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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149075/a-game-theoretic-approach-for-balancing-energy-consumption-in-clustered-wireless-sensor-networks
#1
Liu Yang, Yinzhi Lu, Lian Xiong, Yang Tao, Yuanchang Zhong
Clustering is an effective topology control method in wireless sensor networks (WSNs), since it can enhance the network lifetime and scalability. To prolong the network lifetime in clustered WSNs, an efficient cluster head (CH) optimization policy is essential to distribute the energy among sensor nodes. Recently, game theory has been introduced to model clustering. Each sensor node is considered as a rational and selfish player which will play a clustering game with an equilibrium strategy. Then it decides whether to act as the CH according to this strategy for a tradeoff between providing required services and energy conservation...
November 17, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146901/genome-driven-evolutionary-game-theory-helps-understand-the-rise-of-metabolic-interdependencies-in-microbial-communities
#2
Ali R Zomorrodi, Daniel Segrè
Metabolite exchanges in microbial communities give rise to ecological interactions that govern ecosystem diversity and stability. It is unclear, however, how the rise of these interactions varies across metabolites and organisms. Here we address this question by integrating genome-scale models of metabolism with evolutionary game theory. Specifically, we use microbial fitness values estimated by metabolic models to infer evolutionarily stable interactions in multi-species microbial "games". We first validate our approach using a well-characterized yeast cheater-cooperator system...
November 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136020/evolutionary-dynamics-of-group-formation
#3
Marco Alberto Javarone, Daniele Marinazzo
Group formation is a quite ubiquitous phenomenon across different animal species, whose individuals cluster together forming communities of diverse size. Previous investigations suggest that, in general, this phenomenon might have similar underlying reasons across the interested species, despite genetic and behavioral differences. For instance improving the individual safety (e.g. from predators), and increasing the probability to get food resources. Remarkably, the group size might strongly vary from species to species, e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133403/parochial-trust-and-cooperation-across-17-societies
#4
Angelo Romano, Daniel Balliet, Toshio Yamagishi, James H Liu
International challenges such as climate change, poverty, and intergroup conflict require countries to cooperate to solve these complex problems. However, the political tide in many countries has shifted inward, with skepticism and reluctance to cooperate with other countries. Thus, cross-societal investigations are needed to test theory about trust and cooperation within and between groups. We conducted an experimental study in 17 countries designed to test several theories that explain why, who, and where people trust and cooperate more with ingroup members, compared with outgroup members...
November 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127336/intermediate-levels-of-network-heterogeneity-provide-the-best-evolutionary-outcomes
#5
Flávio L Pinheiro, Dominik Hartmann
Complex networks impact the diffusion of ideas and innovations, the formation of opinions, and the evolution of cooperative behavior. In this context, heterogeneous structures have been shown to generate a coordination-like dynamics that drives a population towards a monomorphic state. In contrast, homogeneous networks tend to result in a stable co-existence of multiple traits in the population. These conclusions have been reached through the analysis of networks with either very high or very low levels of degree heterogeneity...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123355/economics-of-palliative-and-end-of-life-care-in-india-a-concept-paper
#6
Arunangshu Ghoshal, Anuja Damani, Naveen Salins, Jayita Deodhar, M A Muckaden
Only a few studies have assessed the economic outcomes of palliative care in India. The major areas of interest include hospice care, the process and structure of care, symptom management, and palliative chemotherapy compared to best supportive care. At present, there is no definite health-care system followed in India. Medical bankruptcy is common. In situations where patients bear most of the costs, medical decision-making might have significant implications on economics of health care. Game theory might help in deciphering the underlying complexities of decision-making when considered as a two person nonzero sum game...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121671/separating-conditional-and-unconditional-cooperation-in-a-sequential-prisoner-s-dilemma-game
#7
Raoul Bell, Laura Mieth, Axel Buchner
