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"Directional migration"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454091/anlotinib-inhibits-angiogenesis-via-suppressing-the-activation-of-vegfr2-pdgfr%C3%AE-and-fgfr1
#1
Binyan Lin, Xiuming Song, Dawei Yang, Dongsheng Bai, Yuyuan Yao, Na Lu
Tumor cells recruit vascular endothelial cells and circulating endothelial progenitor cells to form new vessels to support their own growth and metastasis. VEGF, PDGF-BB and FGF-2 are three major pro-angiogenic factors and applied to promote angiogenesis. In this research, we demonstrated that anlotinib, a potent multi-tyrosine kinases inhibitor (TKI), showed a significant inhibitory effect on VEGF/PDGF-BB/FGF-2-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Wound healing assay, chamber directional migration assay and tube formation assay indicated that anlotinib inhibited VEGF/PDGF-BB/FGF-2-induced cell migration and formation of capillary-like tubes in endothelial cells...
February 14, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420253/the-c-x-c-signalling-system-in-the-rodent-vs-primate-testis-impact-on-germ-cell-niche-interaction
#2
Laura Heckmann, Tim Pock, Ina Tröndle, Nina Neuhaus
In zebrafish, action of the chemokine Cxcl12 is mediated through its G-protein coupled seven-transmembrane domain receptor Cxcr4 and the atypical receptor Cxcr7. Employing this animal model it was revealed that this Cxcl12 signalling system plays a crucial role for directed migration of primordial germ cells (PGC) during early testicular development. Importantly, subsequent studies indicated that this regulatory mechanism is evolutionarily conserved also in mice. What is more, the functional role of the CXCL12 system does not seem to be limited to early phases of testicular development...
February 2, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29403565/cell-migration-in-microfabricated-3d-collagen-microtracks-is-mediated-through-the-prometastatic-protein-girdin
#3
Aniqua Rahman-Zaman, Shuo Shan, Cynthia A Reinhart-King
Introduction: In vivo, cancer cells can utilize tube-like microtracks formed within the extracellular matrix (ECM) of the stroma as 'highways' to escape the primary tumor, however very little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern cell migration through these microtracks. Cell polarization and actin organization are both essential for efficient cell migration and cells are known to migrate very unidirectionally in confined spaces. In this study, we focused on understanding the role of Girdin during unidirectional migration...
February 2018: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382882/convergent-and-divergent-migratory-patterns-of-human-neutrophils-inside-microfluidic-mazes
#4
Leo Boneschansker, Julianne Jorgensen, Felix Ellett, David M Briscoe, Daniel Irimia
Neutrophils are key cellular components of the innate immune response and characteristically migrate from the blood towards and throughout tissues. Their migratory process is complex, guided by multiple chemoattractants released from injured tissues and microbes. How neutrophils integrate the various signals in the tissue microenvironment and mount effective responses is not fully understood. Here, we employed microfluidic mazes that replicate features of interstitial spaces and chemoattractant gradients within tissues to analyze the migration patterns of human neutrophils...
January 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29366821/a-rho-gtpase-based-model-explains-spontaneous-collective-migration-of-neural-crest-cell-clusters
#5
Brian Merchant, Leah Edelstein-Keshet, James J Feng
We propose a model to explain the spontaneous collective migration of neural crest cells in the absence of an external gradient of chemoattractants. The model is based on the dynamical interaction between Rac1 and RhoA that is known to regulate the polarization, contact inhibition and co-attraction of neural crest cells. Coupling the reaction-diffusion equations for active and inactive Rac1 and RhoA on the cell membrane with a mechanical model for the overdamped motion of membrane vertices, we show that co-attraction and contact inhibition cooperate to produce persistence of polarity in a cluster of neural crest cells by suppressing the random onset of Rac1 hotspots that may mature into new protrusion fronts...
January 20, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29357897/parkinson-disease-associated-mutations-in-lrrk2-cause-centrosomal-defects-via-rab8a-phosphorylation
#6
Jesús Madero-Pérez, Elena Fdez, Belén Fernández, Antonio J Lara Ordóñez, Marian Blanca Ramírez, Patricia Gómez-Suaga, Dieter Waschbüsch, Evy Lobbestael, Veerle Baekelandt, Angus C Nairn, Javier Ruiz-Martínez, Ana Aiastui, Adolfo López de Munain, Pawel Lis, Thomas Comptdaer, Jean-Marc Taymans, Marie-Christine Chartier-Harlin, Alexandria Beilina, Adriano Gonnelli, Mark R Cookson, Elisa Greggio, Sabine Hilfiker
BACKGROUND: Mutations in LRRK2 are a common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD). LRRK2 interacts with and phosphorylates a subset of Rab proteins including Rab8a, a protein which has been implicated in various centrosome-related events. However, the cellular consequences of such phosphorylation remain elusive. METHODS: Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells stably expressing wildtype or pathogenic LRRK2 were used to test for polarity defects in the context of centrosomal positioning...
