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Game theory

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094150/applications-and-extensions-of-epigenetic-game-theory-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094148/epigenetic-battle-of-the-sexes-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#2
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094147/integrating-evolutionary-game-theory-into-epigenetic-study-of-embryonic-development-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#3
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094142/epigenetic-game-theory-and-its-application-in-plants-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#4
Yuan-Ming Zhang, Yinghao Zhang, Mingyue Guo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 13, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089374/epigenetic-information-in-gametes-gaming-from-before-fertilization-comment-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition-by-qian-wang-et-al
#5
Junchao Shi, Xudong Zhang, Ying Liu, Qi Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 6, 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069448/interaction-times-change-evolutionary-outcomes-two-player-matrix-games
#6
Vlastimil Křivan, Ross Cressman
Two most influential models of evolutionary game theory are the Hawk-Dove and Prisoner's dilemma models. The Hawk-Dove model explains evolution of aggressiveness, predicting individuals should be aggressive when the cost of fighting is lower than its benefit. As the cost of aggressiveness increases and outweighs benefits, aggressiveness in the population should decrease. Similarly, the Prisoner's dilemma models evolution of cooperation. It predicts that individuals should never cooperate despite cooperation leading to a higher collective fitness than defection...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062389/internet-based-hiv-prevention-with-at-home-sexually-transmitted-infection-testing-for-young-men-having-sex-with-men-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-keep-it-up-2-0
#7
Brian Mustanski, Krystal Madkins, George J Greene, Jeffrey T Parsons, Brent A Johnson, Patrick Sullivan, Michael Bass, Rebekah Abel
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections are increasing among young men who have sex with men (YMSM), yet few HIV prevention programs have studied this population. Keep It Up! (KIU!), an online HIV prevention program tailored to diverse YMSM, was developed to fill this gap. The KIU! 2.0 randomized controlled trial (RCT) was launched to establish intervention efficacy. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the KIU! study is to advance scientific knowledge of technology-based behavioral HIV prevention, as well as improve public health by establishing the efficacy of an innovative electronic health (eHealth) prevention program for ethnically and racially diverse YMSM...
January 7, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054817/imagining-wrong-fictitious-contexts-mitigate-condemnation-of-harm-more-than-impurity
#8
John S Sabo, Roger Giner-Sorolla
Over 5 experiments, we test the fictive pass asymmetry hypothesis. Following observations of ethics and public reactions to media, we propose that fictional contexts, such as reality, imagination, and virtual environments, will mitigate people's moral condemnation of harm violations, more so than purity violations. That is, imagining a purely harmful act is given a "fictive pass," in moral judgment, whereas imagining an abnormal act involving the body is evaluated more negatively because it is seen as more diagnostic of bad character...
January 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045922/defending-against-advanced-persistent-threats-using-game-theory
#9
Stefan Rass, Sandra König, Stefan Schauer
Advanced persistent threats (APT) combine a variety of different attack forms ranging from social engineering to technical exploits. The diversity and usual stealthiness of APT turns them into a central problem of contemporary practical system security, since information on attacks, the current system status or the attacker's incentives is often vague, uncertain and in many cases even unavailable. Game theory is a natural approach to model the conflict between the attacker and the defender, and this work investigates a generalized class of matrix games as a risk mitigation tool for an advanced persistent threat (APT) defense...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039967/chimera-states-in-a-network-organized-public-goods-game-with-destructive-agents
#10
Nikos E Kouvaris, Rubén J Requejo, Johanne Hizanidis, Albert Díaz-Guilera
We found that a network-organized metapopulation of cooperators, defectors, and destructive agents playing the public goods game with mutations can collectively reach global synchronization or chimera states. Global synchronization is accompanied by a collective periodic burst of cooperation, whereas chimera states reflect the tendency of the networked metapopulation to be fragmented in clusters of synchronous and incoherent bursts of cooperation. Numerical simulations have shown that the system's dynamics switches between these two steady states through a first order transition...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030607/evolutionary-dynamics-of-tumor-stroma-interactions-in-multiple-myeloma
#11
Javad Salimi Sartakhti, Mohammad Hossein Manshaei, Soroosh Bateni, Marco Archetti
Cancer cells and stromal cells cooperate by exchanging diffusible factors that sustain tumor growth, a form of frequency-dependent selection that can be studied in the framework of evolutionary game theory. In the case of multiple myeloma, three types of cells (malignant plasma cells, osteoblasts and osteoclasts) exchange growth factors with different effects, and tumor-stroma interactions have been analysed using a model of cooperation with pairwise interactions. Here we show that a model in which growth factors have autocrine and paracrine effects on multiple cells, a more realistic assumption for tumor-stroma interactions, leads to different results, with implications for disease progression and treatment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011081/from-theory-to-practice-measuring-end-of-life-communication-quality-using-multiple-goals-theory
#12
L J Van Scoy, A M Scott, J M Reading, C H Chuang, V M Chinchilli, B H Levi, M J Green
OBJECTIVES: To describe how multiple goals theory can be used as a reliable and valid measure (i.e., coding scheme) of the quality of conversations about end-of-life issues. METHODS: We analyzed conversations from 17 conversations in which 68 participants (mean age=51years) played a game that prompted discussion in response to open-ended questions about end-of-life issues. Conversations (mean duration=91min) were audio-recorded and transcribed. Communication quality was assessed by three coders who assigned numeric scores rating how well individuals accomplished task, relational, and identity goals in the conversation...
