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Game theory

Tavis Apramian, Sayra Cristancho, Chris Watling, Michael Ott, Lorelei Lingard
PURPOSE: Emerging research explores the educational implications of practice and procedural variation between faculty members. The potential effect of these variations on how surgeons make competence judgments about residents has not yet been thoroughly theorized. The authors explored how thresholds of principle and preference shaped surgeons' intraoperative judgments of resident competence. METHOD: This grounded theory study included reanalysis of data on the educational role of procedural variations and additional sampling to attend to their impact on assessment...
November 2016: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Marshall B Jones
BACKGROUND: In the first decade of this century players in the National Football League, the NFL community, fans, even the public at large, became aware that multiple concussions, heretofore considered inconsequential, could have devastating consequences later in life. RESULTS: Since 1978, each one of the 32 teams in the NFL plays 16 games in the regular season. In the 25 years from 1978 to 2004 home advantage in the regular season tended to increase with Game Number (1-16)...
2016: SpringerPlus
Lisa K Fazio, Casey A Kennedy, Robert S Siegler
We examined whether playing a computerized fraction game, based on the integrated theory of numerical development and on the Common Core State Standards' suggestions for teaching fractions, would improve children's fraction magnitude understanding. Fourth and fifth-graders were given brief instruction about unit fractions and played Catch the Monster with Fractions, a game in which they estimated fraction locations on a number line and received feedback on the accuracy of their estimates. The intervention lasted less than 15 minutes...
2016: PloS One
Amy Blake, Bryan T Carroll
OBJECTIVE: This paper analyses how game theory can provide a framework for understanding the strategic decision-making that occurs in everyday scenarios in medical training and practice, and ultimately serves as a tool for improving the work environment and patient care. Game theory has been applied to a variety of fields outside of its native economics, but has not been thoroughly studied in the context of health care provision. METHODS: The paper discusses four of the most common 'games' and applies each to a scenario in medicine to provide new insight on the incentives and drivers for certain types of behaviour and a deeper understanding of why certain results are valued more strongly than others...
November 2016: Medical Education
Richard J E James, Claire O'Malley, Richard J Tunney
This manuscript reviews the extant literature on key issues related to mobile gambling and considers whether the potential risks of harm emerging from this platform are driven by pre-existing comorbidities or by psychological processes unique to mobile gambling. We propose an account based on associative learning that suggests this form of gambling is likely to show distinctive features compared with other gambling technologies. Smartphones are a rapidly growing platform on which individuals can gamble using specifically designed applications, adapted websites or text messaging...
October 18, 2016: British Journal of Psychology
Jianlei Zhang, Franz J Weissing, Ming Cao
A commonly used assumption in evolutionary game theory is that natural selection acts on individuals in the same time scale; e.g., players use the same frequency to update their strategies. Variation in learning rates within populations suggests that evolutionary game theory may not necessarily be restricted to uniform time scales associated with the game interaction and strategy adaption evolution. In this study, we remove this restricting assumption by dividing the population into fast and slow groups according to the players' strategy updating frequencies and investigate how different strategy compositions of one group influence the evolutionary outcome of the other's fixation probabilities of strategies within its own group...
September 2016: Physical Review. E
Andrzej Świerniak, Michał Krześlak
BACKGROUND: Evolutionary game theory (EGT) has been widely used to simulate tumour processes. In almost all studies on EGT models analysis is limited to two or three phenotypes. Our model contains four main phenotypes. Moreover, in a standard approach only heterogeneity of populations is studied, while cancer cells remain homogeneous. A multilayer approach proposed in this paper enables to study heterogeneity of single cells. METHOD: In the extended model presented in this paper we consider four strategies (phenotypes) that can arise by mutations...
October 13, 2016: Biology Direct
Colin A Zestcott, Uri Lifshin, Peter Helm, Jeff Greenberg
This research applied insights from terror management theory (TMT; Greenberg, Pyszczynski, & Solomon, 1986) to the world of sport. According to TMT, self-esteem buffers against the potential for death anxiety. Because sport allows people to attain self-esteem, reminders of death may improve performance in sport. In Study 1, a mortality salience induction led to improved performance in a "one-on-one" basketball game. In Study 2, a subtle death prime led to higher scores on a basketball shooting task, which was associated with increased task related self-esteem...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology
Jianjiang Cui, Zixuan Liu, Long Xu
As referee's decisions are made artificially in traditional table tennis matches, many factors in a match, such as fatigue and subjective tendency, may lead to unjust decision. Based on finite state machine (FSM), this paper presents a model for table tennis referee regulation to substitute manual decisions. In this model, the trajectory of the ball is recorded through a binocular visual system while the complete rules extracted from the International Table Tennis Federation (ITTF) rules are described based on FSM...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
Muhammad Elsalhy, Taro Muramatsu, Susumu Higuchi, Masaru Mimura
The Internet now plays a very important role in our lives. However, for some people, Internet use can lead to a state that appears to meet the DSM definition for a mental disorder. In this review, we briefly discuss definition, symptoms, risk factors, prevalence, comorbidities, and personality traits of people who are susceptible to becoming addicts. In the second section of the article, various types of Internet addiction are discussed, focusing mainly on Internet Gaming Disorder and social networking survices (SNS) addiction...
