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"Directional migration"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667357/revealing-the-double-edged-sword-role-of-graphene-on-boosted-charge-transfer-versus-active-site-control-in-tio-2-nanotube-arrays-rgo-mos-2-heterostructure
#1
Quan Quan, Shunji Xie, Bo Weng, Ye Wang, Yi-Jun Xu
Charge separation/transfer is generally believed to be the most key factor affecting the efficiency of photocatalysis, which however will be counteracted if not taking the active site engineering into account for a specific photoredox reaction. Here, a 3D heterostructure composite is designed consisting of MoS2 nanoplatelets decorated on reduced graphene oxide-wrapped TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs@RGO/MoS2 ). Such a cascade configuration renders a directional migration of charge carriers and controlled immobilization of active sites, thereby showing much higher photoactivity for water splitting to H2 than binary TNTAs@RGO and TNTAs/MoS2 ...
April 18, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664730/exploratory-cell-dynamics-a-sense-of-touch-for-cells
#2
Perihan Nalbant, Leif Dehmelt
Cells need to process multifaceted external cues to steer their dynamic behavior. To efficiently perform this task, cells implement several exploratory mechanisms to actively sample their environment. In particular, cells can use exploratory actin-based cell protrusions and contractions to engage and squeeze the environment and to actively probe its chemical and mechanical properties. Multiple excitable signal networks were identified that can generate local activity pulses to control these exploratory processes...
December 20, 2017: Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663474/effect-of-pharmacological-modulation-of-actin-and-myosin-on-collective-cell-electrotaxis
#3
Yashar Bashirzadeh, Jonathan Poole, Shizhi Qian, Venkat Maruthamuthu
Electrotaxis-the directional migration of cells in response to an electric field-is most evident in multicellular collectives and plays an important role in physiological contexts. While most cell types respond to applied electric fields of the order of a Volt per centimeter, our knowledge of the factors influencing this response is limited. This is especially true for collective cell electrotaxis, in which the subcellular migration response within a cell has to be coordinated with coupled neighboring cells...
April 17, 2018: Bioelectromagnetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650776/lymphatic-exosomes-promote-dendritic-cell-migration-along-guidance-cues
#4
Markus Brown, Louise A Johnson, Dario A Leone, Peter Majek, Kari Vaahtomeri, Daniel Senfter, Nora Bukosza, Helga Schachner, Gabriele Asfour, Brigitte Langer, Robert Hauschild, Katja Parapatics, Young-Kwon Hong, Keiryn L Bennett, Renate Kain, Michael Detmar, Michael Sixt, David G Jackson, Dontscho Kerjaschki
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643519/-dynamic-visual-analysis-of-neutrophils-chemotaxis-in-peritoneal-cavity-of-schizophrenic-model-in-mice
#5
N Bai, L F Yang, L H An, W Wang, Y Q Li, Y Sheng, T Wang, H K Li, L Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences of neutrophils chemotaxis ability in peritoneal cavity between normal rats and schizopherenic rats with cell dynamic visualization system. METHODS: In the study,18 healthy Kunming rats were randomly divided into 3 groups which were control group (n=6), 0.3 mg/kg MK-801 treatment group (n=6), 0.6 mg/kg dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) treatment group(n=6), extracted neutrophils separately, and observed the morphology and counted under a microscope...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616739/michael-abercrombie-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion-and-more
#6
Alice Roycroft, Roberto Mayor
Michael Abercrombie is regarded as one of the principal pioneers of cell biology. Although Abercrombie began his career as an experimental embryologist, working on the avian organizer with C. H. Waddington, questions on how cells in culture migrate and interact dominated his career. Whilst studying the social behaviour of chick heart embryonic fibroblasts, Abercrombie identified a phenomenon whereby colliding cells collapse their protrusions towards the cell-cell contact upon a collision, preventing their continued migration...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29603364/a-unique-signal-sequence-of-the-chemokine-receptor-ccr7-promotes-package-into-copii-vesicles-for-efficient-receptor-trafficking
#7
Edith Uetz-von Allmen, Alexandra V Rippl, Hesso Farhan, Daniel F Legler
Chemokine receptors are considered to belong to the group of G protein-coupled receptors that use the first transmembrane domain as signal anchor sequence for membrane insertion instead of a cleavable N-terminal signal sequence. Chemokine recognition is determined by the N-termini of chemokine receptors. Here, we show that the chemokine receptor CCR7, which is essential for directed migration of adaptive immune cells, possesses a 24 amino acids long N-terminal signal sequence that is unique among chemokine receptors...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594501/mechanisms-of-trabecular-formation-and-specification-during-cardiogenesis
#8
Mingfu Wu
Trabecular morphogenesis is a key morphologic event during cardiogenesis and contributes to the formation of a competent ventricular wall. Lack of trabeculation results in embryonic lethality. The trabecular morphogenesis is a multistep process that includes, but is not limited to, trabecular initiation, proliferation/growth, specification, and compaction. Although a number of signaling molecules have been implicated in regulating trabeculation, the cellular processes underlying mammalian trabecular formation are not fully understood...
