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"Directional migration"

Riina Kaukonen, Guillaume Jacquemet, Hellyeh Hamidi, Johanna Ivaska
2D surfaces offer simple analysis of cells in culture, yet these often yield different cell morphologies and responses from those observed in vivo. Considerable effort has therefore been expended on the generation of more tissue-like environments for the study of cell behavior in vitro. Purified matrix proteins provide a 3D scaffold that better mimics the in vivo situation; however, these are far removed from the complex tissue composition seen in vivo. Cell-derived matrices (CDMs) offer a more physiologically relevant alternative for studying in vivo-like cell behavior in vitro...
November 2017: Nature Protocols
Fatemeh Dubois, Kyle Alpha, Christopher E Turner
Cell polarization and directed migration play pivotal roles in diverse physiological and pathological processes. Herein, we identify new roles for paxillin-mediated HDAC6 inhibition in regulating key aspects of cell polarization in both 2D and 1D matrix environments. Paxillin, by modulating microtubule acetylation through HDAC6 regulation, was shown to control centrosome and Golgi reorientation towards the leading edge, a hallmark of cell polarization to ensure directed trafficking of promigratory factors. Paxillin was also required for pericentrosomal Golgi localization and centrosome cohesion, independent of its localization to, and role in, focal adhesion signaling...
October 18, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Koceila Aizel, Andrew G Clark, Anthony Simon, Sara Geraldo, Anette Funfak, Pablo Vargas, Jérôme Bibette, Danijela Matic Vignjevic, Nicolas Bremond
In many cell types, migration can be oriented towards a chemical stimulus. In mammals, for example, embryonic cells migrate to follow developmental cues, immune cells migrate toward sites of inflammation, and cancer cells migrate away from the primary tumour and toward blood vessels during metastasis. Understanding how cells migrate in 3D environments in response to chemical cues is thus crucial to understanding directed migration in normal and disease states. To date, chemotaxis in mammalian cells has been primarily studied using 2D migration models...
October 12, 2017: Lab on a Chip
Begum Erdogan, Mingfang Ao, Lauren M White, Anna L Means, Bryson M Brewer, Lijie Yang, M Kay Washington, Chanjuan Shi, Omar E Franco, Alissa M Weaver, Simon W Hayward, Deyu Li, Donna J Webb
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are major components of the carcinoma microenvironment that promote tumor progression. However, the mechanisms by which CAFs regulate cancer cell migration are poorly understood. In this study, we show that fibronectin (Fn) assembled by CAFs mediates CAF-cancer cell association and directional migration. Compared with normal fibroblasts, CAFs produce an Fn-rich extracellular matrix with anisotropic fiber orientation, which guides the cancer cells to migrate directionally...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
Seung Baek Han, Hyukmin Kim, Hyunkyoung Lee, Matthew Grove, George M Smith, Young-Jin Son
Following nerve injury, denervated Schwann cells (SCs) convert to repair SCs, which enable regeneration of peripheral axons. However, the repair capacity of SCs and the regenerative capacity of peripheral axons are limited. In the present studies we examined a potential therapeutic strategy to enhance the repair capacity of SCs, and tested its efficacy in enhancing regeneration of dorsal root (DR) axons, whose regenerative capacity is particularly weak. We used male and female mice of a doxycycline-inducible transgenic line to induce expression of constitutively active ErbB2 (caErbB2) selectively in SCs after DR crush or transection...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Chaejeong Heo, Chanho Jeong, Hyeon Seong Im, Jong Uk Kim, Juhyun Woo, Ji Yeon Lee, Byeonghak Park, Minah Suh, Tae-Il Kim
A cicada wing has a biocidal feature of rupturing the membrane of cells, while the cactus spine can transmit a water drop to the stem of the plant. Both of these properties have evolved from their respective unique structures. Here, we endeavor to develop geometry-controllable nanohairs that mimic the cicada's wing-like vertical hairs and the cactus spine-like stooped hairs, and to quantitatively characterize the cell migration behavior of the hairy structures. It was found that the neuroblastoma cells are highly sensitive to the variation of surfaces: flat, vertical, and stooped nanohairs (100 nm diameter and 900 nm height)...