Most theories of social exchange distinguish between two different types of cooperation, depending on whether or not cooperation occurs conditional upon the partner's previous behaviors. Here, we used a multinomial processing tree model to distinguish between positive and negative reciprocity and cooperation bias in a sequential Prisoner's Dilemma game. In Experiments 1 and 2, the facial expressions of the partners were varied to manipulate cooperation bias. In Experiment 3, an extinction instruction was used to manipulate reciprocity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121059/effects-of-decades-of-physical-driving-on-body-movement-and-motion-sickness-during-virtual-driving
#8
Thomas A Stoffregen, Chih-Hui Chang, Fu-Chen Chen, Wei-Jhong Zeng
We investigated relations between experience driving physical automobiles and motion sickness during the driving of virtual automobiles. Middle-aged individuals drove a virtual automobile in a driving video game. Drivers were individuals who had possessed a driver's license for approximately 30 years, and who drove regularly, while non-drivers were individuals who had never held a driver's license, or who had not driven for more than 15 years. During virtual driving, we monitored movement of the head and torso...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112973/reading-wild-minds-a-computational-assay-of-theory-of-mind-sophistication-across-seven-primate-species
#9
Marie Devaine, Aurore San-Galli, Cinzia Trapanese, Giulia Bardino, Christelle Hano, Michel Saint Jalme, Sebastien Bouret, Shelly Masi, Jean Daunizeau
Theory of Mind (ToM), i.e. the ability to understand others' mental states, endows humans with highly adaptive social skills such as teaching or deceiving. Candidate evolutionary explanations have been proposed for the unique sophistication of human ToM among primates. For example, the Machiavellian intelligence hypothesis states that the increasing complexity of social networks may have induced a demand for sophisticated ToM. This type of scenario ignores neurocognitive constraints that may eventually be crucial limiting factors for ToM evolution...
November 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104321/the-role-of-contingencies-and-stimuli-in-a-human-laboratory-model-of-treatment-of-problem-behavior
#10
William V Dube, Brooks Thompson, Marcelo V Silveira, John A Nevin
Behavioral momentum theory posits a paradoxical implication for behavioral interventions in clinical situations using Differential Reinforcement of Alternative Behavior (DRA): When alternative reinforcers are presented within the same context as the problem behavior, the added reinforcers may decrease the frequency of the behavior but also increase its persistence when the intervention ends. Providing alternative reinforcers in a setting that is distinctively different from that in which the target behavior occurs may avoid or reduce this increase in persistence...
December 2017: Psychological Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101730/team-reasoning-solving-the-puzzle-of-coordination
#11
Andrew M Colman, Natalie Gold
In many everyday activities, individuals have a common interest in coordinating their actions. Orthodox game theory cannot explain such intuitively obvious forms of coordination as the selection of an outcome that is best for all in a common-interest game. Theories of team reasoning provide a convincing solution by proposing that people are sometimes motivated to maximize the collective payoff of a group and that they adopt a distinctive mode of reasoning from preferences to decisions. This also offers a compelling explanation of cooperation in social dilemmas...
November 3, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101550/chess-knowledge-predicts-chess-memory-even-after-controlling-for-chess-experience-evidence-for-the-role-of-high-level-processes
#12
David M Lane, Yu-Hsuan A Chang
The expertise effect in memory for chess positions is one of the most robust effects in cognitive psychology. One explanation of this effect is that chess recall is based on the recognition of familiar patterns and that experts have learned more and larger patterns. Template theory and its instantiation as a computational model are based on this explanation. An alternative explanation is that the expertise effect is due, in part, to stronger players having better and more conceptual knowledge, with this knowledge facilitating memory performance...
November 3, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096330/why-some-behaviors-spread-while-others-don-t-a-laboratory-simulation-of-dialect-contact
#13
Betsy Sneller, Gareth Roberts
The question of how behavioral variants compete and propagate is of primary importance to the study of cultural evolution; with respect to language, it is also an important focus of the field of sociolinguistics. Variant propagation can occur by neutral means-akin to drift in biological evolution-or through selection, whereby individuals are biased in what variants they adopt. An important bias concerns social meaning, and sociolinguistic theory distinguishes between variants that are primarily associated with a particular social group (such as working-class people or Texans) and variants primarily associated with a perceived trait of the group (such as toughness)...