January 23, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351995/enucleated-cells-reveal-differential-roles-of-the-nucleus-in-cell-migration-polarity-and-mechanotransduction
#7
David M Graham, Tomas Andersen, Lisa Sharek, Gunes Uzer, Katheryn Rothenberg, Brenton D Hoffman, Janet Rubin, Martial Balland, James E Bear, Keith Burridge
The nucleus has long been postulated to play a critical physical role during cell polarization and migration, but that role has not been defined or rigorously tested. Here, we enucleated cells to test the physical necessity of the nucleus during cell polarization and directed migration. Using enucleated mammalian cells (cytoplasts), we found that polarity establishment and cell migration in one dimension (1D) and two dimensions (2D) occur without the nucleus. Cytoplasts directionally migrate toward soluble (chemotaxis) and surface-bound (haptotaxis) extracellular cues and migrate collectively in scratch-wound assays...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351356/epha2-ephrin-a1-mediate-corneal-epithelial-cell-compartmentalization-via-adam10-regulation-of-egfr-signaling
#8
Nihal Kaplan, Rosa Ventrella, Han Peng, Sonali Pal-Ghosh, Constadina Arvanitis, Joshua Z Rappoport, Brian J Mitchell, Mary Ann Stepp, Robert M Lavker, Spiro Getsios
Purpose: Progenitor cells of the limbal epithelium reside in a discrete area peripheral to the more differentiated corneal epithelium and maintain tissue homeostasis. What regulates the limbal-corneal epithelial boundary is a major unanswered question. Ephrin-A1 ligand is enriched in the limbal epithelium, whereas EphA2 receptor is concentrated in the corneal epithelium. This reciprocal pattern led us to assess the role of ephrin-A1 and EphA2 in limbal-corneal epithelial boundary organization...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347391/search-efficiency-of-biased-migration-towards-stationary-or-moving-targets-in-heterogeneously-structured-environments
#9
Youness Azimzade, Alireza Mashaghi
Efficient search acts as a strong selective force in biological systems ranging from cellular populations to predator-prey systems. The search processes commonly involve finding a stationary or mobile target within a heterogeneously structured environment where obstacles limit migration. An open generic question is whether random or directionally biased motions or a combination of both provide an optimal search efficiency and how that depends on the motility and density of targets and obstacles. To address this question, we develop a simple model that involves a random walker searching for its targets in a heterogeneous medium of bond percolation square lattice and used mean first passage time (〈T〉) as an indication of average search time...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338773/chemokine-ligand-receptor-interactions-critically-regulate-cutaneous-wound-healing
#10
Erich Bünemann, Norman-Philipp Hoff, Bettina Alexandra Buhren, Ulrike Wiesner, Stephan Meller, Edwin Bölke, Anja Müller-Homey, Robert Kubitza, Thomas Ruzicka, Albert Zlotnik, Bernhard Homey, Peter Arne Gerber
BACKGROUND: Wound healing represents a dynamic process involving directional migration of different cell types. Chemokines, a family of chemoattractive proteins, have been suggested to be key players in cell-to-cell communication and essential for directed migration of structural cells. Today, the role of the chemokine network in cutaneous wound healing is not fully understood. Unraveling the chemokine-driven communication pathways in this complex process could possibly lead to new therapeutic strategies in wound healing disorders...
January 16, 2018: European Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327580/measuring-rna-ligand-interactions-with-microscale-thermophoresis
#11
Michelle H Moon, Thomas Hilimire, Allix M Sanders, John S Schneekloth
In the past twenty years, there has been a dramatic increase in the study of RNA. RNA has gone from being known as an intermediate in the central dogma of molecular biology to a molecule with a large diversity of structure and function that is involved in all aspects of biology. As new functions are rapidly discovered, it has become clear that there is a need for RNA-targeting small molecule probes to investigate RNA biology and clarify the potential for therapeutics based on RNA/small molecule interactions...
January 12, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325765/a-systematic-investigation-on-the-composition-evolution-and-expression-characteristics-of-chemokine-superfamily-in-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#12
Zhiwei Liao, Quanyuan Wan, Xun Xiao, Jianfei Ji, Jianguo Su
Chemokines are a superfamily of small cytokines and characterized based on their ability to induce directional migration of cells along a concentration gradient by binding to chemokine receptors, which have important roles in immunology and development. Due to the numerous and diverse members, systematic identifications of chemokine superfamily genes are difficult in many species. To that end, a comprehensive analysis of BLAST and scripting language was conducted to systematically identify and characterize chemokine system in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella)...
January 8, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318445/functions-of-the-apc-tumor-suppressor-protein-dependent-and-independent-of-canonical-wnt-signaling-implications-for-therapeutic-targeting
#13
REVIEW
William Hankey, Wendy L Frankel, Joanna Groden
The acquisition of biallelic mutations in the APC gene is a rate-limiting step in the development of most colorectal cancers and occurs in the earliest lesions. APC encodes a 312-kDa protein that localizes to multiple subcellular compartments and performs diverse functions. APC participates in a cytoplasmic complex that promotes the destruction of the transcriptional licensing factor β-catenin; APC mutations that abolish this function trigger constitutive activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway, a characteristic found in almost all colorectal cancers...
