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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337923/the-communicative-function-of-sad-facial-expressions
#1
Lawrence Ian Reed, Peter DeScioli
What are the communicative functions of sad facial expressions? Research shows that people feel sadness in response to losses but it's unclear whether sad expressions function to communicate losses to others and if so, what makes these signals credible. Here we use economic games to test the hypothesis that sad expressions lend credibility to claims of loss. Participants play the role of either a proposer or recipient in a game with a fictional backstory and real monetary payoffs. The proposers view a (fictional) video of the recipient's character displaying either a neutral or sad expression paired with a claim of loss...
January 2017: Evolutionary Psychology: An International Journal of Evolutionary Approaches to Psychology and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337156/lack-of-evidence-that-neural-empathic-responses-are-blunted-in-excessive-users-of-violent-video-games-an-fmri-study
#2
Gregor R Szycik, Bahram Mohammadi, Thomas F Münte, Bert T Te Wildt
The use of violent video games has been often linked to increase of aggressive behavior. According to the General Aggression Model, one of the central mechanisms for this aggressiveness inducing impact is an emotional desensitization process resulting from long lasting repeated violent game playing. This desensitization should evidence itself in a lack of empathy. Recent research has focused primarily on acute, short term impact of violent media use but only little is known about long term effects. In this study 15 excessive users of violent games and control subjects matched for age and education viewed pictures depicting emotional and neutral situations with and without social interaction while fMRI activations were obtained...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327567/quantum-locality-in-game-strategy
#3
Carlos A Melo-Luna, Cristian E Susa, Andrés F Ducuara, Astrid Barreiro, John H Reina
Game theory is a well established branch of mathematics whose formalism has a vast range of applications from the social sciences, biology, to economics. Motivated by quantum information science, there has been a leap in the formulation of novel game strategies that lead to new (quantum Nash) equilibrium points whereby players in some classical games are always outperformed if sharing and processing joint information ruled by the laws of quantum physics is allowed. We show that, for a bipartite non zero-sum game, input local quantum correlations, and separable states in particular, suffice to achieve an advantage over any strategy that uses classical resources, thus dispensing with quantum nonlocality, entanglement, or even discord between the players' input states...
March 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320898/a-personal-historic-perspective-on-the-role-of-chloride-in-skeletal-and-cardiac-muscle
#4
REVIEW
Otto F Hutter
During the early decades of the last century, skeletal muscle was held to be impermeable to chloride ions. This theory, based on shaky grounds, was famously falsified by Boyle and Conway in 1941. Two decades later and onwards, the larger part of the resting conductance of skeletal muscle was found to be due to chloride ions, sensitive to the chemical environment, and to be time-and-voltage dependent. So, much of the groundwork for the physiological role of chloride ions in skeletal muscle was laid before the game-changing discovery of chloride channels...
March 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318146/allen-newell-s-program-of-research-the-video-game-test
#5
Fernand Gobet
Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302191/performance-and-participation-dynamics-in-an-emergency-response-simulation
#6
Stephen J Guastello, David E Marra, Julian Castro, Maribeth Gomez, Claire Perna
This study examined relationships between participation and performance within a team and performance transfer effects between opponents in an Emergency Response (ER) simulation. Classical organizational theories have emphasized the importance of group participation for organizational performance, but there have been few or no attempts to investigate participation-performance relationships in short-interval time series. The experimental task was a Stag Hunt game, as defined in game theory; performance trends would be affected by levels of participation, which in turn should be affected by recent performance experiences that modulate the players' self-efficacy for the task...
April 2017: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301968/lost-in-the-chaos-flawed-literature-should-not-generate-new-disorders
#7
Antonius J Van Rooij, Daniel Kardefelt-Winther
The paper by Kuss, Griffiths, and Pontes (2016) titled "Chaos and confusion in DSM-5 diagnosis of Internet Gaming Disorder: Issues, concerns, and recommendations for clarity in the field" examines issues relating to the concept of Internet Gaming Disorder. We agree that there are serious issues and extend their arguments by suggesting that the field lacks basic theory, definitions, patient research, and properly validated and standardized assessment tools. As most studies derive data from survey research in functional populations, they exclude people with severe functional impairment and provide only limited information on the hypothesized disorder...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296290/game-xp-action-games-as-experimental-paradigms-for-cognitive-science
#8
Wayne D Gray
Why games? How could anyone consider action games an experimental paradigm for Cognitive Science? In 1973, as one of three strategies he proposed for advancing Cognitive Science, Allen Newell exhorted us to "accept a single complex task and do all of it." More specifically, he told us that rather than taking an "experimental psychology as usual approach," we should "focus on a series of experimental and theoretical studies around a single complex task" so as to demonstrate that our theories of human cognition were powerful enough to explain "a genuine slab of human behavior" with the studies fitting into a detailed theoretical picture...
