusively distinguish our close relatives, i.e., primates, but are broadly presented among various species of mammals, birds, and even cephalopods; however, their particular combination in humans is unique...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740290/goal-achievement-failure-drives-corticospinal-modulation-in-promotion-and-prevention-contexts
#7
Emanuele Lo Gerfo, Alberto Pisoni, Stefania Ottone, Ferruccio Ponzano, Luca Zarri, Alessandra Vergallito, Erica Varoli, Davide Fedeli, Leonor J Romero Lauro
When making decisions, people are typically differently sensitive to gains and losses according to the motivational context in which the choice is performed. As hypothesized by Regulatory Focus Theory (RFT), indeed, goals are supposed to change in relation to the set of possible outcomes. In particular, in a promotion context, the goal is achieving the maximal gain, whereas in a prevention context it turns into avoiding the greatest loss. We explored the neurophysiological counterpart of this phenomenon, by applying Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) and recording the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in participants taking part in an economic game, in which they observed actions conveying different goal attainment levels, framed in different motivational contexts...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735672/strategic-investment-explains-patterns-of-cooperation-and-cheating-in-a-microbe
#8
Philip G Madgwick, Balint Stewart, Laurence J Belcher, Christopher R L Thompson, Jason B Wolf
Contributing to cooperation is typically costly, while its rewards are often available to all members of a social group. So why should individuals be willing to pay these costs, especially if they could cheat by exploiting the investments of others? Kin selection theory broadly predicts that individuals should invest more into cooperation if their relatedness to group members is high (assuming they can discriminate kin from nonkin). To better understand how relatedness affects cooperation, we derived the ‟Collective Investment" game, which provides quantitative predictions for patterns of strategic investment depending on the level of relatedness...
May 7, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734129/latent-profiles-of-family-background-personality-and-mental-health-factors-and-their-association-with-behavioural-addictions-and-substance-use-disorders-in-young-swiss-men
#9
Simon Marmet, Joseph Studer, Ansgar Rougemont-Bücking, Gerhard Gmel
BACKGROUND: Recent theories suggest that behavioural addictions and substance use disorders may be the result of the same underlying vulnerability. The present study investigates profiles of family background, personality and mental health factors and their associations with seven behavioural addictions (to the internet, gaming, smartphones, internet sex, gambling, exercise and work) and three substance use disorder scales (for alcohol, cannabis and tobacco). METHODS: The sample consisted of 5287 young Swiss men (mean age = 25...
May 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730591/equilibrium-approach-towards-water-resource-management-and-pollution-control-in-coal-chemical-industrial-park
#10
Jiuping Xu, Shuhua Hou, Heping Xie, Chengwei Lv, Liming Yao
In this study, an integrated water and waste load allocation model is proposed to assist decision makers in better understanding the trade-offs between economic growth, resource utilization, and environmental protection of coal chemical industries which characteristically have high water consumption and pollution. In the decision framework, decision makers in a same park, each of whom have different goals and preferences, work together to seek a collective benefit. Similar to a Stackelberg-Nash game, the proposed approach illuminates the decision making interrelationships and involves in the conflict coordination between the park authority and the individual coal chemical company stockholders...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725559/trapped-as-a-group-escape-as-a-team-applying-gamification-to-incorporate-team-building-skills-through-an-escape-room-experience
#11
Xiao Chi Zhang, Hyunjoo Lee, Carlos Rodriguez, Joshua Rudner, Teresa M Chan, Dimitrios Papanagnou
Teamwork, a skill critical for quality patient care, is recognized as a core competency by the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME). To date, there is no consensus on how to effectively teach these skills in a forum that engages learners, immerses members in life-like activities, and builds both trust and rapport. Recreational 'Escape Rooms' have gained popularity in creating a life-like environment that rewards players for working together, solving puzzles, and completing successions of mind-bending tasks in order to effectively 'escape the room' in the time allotted...
March 2, 2018: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707574/analysis-of-managing-safety-in-small-enterprises-dual-effects-of-employee-prosocial-safety-behavior-and-government-inspection
#12
Qiwei Wang, Qiang Mei, Suxia Liu, Jingjing Zhang
This paper aims to promote a national and international occupational health and safety (OHS) intervention for small and medium enterprises (SMEs) within internal and external resources. Based on the characteristics of small SME management, the work environment and occupational health may be positively affected by the dual-effects of employees and government. Evolutionary game theory is utilized to identify relevant interactions among the government, small enterprises, and employees. Furthermore, dynamic simulations of the evolutionary game model are used to explore stability strategies and to identify modes of equilibrium...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686977/a-prototype-exercise-empowerment-mobile-video-game-for-children-with-cancer-and-its-usability-assessment-developing-digital-empowerment-interventions-for-pediatric-diseases
#13
Carol S Bruggers, Sabrina Baranowski, Mathew Beseris, Rachel Leonard, Derek Long, Elizabeth Schulte, Ashton Shorter, Rowan Stigner, Clinton C Mason, Alisa Bedrov, Ian Pascual, Grzegorz Bulaj
Background: Medical advances continue to improve morbidity and mortality of serious pediatric diseases, including cancer, driving research addressing diminished physical and psychological quality of life in children with these chronic conditions. Empowerment enhances resilience and positively influences health, disease, and therapy understanding. We describe the development and usability assessment of a prototype Empower Stars! mobile video game grounded in behavioral and exercise theories with the purpose of coupling physical exercise with empowerment over disease in children with cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29685863/a-mobile-gaming-intervention-to-increase-adherence-to-antiretroviral-treatment-for-youth-living-with-hiv-development-guided-by-the-information-motivation-and-behavioral-skills-model
#14
Laura Whiteley, Larry Brown, Michelle Lally, Nicholas Heck, Jacob J van den Berg
BACKGROUND: Highly active combination antiretroviral treatment has been shown to markedly improve the health of HIV-infected adolescents and young adults. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment leads to decreased morbidity and mortality and decreases the number of hospitalizations. However, these clinical achievements can only occur when young persons with HIV are adherent to care. Unfortunately, adolescents and young adults have poorer rates of adherence to antiretroviral medications and poorer rates of retention in care than older adults...
