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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913681/the-borg-family-of-cdc42-effector-proteins-cdc42ep1-5
#1
REVIEW
Aaron J Farrugia, Fernando Calvo
Despite being discovered more than 15 years ago, the Borg (binder of Rho GTPases) family of Cdc42 effector proteins (Cdc42EP1-5) remains largely uncharacterised and relatively little is known about their structure, regulation and role in development and disease. Recent studies are starting to unravel some of the key functional and mechanistic aspects of the Borg proteins, including their role in cytoskeletal remodelling and signalling. In addition, the participation of Borg proteins in important cellular processes such as cell shape, directed migration and differentiation is slowly emerging, directly linking Borgs with important physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, neurotransmission and cancer-associated desmoplasia...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904998/alginate-chitosan-hydrogels-provide-a-sustained-gradient-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-for-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#2
Priscilla A Williams, Kevin T Campbell, Hessam Gharaviram, Justin L Madrigal, Eduardo A Silva
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, is a potent candidate for treatment of ischemic vascular disease. However, designing biomaterial systems for the controlled release of S1P to achieve therapeutic angiogenesis presents both biological and engineering challenges. Thus, the objective of this study was to design a hydrogel system that provides controlled and sustained release of S1P to establish local concentration gradients that promote neovascularization. Alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied and characterized for delivery of proangiogenic factors...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902969/rac1-gtp-ase-signals-wnt-beta-catenin-pathway-mediated-integrin-directed-metastasis-associated-tumor-cell-phenotypes-in-triple-negative-breast-cancers
#3
Pradip De, Jennifer H Carlson, Tyler Jepperson, Scooter Willis, Brian Leyland-Jones, Nandini Dey
The acquisition of integrin-directed metastasis-associated (ID-MA) phenotypes by Triple-Negative Breast Cancer (TNBC) cells is caused by an upregulation of the Wnt-beta-catenin pathway (WP). We reported that WP is one of the salient genetic features of TNBC. RAC-GTPases, small G-proteins which transduce signals from cell surface proteins including integrins, have been implicated in tumorigenesis and metastasis by their role in essential cellular functions like motility. The collective percentage of alteration(s) in RAC1 in ER+ve BC was lower as compared to ER-ve BC (35% vs 57%) (brca/tcga/pub2015)...
November 25, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893712/blood-vessel-endothelium-directed-tumor-cell-streaming-in-breast-tumors-requires-the-hgf-c-met-signaling-pathway
#4
E Leung, A Xue, Y Wang, P Rougerie, V P Sharma, R Eddy, D Cox, J Condeelis
During metastasis to distant sites, tumor cells migrate to blood vessels. In vivo, breast tumor cells utilize a specialized mode of migration known as streaming, where a linear assembly of tumor cells migrate directionally towards blood vessels on fibronectin-collagen I-containing extracellular matrix (ECM) fibers in response to chemotactic signals. We have successfully reconstructed tumor cell streaming in vitro by co-plating tumors cells, macrophages and endothelial cells on 2.5 μm thick ECM-coated micro-patterned substrates...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889261/nik-map3k14-regulates-mitochondrial-dynamics-and-trafficking-to-promote-cell-invasion
#5
Ji-Ung Jung, Sowndharya Ravi, Dong W Lee, Kassandra McFadden, Michael L Kamradt, L Gerard Toussaint, Raquel Sitcheran
Although the role of NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) in immunity is well established, its relevance in cancer is just emerging. Here we describe novel functions for NIK in regulating mitochondrial dynamics and motility to promote cell invasion. We show that NIK is localized to mitochondria in cancer cell lines, ex vivo tumor tissue, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). NIK promotes mitochondrial fission, velocity, and directional migration, resulting in subcellular distribution of mitochondria to the periphery of migrating cells...