March 13, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294145/humans-conceptualize-victory-and-defeat-in-body-size
#9
Wenjun Yu, Zhongqiang Sun, Jifan Zhou, Chaoer Xu, Mowei Shen
Size matters considerably for victory and defeat during competitive situations. Drawing on the embodied theory of cognition, we examined the reciprocal association between size and competition outcomes. To do so, we used the 'rock-paper-scissors game', whose outcome is not contingent on apparent physical size. In Experiment 1, participants were asked to judge whether the target gesture was a winning or a losing one. Compared to responses in the incompatible condition (small-winner and large-loser), those in the compatible condition (large-winner and small-loser) were quicker...
March 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287998/design-and-validation-of-a-virtual-player-for-studying-interpersonal-coordination-in-the-mirror-game
#10
Chao Zhai, Francesco Alderisio, Piotr Slowinski, Krasimira Tsaneva-Atanasova, Mario di Bernardo
The mirror game has been recently proposed as a simple, yet powerful paradigm for studying interpersonal interactions. It has been suggested that a virtual partner able to play the game with human subjects can be an effective tool to affect the underlying neural processes needed to establish the necessary connections between the players, and also to provide new clinical interventions for rehabilitation of patients suffering from social disorders. Inspired by the motor processes of the central nervous system (CNS) and the musculoskeletal system in the human body, in this paper we develop a novel interactive cognitive architecture based on nonlinear control theory to drive a virtual player (VP) to play the mirror game with a human player (HP) in different configurations...
March 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280691/old-game-new-players-linking-classical-theories-to-new-trends-in-transplant-immunology
#11
REVIEW
Marina Burgos da Silva, Flavia Franco da Cunha, Fernanda Fernandes Terra, Niels Olsen Saraiva Camara
The evolutionary emergence of an efficient immune system has a fundamental role in our survival against pathogenic attacks. Nevertheless, this same protective mechanism may also establish a negative consequence in the setting of disorders such as autoimmunity and transplant rejection. In light of the latter, although research has long uncovered main concepts of allogeneic recognition, immune rejection is still the main obstacle to long-term graft survival. Therefore, in order to define effective therapies that prolong graft viability, it is essential that we understand the underlying mediators and mechanisms that participate in transplant rejection...
February 24, 2017: World Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274855/inactivation-of-tumor-suppressor-genes-and-cancer-therapy-an-evolutionary-game-theory-approach
#12
Heydar Khadem, Hamed Kebriaei, Zahra Veisi
Inactivation of alleles in tumor suppressor genes (TSG) is one of the important issues resulting in evolution of cancerous cells. In this paper, the evolution of healthy, one and two missed allele cells is modeled using the concept of evolutionary game theory and replicator dynamics. The proposed model also takes into account the interaction rates of the cells as designing parameters of the system. Different combinations of the equilibrium points of the parameterized nonlinear system is studied and categorized into some cases...
March 6, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263662/illness-experience-self-determination-and-recreational-activities-in-pediatric-asthma
#13
Peter M Bingham, Ian Crane, Sarah Waterman Manning
Although asthma self-management depends on ongoing and accurate self-assessment by the patient, pediatric asthma patients have weak skills in the area of symptom perception. Before developing an asthma game targeted to improving asthma self-management and improved symptom awareness, we sought to identify gaps in existing games. To clarify the role of relatedness and autonomy in asthma health game design, we investigated symptom awareness, vocabulary, and self-determination through a series of semi-structured interviews with children suffering from asthma...