January 9, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279389/rsk2-drives-cell-motility-by-serine-phosphorylation-of-larg-and-activation-of-rho-gtpases
#14
Geng-Xian Shi, Won Seok Yang, Ling Jin, Michelle L Matter, Joe W Ramos
Directed migration is essential for cell motility in many processes, including development and cancer cell invasion. RSKs (p90 ribosomal S6 kinases) have emerged as central regulators of cell migration; however, the mechanisms mediating RSK-dependent motility remain incompletely understood. We have identified a unique signaling mechanism by which RSK2 promotes cell motility through leukemia-associated RhoGEF (LARG)-dependent Rho GTPase activation. RSK2 directly interacts with LARG and nucleotide-bound Rho isoforms, but not Rac1 or Cdc42...
December 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235514/substrate-stiffness-influences-phenotype-and-function-of-human-antigen-presenting-dendritic-cells
#15
Svenja F B Mennens, Matteo Bolomini-Vittori, Jorieke Weiden, Ben Joosten, Alessandra Cambi, Koen van den Dries
Dendritic cells (DCs) are specialized immune cells that scan peripheral tissues for foreign material or aberrant cells and, upon recognition of such danger signals, travel to lymph nodes to activate T cells and evoke an immune response. For this, DCs travel large distances through the body, encountering a variety of microenvironments with different mechanical properties such as tissue stiffness. While immune-related pathological conditions such as fibrosis or cancer are associated with tissue stiffening, the role of tissue stiffness in regulating key functions of DCs has not been studied yet...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196116/contact-guidance-diversity-in-rotationally-aligned-collagen-matrices
#16
Jacob A M Nuhn, Anai M Perez, Ian C Schneider
Cancer cell metastasis is responsible for approximately 90% of deaths related to cancer. The migration of cancer cells away from the primary tumor and into healthy tissue is driven in part by contact guidance, or directed migration in response to aligned extracellular matrix. While contact guidance has been a focus of many studies, much of this research has explored environments that present 2D contact guidance structures. Contact guidance environments in 3D more closely resemble in vivo conditions and model cell-ECM interactions better than 2D environments...
November 28, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178405/acoustophoretic-separation-of-infected-erythrocytes-from-blood-plasma-in-a-microfluidic-platform-using-biofunctionalized-matched-impedance-layers
#17
Tamaghna Gupta, Ritwick Ghosh, Ranjan Ganguly
Acoustophoresis is rapidly gaining prominence in the field of cell manipulation. In recent years, researchers have extensively used this method for separating different types of cells from the bulk fluid. In this paper, we propose a novel acoustophoresis based technique to capture infected or abnormal erythrocytes from blood plasma. A typical acoustic device consisting of a transducer assembly, microfluidic cavity and a reflector is considered. Based on the concept of impedance matching a pair of antibody-coated polystyrene layers is placed in the nodal regions of an acoustic field within the cavity...
November 27, 2017: International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173049/light-directed-migration-of-a-cluster-of-cells-in-the-centimeter-scale
#18
Abdullah Al Mosabbir, Kevin Truong
Protein-based systems for light directed migration of cells have been demonstrated up to distances of several hundred microns, but larger distances in the centimeter scale would allow new possible applications. Light activated migration in mammalian cells can be achieved by cells expressing channelrhodopsin-2 and an engineered Ca2+ sensitive Rac1 protein called RACer. In this study, light was used to induce wound healing, localize cells into a region of interest, and move cells over centimeter scale distances...
November 26, 2017: Small GTPases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166587/migrating-myeloid-cells-sense-temporal-dynamics-of-chemoattractant-concentrations
#19
Caren E Petrie Aronin, Yun M Zhao, Justine S Yoon, Nicole Y Morgan, Thorsten Prüstel, Ronald N Germain, Martin Meier-Schellersheim
Chemoattractant-mediated recruitment of hematopoietic cells to sites of pathogen growth or tissue damage is critical to host defense and organ homeostasis. Chemotaxis is typically considered to rely on spatial sensing, with cells following concentration gradients as long as these are present. Utilizing a microfluidic approach, we found that stable gradients of intermediate chemokines (CCL19 and CXCL12) failed to promote persistent directional migration of dendritic cells or neutrophils. Instead, rising chemokine concentrations were needed, implying that temporal sensing mechanisms controlled prolonged responses to these ligands...
November 21, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161587/versatile-scaffold-extrajunctional-roles-for-%C3%AE-catenin
#20
Srikanth Budnar, Alpha S Yap
α-catenin is a scaffolding molecule that can bind F-actin and other cytoskeletal proteins. It is best known for its contribution to cell-cell adhesion. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Vassilev et al. (2017) identify an extrajunctional pool of α-catenin that regulates RhoA signaling and controls directional migration of single cells.
November 20, 2017: Developmental Cell
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