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Urinary track

M Puhka, M-E Nordberg, S Valkonen, A Rannikko, O Kallioniemi, P Siljander, T Af Hällström
Urinary extracellular vesicles (EVs) are a promising source of biomarkers, which can be obtained in a non-invasive manner. However, the yield of EVs from urine samples may be insufficient for various analyses due to the entrapment of EVs by the Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) meshwork. Here, we developed a simple dilution protocol to increase the urinary EV yield by disrupting the interaction between THP filaments and EVs with the help of alkaline pH and lowered ionic concentration. The integrity of the EVs and THP was assessed by electron microscopy...
October 19, 2016: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Liz Gough, Lindy M Castell, Rosalba Gatti, Richard J Godfrey
BACKGROUND: Growth hormone (GH) has many direct and indirect actions and roles including substrate regulation and priming of some cells of the immune system, and the expected aspects of growth and repair. Different concentrations in human body fluids reflect the exercise-induced growth hormone response (EIGR) after exercise. In populations such as elite athletes, the invasive nature of venous sampling is poorly accepted. Thus, this study examines possible viable alternatives such as urine and saliva samples and the GH concentration...
December 2016: Sports Medicine—Open
Zhi Su, Deborah Widomski, Ji Ma, Marian Namovic, Arthur Nikkel, Laura Leys, Lauren Olson, Katherine Salte, Diana Donnelly-Roberts, Timothy Esbenshade, Steve McGaraughty
BACKGROUND: Obese ZSF-1 rats display many features of human type II diabetes including nephropathy (DN). The study aimed to further understand the relevance of this model to DN, for which glomerular filtration rate (GFR), renal fibrosis and several urinary/tissue biomarkers was followed over 24 weeks in ZSF-1 rats. METHODS: Intact/sham or uninephrectomized male and female ZSF-1 rats were studied. GFR was measured by transdermal clearance of fluorescein isothiocyanate-sinistrin...
October 14, 2016: American Journal of Nephrology
Haorile Chagan-Yasutan, Yue Chen, Talitha Lea Lacuesta, Prisca Susan A Leano, Hiroko Iwasaki, Firmanto Hanan, Delsi Taurustiati, Yasukazu Ohmoto, Yugo Ashino, Hiroki Saitoh, Hideyasu Kiyomoto, Yasuhiko Suzuki, Freda O Elizabeth Telan, Toshio Hattori
Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease whose severe forms are often accompanied by kidney dysfunction. In the present study, urinary markers were studied for potential prediction of disease severity. Urine samples from 135 patients with or without leptospirosis at San Lazaro Hospital, the Philippines, were analyzed. Urine levels of defensin α1 (uDA1) were compared with those of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (uNGAL) and N-acetyl-β-d-glucosidase (uNAG). Serum creatinine (Cr) was used as a marker of kidney injury...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Katherine L Pearson, Nigel J Hall
PURPOSE: Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathways are standard practice in adult specialties resulting in improved outcomes. It is unclear whether ERAS principles are applicable to Paediatric Surgery. We performed a scoping review to identify the extent to which ERAS has been used in Paediatric Surgery, the nature of interventions, and outcomes. METHODS: Pubmed, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, and Embase were searched using the terms enhanced recovery, post-operative protocol/pathway, fast track surgery, and paediatric surgery...
September 27, 2016: Pediatric Surgery International
Berardino De Bari, Stefano Arcangeli, Delia Ciardo, Rosario Mazzola, Filippo Alongi, Elvio G Russi, Riccardo Santoni, Stefano M Magrini, Barbara A Jereczek-Fossa
The aim of this review is to present the available radiobiological, technical and clinical data about extreme hypofractionation in primary prostate cancer radiotherapy. The interest in this technique is based on the favourable radiobiological characteristics of prostate cancer and supported by advantageous logistic aspects deriving from short overall treatment time. The clinical validity of short-term treatment schedule is proven by a body of non-randomised studies, using both isocentric (LINAC-based) or non-isocentric (CyberKnife(®)-based) stereotactic body irradiation techniques...