April 23, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678971/exploring-the-use-of-a-gamified-intervention-for-encouraging-physical-activity-in-adolescents-a-qualitative-longitudinal-study-in-northern-ireland
#15
Rekesh Corepal, Paul Best, Roisin O'Neill, Mark A Tully, Mark Edwards, Russell Jago, Sarah J Miller, Frank Kee, Ruth F Hunter
OBJECTIVE: To explore the temporal changes of adolescents' views and experiences of participating in a gamified intervention to encourage physical activity behaviour and associated processes of behaviour change. DESIGN: A qualitative longitudinal design was adopted whereby focus groups were conducted with the same participants in each intervention school (n=3) at four time-points (baseline, end of each of two intervention phases and 1-year follow-up). The framework method was used to thematically analyse the data...
April 20, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674677/population-structure-promotes-the-evolution-of-intuitive-cooperation-and-inhibits-deliberation
#16
Mohsen Mosleh, David G Rand
Spatial structure is one of the most studied mechanisms in evolutionary game theory. Here, we explore the consequences of spatial structure for a question which has received considerable empirical and theoretical attention in recent years, but has not yet been studied from a network perspective: whether cooperation relies on intuitive predispositions or deliberative self-control. We examine this question using a model which integrates the "dual-process" framework from cognitive science with evolutionary game theory, and considers the evolution of agents who are embedded within a social network and only interact with their neighbors...
April 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668790/experimental-classroom-games-a-didactic-tool-in-palliative-care
#17
Ana Isabel López Alonso, Maria Elena Fernández Martínez, Cristina Liébana Presa, Ana Maria Vázquez Casares, Maria Paz Castro González
Objective To evaluate the effect of a games-based intervention on palliative care nursing students' scores on the Collett-Lester Fear of Death Scale. The challenge was to innovate and integrate grief-related theory and experiences into the classroom. Method Quasi-experimental study. Before and after the games-based intervention, 101 and 111 students completed the questionnaires, respectively. The intervention was performed in the context of a palliative care class taught during the first semester of the third year of the nursing programme...
2018: Revista da Escola de Enfermagem da U S P
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666566/-enheduanna-a-manifesto-of-falling-live-brain-computer-cinema-performance-performer-and-audience-participation-cognition-and-emotional-engagement-using-multi-brain-bci-interaction
#18
Polina Zioga, Frank Pollick, Minhua Ma, Paul Chapman, Kristian Stefanov
The fields of neural prosthetic technologies and Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) have witnessed in the past 15 years an unprecedented development, bringing together theories and methods from different scientific fields, digital media, and the arts. More in particular, artists have been amongst the pioneers of the design of relevant applications since their emergence in the 1960s, pushing the boundaries of applications in real-life contexts. With the new research, advancements, and since 2007, the new low-cost commercial-grade wireless devices, there is a new increasing number of computer games, interactive installations, and performances that involve the use of these interfaces, combining scientific, and creative methodologies...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655869/a-general-structured-model-of-a-hermaphrodite-population
#19
Amira Kebir, Nina H Fefferman, Slimane Ben Miled
Both empirical and theoretical studies, have dealt with the question how to best optimize reproductive fitness for hermaphrodites, using models such as game theory or complicated energetic costs and benefits of mating displays. However, hermaphrodites exhibit a broad spectrum of sexual behaviors like simultaneous, sequential or lifetime gonochorist that cannot be explained using a unique formalism. A possible explanation of this diversity relies on the way these species maximize their fitness: Does the individual hermaphrodite split its time between strategies maximizing its instantaneous reproductive fitness or its evolutionary fitness? Here, we compare these two points of view and extend a game theoretical formalism to a sex allocation model that underlies all sexual behaviors as a result of a dynamic game whose payoff depends on the costs and benefits of sexual reproduction...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627266/fast-cheater-migration-stabilizes-coexistence-in-a-public-goods-dilemma-on-networks
#20
Glenn Young, Andrew Belmonte
Through the lens of game theory, cooperation is frequently considered an unsustainable strategy: if an entire population is cooperating, each individual can increase its overall fitness by choosing not to cooperate, thereby still receiving all the benefit of its cooperating neighbors while no longer expending its own energy. Observable cooperation in naturally-occurring public goods games is consequently of great interest, as such systems offer insight into both the emergence and sustainability of cooperation...
April 5, 2018: Theoretical Population Biology
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