December 15, 2016: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007984/microbial-competition-in-porous-environments-can-select-against-rapid-biofilm-growth
#13
Katharine Z Coyte, Hervé Tabuteau, Eamonn A Gaffney, Kevin R Foster, William M Durham
Microbes often live in dense communities called biofilms, where competition between strains and species is fundamental to both evolution and community function. Although biofilms are commonly found in soil-like porous environments, the study of microbial interactions has largely focused on biofilms growing on flat, planar surfaces. Here, we use microfluidic experiments, mechanistic models, and game theory to study how porous media hydrodynamics can mediate competition between bacterial genotypes. Our experiments reveal a fundamental challenge faced by microbial strains that live in porous environments: cells that rapidly form biofilms tend to block their access to fluid flow and redirect resources to competitors...
December 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003875/optimal-threshold-estimation-for-binary-classifiers-using-game-theory
#14
Ignacio Enrique Sanchez
Many bioinformatics algorithms can be understood as binary classifiers. They are usually trained by maximizing the area under the receiver operating characteristic ( ROC) curve. On the other hand, choosing the best threshold for practical use is a complex task, due to uncertain and context-dependent skews in the abundance of positives in nature and in the yields/costs for correct/incorrect classification. We argue that considering a classifier as a player in a zero-sum game allows us to use the minimax principle from game theory to determine the optimal operating point...
2016: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973596/leadership-as-an-emergent-feature-in-social-organizations-insights-from-a-laboratory-simulation-experiment
#15
Luis Curral, Pedro Marques-Quinteiro, Catarina Gomes, Pedro G Lind
Recent theoretical contributions have suggested a theory of leadership that is grounded in complexity theory, hence regarding leadership as a complex process (i.e., nonlinear; emergent). This article tests if complexity leadership theory promotes efficiency in work groups. 40 groups of five participants each had to complete four decision making tasks using the city simulation game SimCity4. Before engaging in the four decision making tasks, participants received information regarding what sort of leadership behaviors were more adequate to help them perform better...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968867/development-of-the-theory-based-chinese-primary-school-children-physical-activity-and-dietary-behaviour-changes-intervention-chirpy-dragon-development-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Bai Li, Wei Jia Liu, Kar Keung Cheng, Miranda Pallan, Kalar Hemming, Emma Frew, Rong Lin, Wei Liu, Peymane Adab
BACKGROUND: The rate of increase in prevalence of childhood obesity in mainland China exceeds the trends observed in other countries. Effective, culturally appropriate prevention interventions are urgently needed to control the epidemic. However, previous programmes lacked rigorous development and evaluation. Using the framework set out by the UK Medical Research Council (MRC), we developed a complex childhood obesity prevention intervention for Chinese primary school children. METHODS: Several different methodologies were employed and iteratively combined in the development process...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942013/scheduling-independent-partitions-in-integrated-modular-avionics-systems
#17
Jinchao Chen, Chenglie Du, Pengcheng Han
Recently the integrated modular avionics (IMA) architecture has been widely adopted by the avionics industry due to its strong partition mechanism. Although the IMA architecture can achieve effective cost reduction and reliability enhancement in the development of avionics systems, it results in a complex allocation and scheduling problem. All partitions in an IMA system should be integrated together according to a proper schedule such that their deadlines will be met even under the worst case situations. In order to help provide a proper scheduling table for all partitions in IMA systems, we study the schedulability of independent partitions on a multiprocessor platform in this paper...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918466/evaluating-a-website-to-teach-children-safety-with-dogs-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
David C Schwebel, Peng Li, Leslie A McClure, Joan Severson
Dog bites represent a significant threat to child health. Theory-driven interventions scalable for broad dissemination are sparse. A website was developed to teach children dog safety via increased knowledge, improved cognitive skills in relevant domains, and increased perception of vulnerability to bites. A randomized controlled trial was conducted with 69 children aged 4-5 randomly assigned to use the dog safety website or a control transportation safety website for ~3 weeks. Assessment of dog safety knowledge and behavior plus skill in three relevant cognitive constructs (impulse control, noticing details, and perspective-taking) was conducted both at baseline and following website use...
December 2, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915367/the-virtual-reality-head-mounted-display-oculus-rift-induces-motion-sickness-and-is-sexist-in-its-effects
#19
Justin Munafo, Meg Diedrick, Thomas A Stoffregen
Anecdotal reports suggest that motion sickness may occur among users of contemporary, consumer-oriented head-mounted display systems and that women may be at greater risk. We evaluated the nauseogenic properties of one such system, the Oculus Rift. The head-mounted unit included motion sensors that were sensitive to users' head movements, such that head movements could be used as control inputs to the device. In two experiments, seated participants played one of two virtual reality games for up to 15 min. In Experiment 1, 22% of participants reported motion sickness, and the difference in incidence between men and women was not significant...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915074/evolutionary-stability-for-matrix-games-under-time-constraints
#20
József Garay, Villő Csiszár, Tamás F Móri
Game theory focuses on payoffs and typically ignores time constraints that play an important role in evolutionary processes where the repetition of games can depend on the strategies, too. We introduce a matrix game under time constraints, where each pairwise interaction has two consequences: both players receive a payoff and they cannot play the next game for a specified time duration. Thus our model is defined by two matrices: a payoff matrix and an average time duration matrix. Maynard Smith's concept of evolutionary stability is extended to this class of games...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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