November 15, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883892/vimentin-intermediate-filaments-template-microtubule-networks-to-enhance-persistence-in-cell-polarity-and-directed-migration
#6
Zhuo Gan, Liya Ding, Christoph J Burckhardt, Jason Lowery, Assaf Zaritsky, Karlyndsay Sitterley, Andressa Mota, Nancy Costigliola, Colby G Starker, Daniel F Voytas, Jessica Tytell, Robert D Goldman, Gaudenz Danuser
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2016: Cell Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27879672/electric-signals-regulate-the-directional-migration-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-opcs-via-%C3%AE-1-integrin
#7
Bangfu Zhu, Matthew Nicholls, Yu Gu, Gaofeng Zhang, Chao Zhao, Robin J M Franklin, Bing Song
The guided migration of neural cells is essential for repair in the central nervous system (CNS). Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) will normally migrate towards an injury site to re-sheath demyelinated axons; however the mechanisms underlying this process are not well understood. Endogenous electric fields (EFs) are known to influence cell migration in vivo, and have been utilised in this study to direct the migration of OPCs isolated from neonatal Sprague-Dawley rats. The OPCs were exposed to physiological levels of electrical stimulation, and displayed a marked electrotactic response that was dependent on β1 integrin, one of the key subunits of integrin receptors...
November 22, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863662/surface-assembled-poly-i-c-on-pegylated-plga-microspheres-as-vaccine-adjuvant-apc-activation-and-bystander-cell-stimulation
#8
Annina M Hafner, Blaise Corthésy, Marcus Textor, Hans P Merkle
Biodegradable poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microspheres are potential vehicles to deliver antigens for vaccination. Because they lack the full capacity to activate professional antigen presenting cells (APCs), combination with an immunostimulatory adjuvant may be considered. A candidate is the synthetic TLR3 ligand polyriboinosinic acid-polyribocytidylic acid, poly(I:C), which drives cell-mediated immunity. However, poly(I:C) has also been linked to the pathogenesis of autoimmunity, as affected by widespread stimulation of non-hematopoietic bystander cells...
November 30, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849590/nanoparticle-engineered-trail-overexpressing-adipose-derived-stem-cells-target-and-eradicate-glioblastoma-via-intracranial-delivery
#9
Xinyi Jiang, Sergio Fitch, Christine Wang, Christy Wilson, Jianfeng Li, Gerald A Grant, Fan Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most intractable of human cancers, principally because of the highly infiltrative nature of these neoplasms. Tracking and eradicating infiltrating GBM cells and tumor microsatellites is of utmost importance for the treatment of this devastating disease, yet effective strategies remain elusive. Here we report polymeric nanoparticle-engineered human adipose-derived stem cells (hADSCs) overexpressing tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) as drug-delivery vehicles for targeting and eradicating GBM cells in vivo...
November 29, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825984/phosphoinositide-3-kinase-%C3%AE-ties-chemoattractant-and-adrenergic-control-of-microglial-motility
#10
Nadine Schneble, Caroline Schmidt, Reinhard Bauer, Jörg P Müller, Shamci Monajembashi, Reinhard Wetzker
Microglial motility is tightly controlled by multitude of agonistic and antagonistic factors. Chemoattractants, released after infection or damage of the brain, provoke directed migration of microglia to the pathogenic incident. In contrast, noradrenaline and other stress hormones have been shown to suppress microglial movement. Here we asked for the signaling reactions involved in the positive and negative control of microglial motility. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches we identified the lipid kinase activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase species γ (PI3Kγ) as an essential mediator of microglial migration provoked by the complement component C5a and other chemoattractants...
November 5, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825440/ephrinb1-ephb3b-coordinate-bidirectional-epithelial-mesenchymal-interactions-controlling-liver-morphogenesis-and-laterality
#11
Jordi Cayuso, Aliaksandr Dzementsei, Johanna C Fischer, Gopal Karemore, Sara Caviglia, Josefin Bartholdson, Gavin J Wright, Elke A Ober
Positioning organs in the body often requires the movement of multiple tissues, yet the molecular and cellular mechanisms coordinating such movements are largely unknown. Here, we show that bidirectional signaling between EphrinB1 and EphB3b coordinates the movements of the hepatic endoderm and adjacent lateral plate mesoderm (LPM), resulting in asymmetric positioning of the zebrafish liver. EphrinB1 in hepatoblasts regulates directional migration and mediates interactions with the LPM, where EphB3b controls polarity and movement of the LPM...