March 28, 2018: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590603/gaussian-curvature-directs-stress-fiber-orientation-and-cell-migration
#9
Nathan D Bade, Tina Xu, Randall D Kamien, Richard K Assoian, Kathleen J Stebe
We show that substrates with nonzero Gaussian curvature influence the organization of stress fibers and direct the migration of cells. To study the role of Gaussian curvature, we developed a sphere-with-skirt surface in which a positive Gaussian curvature spherical cap is seamlessly surrounded by a negative Gaussian curvature draping skirt, both with principal radii similar to cell-length scales. We find significant reconfiguration of two subpopulations of stress fibers when fibroblasts are exposed to these curvatures...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590582/topotaxis-a-new-mechanism-of-directed-cell-migration-in-topographic-ecm-gradients
#10
REVIEW
JinSeok Park, Deok-Ho Kim, Andre Levchenko
Living cells orient the cytoskeleton polarity and directional migration in response to spatial gradients of multiple types of cues. The resulting tactic behaviors are critical for the proper cell localization in the context of complex single-cell and tissue behaviors. In this perspective, we highlight the recent discovery of, to our knowledge, a new -taxis phenomenon, the topotaxis, which mediates directional cell migration in response to the gradients of such topographic features as the density of extracellular matrix fibers...
March 27, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566102/facilitated-recruitment-of-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-by-bone-marrow-concentrate-and-platelet-rich-plasma
#11
Hannah L Holmes, Brooke Wilson, Julian P Goerger, Jesse L Silverberg, Itai Cohen, Warren R Zipfel, Lisa A Fortier
BACKGROUND: Biologics containing growth factors are frequently used to enhance healing after musculoskeletal injuries. One mechanism of action is thought to be though the ability of biologics to induce homing and migration of endogenous mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) to a target tissue. However, the ability of biologics to stimulate chemotaxis (directed migration of cells) and chemokinesis (increase rate of cell migration) of MSCs is unknown. HYPOTHESIS/PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to directly compare the ability of biologics including platelet rich plasma (PRP) and bone marrow concentrate (BMC) to induce MSC migration...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550790/hierarchies-of-healing-in-gut-mucosal-injury
#12
M D Basson
The mucosal response to injury can best be understood as a complex layering of different responses that may be invoked depending upon the size and nature of the injury, the persistence of the injurious stimulus, and the availability of various trophic host factors that stimulate repair. There is a hierarchy of responses that ranges from small rapid resealing of acute apical membrane or single cell wounds through the long term attempt to heal a giant peptic ulcer or respond to inflammatory bowel disease. Although much previous attention has been paid to the local factors that regulate these pathways and responses, there is increasing interest in systemic factors that may act either by the production of cytokines and trophic factors or by the direct migration of bone marrow derived stem cells into the mucosal wound...
December 2017: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547120/control-of-endothelial-cell-polarity-and-sprouting-angiogenesis-by-non-centrosomal-microtubules
#13
Maud Martin, Alexandra Veloso, Jingchao Wu, Eugene A Katrukha, Anna Akhmanova
Microtubules control different aspects of cell polarization. In cells with a radial microtubule system, a pivotal role in setting up asymmetry is attributed to the relative positioning of the centrosome and the nucleus. Here, we show that centrosome loss had no effect on the ability of endothelial cells to polarize and move in 2D and 3D environments. In contrast, non-centrosomal microtubules stabilized by the microtubule minus-end-binding protein CAMSAP2 were required for directional migration on 2D substrates and for the establishment of polarized cell morphology in soft 3D matrices...