November 5, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093050/screen-violence-and-youth-behavior
#14
REVIEW
Craig A Anderson, Brad J Bushman, Bruce D Bartholow, Joanne Cantor, Dimitri Christakis, Sarah M Coyne, Edward Donnerstein, Jeanne Funk Brockmyer, Douglas A Gentile, C Shawn Green, Rowell Huesmann, Tom Hummer, Barbara Krahé, Victor C Strasburger, Wayne Warburton, Barbara J Wilson, Michele Ybarra
Violence in screen entertainment media (ie, television, film, video games, and the Internet), defined as depictions of characters (or players) trying to physically harm other characters (or players), is ubiquitous. The Workgroup on Media Violence and Violent Video Games reviewed numerous meta-analyses and other relevant research from the past 60 years, with an emphasis on violent video game research. Consistent with every major science organization review, the Workgroup found compelling evidence of short-term harmful effects, as well as evidence of long-term harmful effects...
November 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082532/the-impact-of-death-awareness-on-sizes-of-self-representational-objects
#15
Simon McCabe, Kenneth E Vail, Jamie Arndt
People seem to have a tendency to increase the relative size of self-representational objects. Prior research suggests that motivational factors may fuel that tendency, so the present research built from terror management theory to examine whether existential motivations - engendered by concerns about death - may have similar implications for self-relevant size biases. Specifically, across two studies (total N = 288), we hypothesized that reminders of death would lead participants to inflate the size of self-representational objects...
October 30, 2017: British Journal of Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070721/threat-and-parochialism-in-intergroup-relations-lab-in-the-field-evidence-from-rural-georgia
#16
Max Schaub
Competition between groups is widely considered to foster cooperation within groups. Evidence from laboratory experiments hints at the existence of a proximate mechanism by which humans increase their level of cooperation with their ingroup when faced with an external threat. Further work suggests that ingroup cooperation should go along with aggressive behaviour towards the outgroup, although these theories are at odds with others that see high investments in outgroup relations as important means of stabilizing intergroup relations...
October 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066963/can-neuroscience-assist-us-in-constructing-better-patterns-of-economic-decision-making
#17
REVIEW
George Lăzăroiu, Aurel Pera, Ramona O Ștefănescu-Mihăilă, Nela Mircică, Octav Negurită
We draw on outstanding research (Sanfey et al., 2006; McCabe, 2008; Bernheim, 2009; Camerer, 2013; Radu and McClure, 2013; Declerck and Boone, 2016) to substantiate that neuroeconomics covers the investigation of the biological microfoundations of economic cognition and economic conduct, attempts to prove that a superior grasp of how choices are made brings about superior expectations regarding which options are selected, preserves the strictness of economic analysis in defining value-based decision, and associates imaging techniques with economic pattern to explain how individuals decide on a strategy taking into account various possible choices...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060205/prediction-of-adenocarcinoma-development-using-game-theory
#18
Arjun P Athreya, Don Armstrong, William Gundling, Derek Wildman, Zbigniew T Kalbarczyk, Ravishankar K Iyer
Recent research shows that gene expression changes appear to correlate well with the progression of many types of cancers. Using changes in gene expression as a basis, this paper proposes a data-driven 2-player game-theoretic model to predict the risk of adenocarcinoma based on Nash equilibrium. A key innovation in this work is the pay-off function which is a weighted composite of the expression of a cohort of tumor-suppressor genes (as one player) and an analogous cohort of oncogenes (as the other player)...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054249/hiv-1-infected-t-cells-dynamics-and-prognosis-an-evolutionary-game-model
#19
Bahareh Khazaei, Javad Salimi Sartakhti, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Quanyan Zhu, Mehdi Sadeghi, Seyed Rasoul Mousavi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Understanding the dynamics of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is essential for depicting, developing, and investigating effective treatment strategies. HIV infects several types of immune cells, but its main target is to destroy helper T-cells. In the lymph nodes, the infected T-cells interact with each other and their environment to obtain more resources. According to infectivity and replicative capacity of T-cells in the HIV infection process, they can be divided into four phenotypes...
December 2017: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052548/games-and-teams-with-shared-constraints
#20
REVIEW
Ankur A Kulkarni
Energy systems of the future are envisaged to encompass multiple interacting autonomous entities. The theory of games provides the foundations for the design and analysis of such systems. This paper reviews models and results that would be of use for such analysis. Classically, games have involved players whose strategies are coupled only through the dependence of utility functions on strategies of other players. However, in many practical settings in the energy domain, system-level limitations bind the choices players can make...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
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