August 29, 2016: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Lorrae Marriott, Michael Zinaman, Keith R Abrams, Michael J Crowther, Sarah Johnson
BACKGROUND: Human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) is a marker of early pregnancy. This study sought to determine the possibility of being able to distinguish between healthy and failing pregnancies by utilising patient-associated risk factors and daily urinary hCG levels. METHODS: Data were from a study that collected daily early morning urine samples from women trying to conceive (n=1,505); 250 of whom became pregnant. Data from 129 women who became pregnant (including 44 miscarriages) were included in these analyses...
September 13, 2016: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
A Miernik, S Hein, F Adams, J Halbritter, M Schoenthaler
Urological and surgical treatment of urinary stones are highly technological and technology-driven disciplines in present-day surgery. German medical engineering has always been recognized for its technical innovations in endoscopic surgery. Current and future trends are indicative of further miniaturization and automation of surgical instruments and assist systems to facilitate endourological procedures as well as improvements in the quality of results and ergonomics. These technologies include, e. g. 3D-tracking to facilitate access to the pelvicaliceal system for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) or robotic master-slave systems for endourology...
October 2016: Der Urologe. Ausg. A
C Hernández-Fernández, F Herranz-Amo, M Moralejo-Gárate, D Subirá-Ríos, J Caño-Velasco, G Barbas-Bernardos
CONTEXT: Bladder cancer is the cause of more than 150,000 deaths per year. The overall rate of survival is approximately 45%, with a 10-year recurrence-free rate of 50-59%, with no changes in the last decade. OBJECTIVE: Due to a lack of agreement on the follow-up of cystectomy or on a uniform treatment when faced with the various types of recurrence, we have analysed the most recent literature in an attempt to unify the criteria for the diagnosis and treatment of bladder cancer...
August 22, 2016: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Harsha Koneru, Robyn Cyr, Li Rebekah Feng, Edward Bae, Malika T Danner, Marilyn Ayoob, Thomas M Yung, Siyuan Lei, Brian T Collins, Leorey Saligan, Suy Simeng, Deepak Kumar, Sean P Collins
OBJECTIVES: The relationship between obesity (Body Mass Index ->30 kg/m(2)) and quality of life (QoL) following prostate cancer (PCa) radiation therapy (RT) is unknown. Excess abdominal fat may compromise the precise delivery of radiation, putting surrounding organs at risk for greater radiation exposure. Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) utilizes a real-time tracking system that provides updated prostate position information and allows for correction of the therapeutic beam during treatment with high accuracy...
2016: Curēus
Meng Li, Guangyong Li, Hongen Lei, Ruili Guan, Bicheng Yang, Zhezhu Gao, Yu Hui, Fubao Chen, Zhongcheng Xin
OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential and mechanism of three-dimensional (3D) cultures of ADSCs in the treatment of SUI in a rat model simulating menopause combined with preceding childbirth injury. METHODS: ADSCs were used to generate microtissues (MTs) with a hanging drop method. 48 postpartum Sprague-Dawley rats were developed SUI models by 4 hours vagina dilation (VD) followed by bilateral ovariectomy (OV). 10 rats underwent sham OV without VD served as control group...
August 15, 2016: Urology
Kym McNicholas, Jordan Yz Li, Michael Z Michael, Jonathan M Gleadle
AIM: Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes, are present in urine with reports of roles in intercellular signaling and diagnostic utility. However, the extent to which the concentration and characteristics of urinary vesicles are altered in albuminuric renal disease has not been well characterised. In this study, we examined the number and characteristics of extracellular vesicles in albuminuric urine. METHODS: Vesicles were isolated from the urine of 32 patients with varying levels of albuminuria using ultracentrifugation and density gradient purification and were examined using nanoparticle tracking analysis, immunoblotting and Transmission Electron Microscopy...
August 6, 2016: Nephrology
S Chen, J Zhao, L Cui, Y Liu
PURPOSE: Changes in EGFR profiles of non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients correlates to clinical outcome. Extracting quality tumor tissue remains a challenge for molecular profiling. Our study aims to ascertain the clinical relevance of urinary cell free DNA as an alternative tumor material source. METHODS: 150 patients with activating EGFR mutation and received EGFR-TKIs were recruited to participate in the serial monitoring study. Matched primary tumor samples were taken together with blood and urine specimens before the initiation of TKIs...
