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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344760/on-the-shapley-value-of-unrooted-phylogenetic-trees
#1
Kristina Wicke, Mareike Fischer
The Shapley value, a solution concept from cooperative game theory, has recently been considered for both unrooted and rooted phylogenetic trees. Here, we focus on the Shapley value of unrooted trees and first revisit the so-called split counts of a phylogenetic tree and the Shapley transformation matrix that allows for the calculation of the Shapley value from the edge lengths of a tree. We show that non-isomorphic trees may have permutation-equivalent Shapley transformation matrices and permutation-equivalent null spaces...
January 17, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340440/-administration-practices-myths-and-ideologies
#2
Hugo Spinelli
Administration in the social field is examined based on an analysis of its practices, the rationalist myth and its ideological dimensions. In this way, the article discusses the most frequently utilized concepts (administration, management, gerencia, gestión) and their etymologies; the limitations of teaching administration; the complexity of a practice marked by the dimensions of science, art and the social game; and the ideological question underlying the great thought factory that the general theory of administration has been since the start of the 19th century...
October 2017: Salud Colectiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321864/the-evolution-of-sexes-a-specific-test-of-the-disruptive-selection-theory
#3
Jack da Silva
The disruptive selection theory of the evolution of anisogamy posits that the evolution of a larger body or greater organismal complexity selects for a larger zygote, which in turn selects for larger gametes. This may provide the opportunity for one mating type to produce more numerous, small gametes, forcing the other mating type to produce fewer, large gametes. Predictions common to this and related theories have been partially upheld. Here, a prediction specific to the disruptive selection theory is derived from a previously published game-theoretic model that represents the most complete description of the theory...
January 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313720/beyond-access-and-exposure-implications-of-sneaky-media-use-for-preschoolers-sleep-behavior
#4
Jessica D Moorman, Kristen Harrison
Greater consumption of and access to screen media are known correlates of unhealthy sleep behavior in preschoolers. What remains unknown, however, is the role a child's media use plays in this association. Parents and guardians of U.S. preschoolers (N = 278, average child age 56 months) provided information about their child's nightly duration of sleep, daily duration of nap, quantity of screen media use, sneaky media use, and the presence of a screen media device in the bedroom. We assessed four media: television, DVD/VCRs, video games, and computer/Internet...
January 9, 2018: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286770/communication-games-reveal-preparation-contextuality
#5
Alley Hameedi, Armin Tavakoli, Breno Marques, Mohamed Bourennane
A communication game consists of distributed parties attempting to jointly complete a task with restricted communication. Such games are useful tools for studying limitations of physical theories. A theory exhibits preparation contextuality whenever its predictions cannot be explained by a preparation noncontextual model. Here, we show that communication games performed in operational theories reveal the preparation contextuality of that theory. For statistics obtained in a particular family of communication games, we show a direct correspondence with correlations in spacelike separated events obeying the no-signaling principle...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284294/sex-ed-to-go-a-content-analysis-of-comprehensive-sexual-education-apps
#6
Kerstin M Kalke, Tamar Ginossar, Sayyed Fawad Ali Shah, Andrew J West
Mobile applications ("apps") designed for sexual health education have the potential to reach teens and young adults that are hard to reach through traditional platforms; however, little is known about availability of these apps and their adherence to existing guidelines. Following a search on the two major app stores, data from 2,693 apps were analyzed. Only 697 (25%) addressed sexual health, and only 15 (1%) of apps met inclusion criteria for comprehensive programs and their content was further analyzed. The content of most of these apps narrowly focused on sexually transmitted infections and pregnancy prevention and lacked information on puberty, sexual identity, and personal safety...