March 16, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531532/link-protein-n-terminal-peptide-as-a-potential-stimulating-factor-for-stem-cell-based-cartilage-regeneration
#14
Ruijun He, Baichuan Wang, Min Cui, Zekang Xiong, Hui Lin, Lei Zhao, Zhiliang Li, Zhe Wang, Shaun Peggrem, Zhidao Xia, Zengwu Shao
Background: Link protein N-terminal peptide (LPP) in extracellular matrix (ECM) of cartilage could induce synthesis of proteoglycans and collagen type II in cartilaginous cells. Cartilage stem/progenitor cells (CSPCs), the endogenous stem cells in cartilage, are important in cartilage degeneration and regeneration. We hypothesized that LPP could be a stimulator for stem cell-based cartilage regeneration by affecting biological behaviors of CSPC. Methods: CSPCs were isolated from rat knee cartilage...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29518429/transepithelial-migration-of-mucosal-hemocytes-in-crassostrea-virginica-and-potential-role-in-perkinsus-marinus-pathogenesis
#15
Yuk-Ting Lau, Laura Gambino, Bianca Santos, Emmanuelle Pales Espinosa, Bassem Allam
We have recently described the presence of hemocytes associated with mucus covering the pallial organs (mantle, gills, and body wall) 3 of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica. These hemocytes, hereby designated "pallial hemocytes" share common general characteristics with circulating hemocytes but also display significant differences particularly in their cell surface epitopes. The specific location of pallial hemocytes as peripheral cells exposed directly to the marine environment confers them a putative sentinel role...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500416/sipa1-deficiency-unleashes-a-host-immune-mechanism-eradicating-chronic-myelogenous-leukemia-initiating-cells
#16
Yan Xu, Satoshi Ikeda, Kentaro Sumida, Ryusuke Yamamoto, Hiroki Tanaka, Nagahiro Minato
Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) caused by hematopoietic stem cells expressing the Bcr-Abl fusion gene may be controlled by Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, CML-initiating cells are resistant to TKIs and may persist as minimal residual disease. We demonstrate that mice deficient in Sipa1, which encodes Rap1 GTPase-activating protein, rarely develop CML upon transfer of primary hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) expressing Bcr-Abl, which cause lethal CML disease in wild-type mice. Resistance requires both T cells and nonhematopoietic cells...
March 2, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29486156/nonmuscle-myosin-iia-and-iib-differentially-contribute-to-intrinsic-and-directed-migration-of-human-embryonic-lung-fibroblasts
#17
Masahiro Kuragano, Yota Murakami, Masayuki Takahashi
Nonmuscle myosin II (NMII) plays an essential role in directional cell migration. In this study, we investigated the roles of NMII isoforms (NMIIA and NMIIB) in the migration of human embryonic lung fibroblasts, which exhibit directionally persistent migration in an intrinsic manner. NMIIA-knockdown (KD) cells migrated unsteadily, but their direction of migration was approximately maintained. By contrast, NMIIB-KD cells occasionally reversed their direction of migration. Lamellipodium-like protrusions formed in the posterior region of NMIIB-KD cells prior to reversal of the migration direction...
February 24, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454091/anlotinib-inhibits-angiogenesis-via-suppressing-the-activation-of-vegfr2-pdgfr%C3%AE-and-fgfr1
#18
Binyan Lin, Xiuming Song, Dawei Yang, Dongsheng Bai, Yuyuan Yao, Na Lu
Tumor cells recruit vascular endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitor cells to form new vessels to support their own growth and metastasis. VEGF, PDGF-BB and FGF-2 are three major pro-angiogenic factors and applied to promote angiogenesis. In this research, we demonstrated that anlotinib, a potent multi-tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI), showed a significant inhibitory effect on VEGF/PDGF-BB/FGF-2-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Wound healing assay, chamber directional migration assay and tube formation assay indicated that anlotinib inhibited VEGF/PDGF-BB/FGF-2-induced cell migration and formation of capillary-like tubes in endothelial cells...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420253/the-c-x-c-signalling-system-in-the-rodent-vs-primate-testis-impact-on-germ-cell-niche-interaction
#19
Laura Heckmann, Tim Pock, Ina Tröndle, Nina Neuhaus
In zebrafish, action of the chemokine Cxcl12 is mediated through its G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane domain receptor Cxcr4 and the atypical receptor Cxcr7. Employing this animal model it was revealed that this Cxcl12 signalling system plays a crucial role for directed migration of primordial germ cells (PGC) during early testicular development. Importantly, subsequent studies indicated that this regulatory mechanism is evolutionarily conserved also in mice. What is more, the functional role of the CXCL12 system does not seem to be limited to early phases of testicular development...
February 2, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403565/cell-migration-in-microfabricated-3d-collagen-microtracks-is-mediated-through-the-prometastatic-protein-girdin
#20
Aniqua Rahman-Zaman, Shuo Shan, Cynthia A Reinhart-King
Introduction: In vivo, cancer cells can utilize tube-like microtracks formed within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the stroma as 'highways' to escape the primary tumor, however very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern cell migration through these microtracks. Cell polarization and actin organization are both essential for efficient cell migration and cells are known to migrate very unidirectionally in confined spaces. In this study, we focused on understanding the role of Girdin during unidirectional migration...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
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