October 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
Adrianna Jenkins, Lusha Zhu, Ming Hsu
Understanding the neural basis of human honesty and deception has enormous potential scientific and practical value. However, past approaches, largely developed out of studies with forensic applications in mind, are increasingly recognized as having serious methodological and conceptual shortcomings. Here we propose to address these challenges by drawing on so-called signaling games widely used in game theory and ethology to study behavioral and evolutionary consequences of information transmission and distortion...
October 2016: Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences
Alex McAvoy, Christoph Hauert
Repeated games have a long tradition in the behavioral sciences and evolutionary biology. Recently, strategies were discovered that permit an unprecedented level of control over repeated interactions by enabling a player to unilaterally enforce linear constraints on payoffs. Here, we extend this theory of "zero-determinant" (or, more generally, "autocratic") strategies to alternating games, which are often biologically more relevant than traditional synchronous games. Alternating games naturally result in asymmetries between players because the first move matters or because players might not move with equal probabilities...
September 29, 2016: Theoretical Population Biology
Noah D Goodman, Michael C Frank
Understanding language requires more than the use of fixed conventions and more than decoding combinatorial structure. Instead, comprehenders make exquisitely sensitive inferences about what utterances mean given their knowledge of the speaker, language, and context. Building on developments in game theory and probabilistic modeling, we describe the rational speech act (RSA) framework for pragmatic reasoning. RSA models provide a principled way to formalize inferences about meaning in context; they have been used to make successful quantitative predictions about human behavior in a variety of different tasks and situations, and they explain why complex phenomena, such as hyperbole and vagueness, occur...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Naoko Yamada, Jinmoo Heo
This article explores the factors determining whether older adults engage in the Senior Games and related leisure-time physical activity through examining the adults' salient beliefs. We conducted 10 in-depth interviews with older adults who have participated in the Senior Games. Underpinned by the planned behavior theory's framework, we explored three types of beliefs: advantages and disadvantages (behavioral beliefs), social support and pressure (normative beliefs), and facilitators and impediments (control beliefs)...
October 3, 2016: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
Negin Malekian, Jafar Habibi, Mohammad Hossein Zangooei, Hojjat Aghakhani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: There are many cells with various phenotypic behaviors in cancer interacting with each other. For example, an apoptotic cell may induce apoptosis in adjacent cells. A living cell can also protect cells from undergoing apoptosis and necrosis. These survival and death signals are propagated through interaction pathways between adjacent cells called gap junctions. The function of these signals depends on the cellular context of the cell receiving them. For instance, a receiver cell experiencing a low level of oxygen may interpret a received survival signal as an apoptosis signal...
November 2016: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Jean-Claude Dreher, Simon Dunne, Agnieszka Pazderska, Thomas Frodl, John J Nolan, John P O'Doherty
Although popular discussion of testosterone's influence on males often centers on aggression and antisocial behavior, contemporary theorists have proposed that it instead enhances behaviors involved in obtaining and maintaining a high social status. Two central distinguishing but untested predictions of this theory are that testosterone selectively increases status-relevant aggressive behaviors, such as responses to provocation, but that it also promotes nonaggressive behaviors, such as generosity toward others, when they are appropriate for increasing status...
October 11, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Su Do Yi, Seung Ki Baek, Jung-Kyoo Choi
One of the most important questions in game theory concerns how mutual cooperation can be achieved and maintained in a social dilemma. In Axelrod's tournaments of the iterated prisoner's dilemma, Tit-for-Tat (TFT) demonstrated the role of reciprocity in the emergence of cooperation. However, the stability of TFT does not hold in the presence of implementation error, and a TFT population is prone to neutral drift to unconditional cooperation, which eventually invites defectors. We argue that a combination of TFT and anti-TFT (ATFT) overcomes these difficulties in a noisy environment, provided that ATFT is defined as choosing the opposite to the opponent's last move...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Javad Salimi Sartakhti, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Mehdi Sadeghi
One of the main step in solid cancers to invade surrounding tissues is degradation of tissue barriers in the extracellular matrix. This operation that leads to initiate, angiogenesis and metastasis to other organs, is essentially consequence of collapsing dynamic balance between matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP). In this work, we model the MMP-TIMP interaction in both normal tissue and invasive cancer using evolutionary game theory. Our model explains how invasive cancer cells get the upper hand in MMP-TIMP imbalance scenarios...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Henry Brink, Robert J Smith, Kirsten Skinner, Nigel Leader-Williams
It is argued that trophy hunting of large, charismatic mammal species can have considerable conservation benefits but only if undertaken sustainably. Social-ecological theory suggests such sustainability only results from developing governance systems that balance financial and biological requirements. Here we use lion (Panthera leo) trophy hunting data from Tanzania to investigate how resource ownership patterns influence hunting revenue and offtake levels. Tanzania contains up to half of the global population of free-ranging lions and is also the main location for lion trophy hunting in Africa...
2016: PloS One
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