December 1, 2017: Health Education & Behavior: the Official Publication of the Society for Public Health Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279215/testosterone-and-human-behavior-the-role-of-individual-and-contextual-variables
#7
REVIEW
Justin M Carré, John Archer
The study of testosterone and aggression originated in experimental studies of animals, showing a direct causal link in some species. Human studies showed an overall weak correlation between testosterone and aggression. A theoretical framework ('the challenge hypothesis') enabled testosterone-behavior interactions in humans to be framed within a theory that emphasized hormonal responses to competition influencing subsequent aggressive behavior. The short-term administrations of testosterone to young women and to young men showed influences on behavioral and neural processes associated with aggression...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275086/a-game-theory-approach-for-assessing-risk-value-and-deploying-search-and-rescue-resources-after-devastating-tsunamis
#8
Cheng-Kuang Wu
The current early-warning system and tsunami protection measures tend to fall short because they always underestimate the level of destruction, and it is difficult to predict the level of damage by a devastating tsunami on uncertain targets. As we know, the key to minimizing the total number of fatalities after a disaster is the deployment of search and rescue efforts in the first few hours. However, the resources available to the affected districts for emergency response may be limited. This study proposes two game theoretic models that are designed for search-and-rescue resource allocation...
December 21, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261671/tragedy-of-the-commons-in-the-chemostat
#9
Martin Schuster, Eric Foxall, David Finch, Hal Smith, Patrick De Leenheer
We present a proof of principle for the phenomenon of the tragedy of the commons that is at the center of many theories on the evolution of cooperation. Whereas the tragedy is commonly set in a game theoretical context, and attributed to an underlying Prisoner's Dilemma, we take an alternative approach based on basic mechanistic principles of species growth that does not rely on the specification of payoffs which may be difficult to determine in practice. We establish the tragedy in the context of a general chemostat model with two species, the cooperator and the cheater...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260592/how-do-aggregated-patient-reported-outcome-measures-data-stimulate-health-care-improvement-a-realist-synthesis
#10
Joanne Greenhalgh, Sonia Dalkin, Elizabeth Gibbons, Judy Wright, Jose Maria Valderas, David Meads, Nick Black
Objectives Internationally, there has been considerable debate about the role of data in supporting quality improvement in health care. Our objective was to understand how, why and in what circumstances the feedback of aggregated patient-reported outcome measures data improved patient care. Methods We conducted a realist synthesis. We identified three main programme theories underlying the use of patient-reported outcome measures as a quality improvement strategy and expressed them as nine 'if then' propositions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Health Services Research & Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250771/the-synergistic-effect-of-prosociality-and-physical-attractiveness-on-mate-desirability
#11
Daniel Ehlebracht, Olga Stavrova, Detlef Fetchenhauer, Daniel Farrelly
Mate selection requires a prioritization and joint evaluation of different traits present or absent in potential mates. Herein, we focus on two such traits - physical attractiveness and prosociality - and examine how they jointly shape impressions of overall desirability. We report on two related experiments which make use of an innovative methodology combining large samples of raters and target persons (i.e., stimuli) and information on targets' behaviour in economic games representing altruistic behaviour (Experiment 1) and trustworthiness (Experiment 2), two important facets of prosociality...
December 17, 2017: British Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247879/the-determinants-of-response-time-in-a-repeated-constant-sum-game-a-robust-bayesian-hierarchical-dual-process-model
#12
Leonidas Spiliopoulos
The investigation of response time and behavior has a long tradition in cognitive psychology, particularly for non-strategic decision-making. Recently, experimental economists have also studied response time in strategic interactions, but with an emphasis on either one-shot games or repeated social-dilemmas. I investigate the determinants of response time in a repeated (pure-conflict) game, admitting a unique mixed strategy Nash equilibrium, with fixed partner matching. Response times depend upon the interaction of two decision models embedded in a dual-process framework (Achtziger and Alós-Ferrer, 2014; Alós-Ferrer, 2016)...