November 7, 2016: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822141/hiv-1-nef-promotes-migration-and-chemokine-synthesis-of-human-basophils-and-mast-cells-through-the-interaction-with-cxcr4
#12
Francesca Wanda Rossi, Nella Prevete, Felice Rivellese, Antonio Lobasso, Filomena Napolitano, Francescopaolo Granata, Carmine Selleri, Amato de Paulis
BACKGROUND: The Nef protein can be detected in plasma of HIV-1-infected patients and plays a role in the pathogenesis of HIV-1. Nef produced during the early stages of infection is fundamental in creating the ideal environment for viral replication, e.g. by reducing the ability of infected cells to induce an immune response. AIM: Based on previous experience showing that both Tat and gp41 of HIV-1 are potent chemotactic factors for basophils and mast cells, and gp120 is a powerful stimulus for the release of histamine and cytokines (IL-4 and IL-13) from basophils, in this study we aimed to verify if the HIV Nef protein can exert some effects on basophils and mast cells purified from healthy volunteers through the interaction with the CXCL12 receptor, CXCR4...
2016: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783304/regulatory-effects-of-urokinase-on-mesenchymal-stromal-cell-migration-proliferation-and-matrix-metalloproteinase-secretion
#13
I B Beloglazova, E S Zubkova, Z I Tsokolaeva, Yu S Stafeev, K V Dergilev, E I Ratner, M V Shestakova, O Yu Sukhareva, E V Parfenova, M Yu Men'shikov
We studied the effect of urokinase, its recombinant forms, and domain fragments on migration and proliferation of adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) and MMP secretion by these cells. Urokinase, but not its recombinant forms, slightly induced directed migration of MSCs. Spontaneous migration of MSCs increased under the action of urokinase or its isolated kringle domain. Migration induced by platelet-derived growth factor was inhibited by proteolytically inactive form of urokinase, the kringle domain, and blocking antibody to urokinase receptor...
October 26, 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762658/effects-of-stem-cell-factor-on-cell-homing-during-functional-pulp-regeneration-in-human-immature-teeth
#14
Nisarat Ruangsawasdi, Matthias Zehnder, Raphael Patcas, Chafik Ghayor, Barbara Siegenthaler, Bebeka Gjoksi, Franz E Weber
Conventional root canal treatment in immature permanent teeth can lead to early tooth loss in children because root formation is discontinued. We investigated whether the stem cell factor (SCF) could facilitate cell homing in the pulpless immature root canal and promote regeneration of a functional pulp. In vitro, human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) were exposed to SCF at various concentrations for assessing cell migration, proliferation, and differentiation toward odonto/osteoblasts by 3D-chemotaxis slides, WST-1 assay, and alkaline phosphatase activity, respectively...
November 22, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737863/new-view-on-endothelial-cell-migration-switching-modes-of-migration-based-on-matrix-composition
#15
Kerstin Kick, Katharina Nekolla, Markus Rehberg, Angelika M Vollmar, Stefan Zahler
OBJECTIVE: Cell-matrix interactions are crucial for regulating cellular activities, such as migration. This is of special importance for morphogenic processes, such as angiogenesis (the development of new blood vessels). Most of our understanding of cell migration relies on 2-dimensional (2D) experiments. However, the awareness that 3D settings might elicit different results has increased. Knowledge about endothelial cell (EC) behavior in 3D environments and the influence of matrix composition on EC migration, in particular, is still limited...