July 28, 2016: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Keng-Yen Fu, Yi-Hsien Cheng, Chia-Pin Chio, Chung-Min Liao
Environmental bisphenol A (BPA) exposure has been linked to a variety of adverse health effects such as developmental and reproductive issues. However, establishing a clear association between BPA and the likelihood of human health is complex yet fundamentally uncertain. The purpose of this study was to assess the potential exposure risks from environmental BPA among Chinese population based on five human health outcomes, namely immune response, uterotrophic assay, cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, and behavior change...
October 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Simona Nicoleta Savu, Luigi Silvestro, Mariana Surmeian, Lina Remis, Yuksel Rasit, Simona Rizea Savu, Constantin Mircioiu
The existence of a glucuronide conjugate of the major circulating clopidogrel metabolites, called clopidogrel acyl glucuronide (CAG), is already known. However, information regarding its pharmacokinetics (PK), metabolism, and clearance are modest. We investigated in vivo the potential CAG trans-esterification to clopidogrel (reaction occurring in vitro in particular conditions) by administering the metabolite to mice. Experiments were then carried out on men, clopidogrel administered alone or followed by activated charcoal intake (intestinal reabsorption blockade)...
September 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
George C Kramer, Evan Luxon, Jordan Wolf, Daniel R Burnett, Devyani Nanduri, Bruce C Friedman
Electronic urinary output monitors, intended to provide urine output information to guide fluid therapy during burn resuscitation, can be inaccurate because of airlocks causing urine retention in the drainage tube and bladder. In this study, the authors explore the effects of airlock formation on urine output measured using an electronic urinary output monitor connected to either a standard commercial drainage tubing system or a drainage tubing system with an automated airlock clearing mechanism. In a multicenter study in the burn intensive care unit, urine output was compared between 10 control patients with a standard commercial drainage tubing system and 10 test patients with a novel automated airlock clearing drainage tubing system...
July 5, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Deborah W Knapp, Audrey Ruple-Czerniak, José A Ramos-Vara, James F Naughton, Christopher M Fulkerson, Sonia I Honkisz
Background: Chemotherapy is expected to remain an important part of invasive urothelial carcinoma (UC) treatment. Strategies to enhance chemotherapy efficacy are needed. Objective: To determine the chemotherapy-enhancing effects of a nonselective cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor on vinblastine in a naturally-occurring canine model of invasive UC. Methods: With IACUC approval, privately-owned dogs with naturally-occurring histologically-diagnosed invasive UC, expected survival ≥6 weeks, and informed owner consent were randomly allocated to receive vinblastine (2...
2016: Bladder Cancer
Majid Akbari, Bita Bakhshi, Shahin Najar-Peerayeh, Mehrdad Behmanesh
The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between Enterobacter cloacae complex subspecies and clusters involved in UTI infections and specific pulsotypes, and to assess the contribution of major curli biogenesis genes (csgD, csgA) expression level to pathogenesis of clusters and genotypes. Based on the PFGE analysis, 37 different profiles were observed among which 8 profiles were common types. Real time PCR of csgD and csgA genes of 50 E. cloacae complex in relation to PFGE and hsp60 genotypes showed that all the genetic clusters are not equally involved in pathogenesis of urinary tract infections...
September 2016: Microbial Pathogenesis
Guozheng Liu, Fengguo Jian, Xiuqin Wang, Lin Chen
AIM: To study the efficacy of the fast-track surgery (FTS) program combined with laparoscopic radical gastrectomy for elderly gastric cancer (GC) patients. METHODS: Eighty-four elderly patients diagnosed with GC between September 2014 and August 2015 were recruited to participate in this study and were divided into four groups randomly based on the random number table as follows: FTS + laparoscopic group (Group A, n=21), FTS + laparotomy group (Group B, n=21), conventional perioperative care (CC) + laparoscopic group (Group C, n=21), and CC + laparotomy group (Group D, n=21)...
2016: OncoTargets and Therapy
Aaron W Miller, Kelly F Oakeson, Colin Dale, M Denise Dearing
Gut microbes are essential for the degradation of dietary oxalate, and this function may play a role in decreasing the incidence of kidney stones. However, many oxalate-degrading bacteria are susceptible to antibiotics and the use of oxalate-degrading probiotics has only led to an ephemeral reduction in urinary oxalate. The objective of the current study was to determine the efficacy of using whole-community microbial transplants from a wild mammalian herbivore, Neotoma albigula, to increase oxalate degradation over the long term in the laboratory rat, Rattus norvegicus...
August 2016: Microbial Ecology
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