December 13, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244778/recycling-pricing-and-coordination-of-weee-dual-channel-closed-loop-supply-chain-considering-consumers-bargaining
#13
Xiaodong Zhu, Jing Wang, Juan Tang
Environmentally friendly handling and efficient recycling of waste electrical on Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) have grown to be a global social problem. As holders of WEEE, consumers have a significant effect on the recycling process. A consideration of and attention to the influence of consumer behavior in the recycling process can help achieve more effective recycling of WEEE. In this paper, we built a dual-channel closed-loop supply chain model composed of manufacturers, retailers, and network recycling platforms...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244566/the-price-equation-gradient-dynamics-and-continuous-trait-game-theory
#14
Jussi Lehtonen
A recent article convincingly nominated the Price equation as the fundamental theorem of evolution and used it as a foundation to derive several other theorems. A major section of evolutionary theory that was not addressed is that of game theory and gradient dynamics of continuous traits with frequency-dependent fitness. Deriving fundamental results in these fields under the unifying framework of the Price equation illuminates similarities and differences between approaches and allows a simple, unified view of game-theoretical and dynamic concepts...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244562/learning-to-cooperate-the-evolution-of-social-rewards-in-repeated-interactions
#15
Slimane Dridi, Erol Akçay
Understanding the behavioral and psychological mechanisms underlying social behaviors is one of the major goals of social evolutionary theory. In particular, a persistent question about animal cooperation is to what extent it is supported by other-regarding preferences-the motivation to increase the welfare of others. In many situations, animals adjust their behaviors through learning by responding to the rewards they experience as a consequence of their actions. Therefore, we may ask whether learning in social situations can be driven by evolved other-regarding rewards...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244555/theoretical-approaches-in-evolutionary-ecology-environmental-feedback-as-a-unifying-perspective
#16
Sébastien Lion
Evolutionary biology and ecology have a strong theoretical underpinning, and this has fostered a variety of modeling approaches. A major challenge of this theoretical work has been to unravel the tangled feedback loop between ecology and evolution. This has prompted the development of two main classes of models. While quantitative genetics models jointly consider the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of a focal population, a separation of timescales between ecology and evolution is assumed by evolutionary game theory, adaptive dynamics, and inclusive fitness theory...
January 2018: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238116/a-schutzian-analysis-of-prayer-with-perspectives-from-linguistic-philosophy
#17
K Hoshikawa, M Staudigl
In this paper, we propose to analyze the phenomenon of Christian prayer by way of combining two different analytical frameworks. We start by applying Schutz's theories of "intersubjectivity," "inner time," "politheticality," and "multiple realities," and then proceed by drawing on the ideas and insights of linguistic philosophers, notably, Wittgenstein's "language-game," Austin's "speech act," and Evans's "logic of self-involvement". In conjoining these accounts, we wish to demonstrate how their combination sheds new light on understanding the phenomenon of prayer...
2017: Human Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236142/frequency-dependent-growth-in-class-structured-populations-continuous-dynamics-in-the-limit-of-weak-selection
#18
Sabin Lessard, Cíntia Dalila Soares
In this paper we consider class-structured populations in discrete time in the limit of weak selection and with the inverse of the intensity of selection as unit of time. The aim is to establish a continuous model that approximates the discrete model. More precisely, we study frequency-dependent growth in an infinite haploid population structured into a finite number of classes such that individuals in each class contribute to a given subset of classes from one time step to the next. These contributions take the form of generalized fecundity parameters with perturbations of order 1 / N that depends on the class frequencies of each type and the type frequencies...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233803/a-smartphone-app-to-reduce-sugar-sweetened-beverage-consumption-among-young-adults-in-australian-remote-indigenous-communities-design-formative-evaluation-and-user-testing
#19
Emma Tonkin, Lauren Jeffs, Thomas Philip Wycherley, Carol Maher, Ross Smith, Jonathon Hart, Beau Cubillo, Julie Brimblecombe
BACKGROUND: The disproportionate burden of noncommunicable disease among Indigenous Australians living in remote Indigenous communities (RICs) is a complex and persistent problem. Smartphones are increasingly being used by young Indigenous adults and therefore represent a promising method to engage them in programs seeking to improve nutritional intake. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to consult RIC members to inform the content of a smartphone app that can be used to monitor and reduce sugar-sweetened beverage intake in RICs...
December 12, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232907/a-game-theory-based-incentive-framework-for-an-intelligent-traffic-system-as-part-of-a-smart-city-initiative
#20
Haibo Mei, Stefan Poslad, Shuang Du
Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITSs) can be applied to inform and incentivize travellers to help them make cognizant choices concerning their trip routes and transport modality use for their daily travel whilst achieving more sustainable societal and transport authority goals. However, in practice, it is challenging for an ITS to enable incentive generation that is context-driven and personalized, whilst supporting multi-dimensional travel goals. This is because an ITS has to address the situation where different travellers have different travel preferences and constraints for route and modality, in the face of dynamically-varying traffic conditions...
December 11, 2017: Sensors
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