March 6, 2017: Games for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262934/children-s-sharing-behavior-in-mini-dictator-games-the-role-of-in-group-favoritism-and-theory-of-mind
#14
Jing Yu, Liqi Zhu, Alan M Leslie
This study investigated the motivational and social-cognitive foundations (i.e., inequality aversion, in-group bias, and theory of mind) that underlie the development of sharing behavior among 3- to 9-year-old Chinese children (N = 122). Each child played two mini-dictator games against an in-group member (friend) and an out-group member (stranger) to divide four stickers. Results indicated that there was a small to moderate age-related increase in children's egalitarian sharing with strangers, whereas the age effect was moderate to large in interactions with friends...
November 2016: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257763/evolution-of-fairness-and-coalition-formation-in-three-person-ultimatum-games
#15
Takeshi Nishimura, Akira Okada, Yasuhiro Shirata
We consider the evolution of fairness and coalition formation in a three-person ultimatum game in which the coalition value depends on its size. Traditional game theory, which assumes selfish and rational players, predicts the largest and efficient coalition with a proposer exploiting most of the total value. In a stochastic evolutionary model (the frequency-dependent Moran process with mutations) where players make errors in estimating the payoffs and strategies of others, evolutionary selection favors the formation of a two-person subcoalition under weak selection and in the low mutation limit if and only if its coalition value exceeds a high proportion (0...
February 28, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256424/integration-of-epigenetic-game-theory-and-developmental-principles-reply-to-comments-on-epigenetic-game-theory-how-to-compute-the-epigenetic-control-of-maternal-to-zygotic-transition
#16
Qian Wang, Kirk Gosik, Sujuan Xing, Libo Jiang, Lidan Sun, Vernon M Chinchilli, Rongling Wu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Physics of Life Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253076/major-thought-restructuring-the-roles-of-different-prefrontal-cortical-regions
#17
Shima Seyed-Allaei, Zahra Nasiri Avanaki, Bahador Bahrami, Tim Shallice
An important question for understanding the neural basis of problem solving is whether the regions of human prefrontal cortices play qualitatively different roles in the major cognitive restructuring required to solve difficult problems. However, investigating this question using neuroimaging faces a major dilemma: either the problems do not require major cognitive restructuring, or if they do, the restructuring typically happens once, rendering repeated measurements of the critical mental process impossible...
March 2, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249658/from-good-institutions-to-generous-citizens-top-down-incentives-to-cooperate-promote-subsequent-prosociality-but-not-norm-enforcement
#18
Michael N Stagnaro, Antonio A Arechar, David G Rand
What makes people willing to pay costs to help others, and to punish others' selfishness? Why does the extent of such behaviors vary markedly across cultures? To shed light on these questions, we explore the role of formal institutions in shaping individuals' prosociality and punishment. In Study 1 (N=707), American participants who reported living under higher quality cooperation-enforcing institutions (police and courts) gave significantly more in a Dictator Game (DG), but did not punish significantly more in a Third-Party Punishment Game (TPPG)...
February 26, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243070/improving-adherence-and-outcomes-in-diabetic-patients
#19
Renu Joshi, Disha Joshi, Pramil Cheriyath
OBJECTIVE: Nonadherence in diabetes is a problem leading to wasted resources and preventable deaths each year. Remedies for diminishing nonadherence are many but marginally effective, and outcomes remain suboptimal. AIM: The aim of this study was to test a new iOS "app", PatientPartner. Derived from complexity theory, this novel technology has been extensively used in other fields; this is the first trial in a patient population. METHODS: Physicians referred patients who were "severely non-adherent" with HbA1c levels >8...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242700/strategic-aspects-of-cyberattack-attribution-and-blame
#20
Benjamin Edwards, Alexander Furnas, Stephanie Forrest, Robert Axelrod
Cyber conflict is now a common and potentially dangerous occurrence. The target typically faces a strategic choice based on its ability to attribute the attack to a specific perpetrator and whether it has a viable punishment at its disposal. We present a game-theoretic model, in which the best strategic choice for the victim depends on the vulnerability of the attacker, the knowledge level of the victim, payoffs for different outcomes, and the beliefs of each player about their opponent. The resulting blame game allows analysis of four policy-relevant questions: the conditions under which peace (i...
February 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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