October 13, 2016: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736031/efficient-visible-light-driven-carbon-dioxide-reduction-by-a-single-atom-implanted-metal-organic-framework
#16
Huabin Zhang, Jing Wei, Juncai Dong, Guigao Liu, Li Shi, Pengfei An, Guixia Zhao, Jintao Kong, Xiaojun Wang, Xianguang Meng, Jing Zhang, Jinhua Ye
Modular optimization of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) was realized by incorporation of coordinatively unsaturated single atoms in a MOF matrix. The newly developed MOF can selectively capture and photoreduce CO2 with high efficiency under visible-light irradiation. Mechanistic investigation reveals that the presence of single Co atoms in the MOF can greatly boost the electron-hole separation efficiency in porphyrin units. Directional migration of photogenerated excitons from porphyrin to catalytic Co centers was witnessed, thereby achieving supply of long-lived electrons for the reduction of CO2 molecules adsorbed on Co centers...
October 13, 2016: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27723284/preparation-of-arg-glu-asp-val-peptide-density-gradient-on-hyaluronic-acid-coated-poly-%C3%AE%C2%B5-caprolactone-film-and-its-influence-on-the-selective-adhesion-and-directional-migration-of-endothelial-cells
#17
Shan Yu, Ying Gao, Xu Mei, Tanchen Ren, Su Liang, Zhengwei Mao, Changyou Gao
The selective adhesion and migration of endothelial cells (ECs) over smooth muscle cells (SMCs) is very important in the rapid endothelialization of blood-contacting implants, to prevent vascular restenosis. In this study, a uniform cell-resistant layer of methacrylate-functionalized hyaluronic acid (HA) was first immobilized on a poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) film via polydopamine coupling. Then, a density gradient of thiol-functionalized Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV) peptide was prepared on the HA layer via thiol-ene click chemistry and the continuous injection method...
October 10, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722611/point-defects-in-lines-in-single-crystalline-phosphorene-directional-migration-and-tunable-band-gaps
#18
Xiuling Li, Liang Ma, Dayong Wang, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Xiaojun Wu, Jinlong Yang
Extended line defects in two-dimensional (2D) materials can play an important role in modulating their electronic properties. During the experimental synthesis of 2D materials, line defects are commonly generated at grain boundaries between domains of different orientations. In this work, twelve types of line-defect structures in single crystalline phosphorene are examined by using first-principles calculations. These line defects are typically formed via migration and aggregation of intrinsic point defects, including the Stone-Wales (SW), single or double vacancy (SV or DV) defects...
October 6, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716840/cadherin-2-is-required-cell-autonomously-for-collective-migration-of-facial-branchiomotor-neurons
#19
Jane K Rebman, Kathryn E Kirchoff, Gregory S Walsh
Collective migration depends on cell-cell interactions between neighbors that contribute to their overall directionality, yet the mechanisms that control the coordinated migration of neurons remains to be elucidated. During hindbrain development, facial branchiomotor neurons (FBMNs) undergo a stereotypic tangential caudal migration from their place of birth in rhombomere (r)4 to their final location in r6/7. FBMNs engage in collective cell migration that depends on neuron-to-neuron interactions to facilitate caudal directionality...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713970/actomyosin-contractility-and-rhogtpases-affect-cell-polarity-and-directional-migration-during-haptotaxis
#20
Tatjana J Autenrieth, Stephanie C Frank, Alexandra M Greiner, Dominik Klumpp, Benjamin Richter, Mario Hauser, Seong-Il Lee, Joel Levine, Martin Bastmeyer
Although much is known about chemotaxis- induced by gradients of soluble chemical cues - the molecular mechanisms involved in haptotaxis (migration induced by substrate-bound protein gradients) are largely unknown. We used micropatterning to produce discontinuous gradients consisting of μm-sized fibronectin-dots arranged at constant lateral but continuously decreasing axial spacing. Parameters like gradient slope, protein concentration and size or shape of the fibronectin dots were modified to determine optimal conditions for directional cell migration in gradient patterns...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
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