October 5, 2017: Nanoscale
Takashi Nagatani, Kei-Ichi Tainaka, Genki Ichinose
Migration is observed across many species. Several authors have studied ecological migration by applying cellular automaton (CA). In this paper, we present a directional migration model with desert on a one-dimensional lattice where a traffic CA model and a lattice Lotka-Volterra system are connected. Here predators correspond to locomotive animals while prey is immobile plants. Predators migrate between deserts and fertile lands repeatedly. Computer simulations reveal the two types of phase transition: coexistence of both species and prey dominance, which is caused by both benefit and cost of migration...
September 28, 2017: Bio Systems
Masataka Arai, Tomoya Shimada, Chihiro Kora, Kazuhiro Nakashima, Toshihiro Sera, Susumu Kudo
Mechanical wounding of an endothelial monolayer induces an immediate Ca(2+) wave. Several hours later, the denuded area is covered by endothelial cells (ECs) that migrate to the wound. This migration process is closely related to protein kinase Cα (PKCα), a Ca(2+)-dependent protein that translocates from the cytosol to the cell membrane. Because the cells adjacent to the wounded area are the first to migrate into the wound, we investigated whether a mechanical wound immediately induces PKCα translocation in adjacent cells...
December 2017: Biochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Alex C Szatmary, Ralph Nossal, Carole A Parent, Ritankar Majumdar
Migrating cells often exhibit signal relay, a process in which cells migrating in response to a chemotactic gradient release a secondary chemoattractant to enhance directional migration. In neutrophils, signal relay towards the primary chemoattractant fMLP is mediated by Leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Recent evidence suggests that the release of LTB4 from cells occurs through packaging in exosomes. Here, we present a mathematical model of neutrophil signal relay that focuses on LTB4 and its exosome-mediated secretion...
September 27, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Kirk M Druey
The regulators of G protein signaling (RGS) proteins are a large, evolutionarily conserved group of intracellular proteins expressed in every cell type and tissue throughout the body including the immune system. Through their signature GTPase-activating protein (GAP) activity on heterotrimeric G proteins and interactions with signaling complexes and membrane constituents (e.g., lipids), RGS proteins determine the intensity and duration of G protein-coupled receptor-induced responses. They may also have a function in generating intracellular signaling gradients necessary for the directional migration of leukocytes to inflamed tissues containing local accumulations of chemoattractants...
2017: Advances in Immunology
Xiang Yuan, Xinshuai Wang, Bianli Gu, Yingjian Ma, Yiwen Liu, Man Sun, Jinyu Kong, Wei Sun, Huizhi Wang, Fuyou Zhou, Shegan Gao
Directional cell migration is of fundamental importance to a variety of biological events, including metastasis of malignant cells. Herein, we specifically investigated SET oncoprotein, a subunit of the recently identified inhibitor of acetyltransferases (INHAT) complex and identified its role in the establishment of front-rear cell polarity and directional migration in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC). We further define the molecular circuits that govern these processes by showing that SET modulated DOCK7/RAC1 and cofilin signaling events...
September 19, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
(no author information available yet)
First Person is a series of interviews with the first authors of a selection of papers published in Journal of Cell Science, helping early-career researchers promote themselves alongside their papers. Seth Zimmerman is the first author on 'Cells lay their own tracks - optogenetic Cdc42 activation stimulates fibronectin deposition supporting directed migration', published in Journal of Cell Science. Seth completed the work in this article as a PhD student under the supervision of Jim Bear and Brian Kuhlman at University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, USA...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
Colin Valet, Marie Levade, Gaëtan Chicanne, Benoit Bilanges, Cendrine Cabou, Julien Viaud, Marie-Pierre Gratacap, Frédérique Gaits-Iacovoni, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Bernard Payrastre, Sonia Severin
To uncover the role of Vps34, the sole class III phosphoinositide 3-kinase, in megakaryocytes (MKs) and platelets, we created a mouse model with Vps34 deletion in the MK/platelet lineage (Pf4-Cre/Vps34(lox/lox)). Deletion of Vps34 in MKs led to the loss of its regulator protein Vps15, and was associated with microthrombocytopenia and platelet granule abnormalities. While Vps34 deficiency did not impact on MK polyploidisation or proplatelet formation, it dampened MK granule biogenesis and directional migration towards an SDF1α gradient, leading to ectopic platelet release within the bone marrow...
September 13, 2017: Blood
Siwan Park, Hwanseok Jang, Byung Soo Kim, Changmo Hwang, Gi Seok Jeong, Yongdoo Park
Homing of peripheral stem cells is regulated by one of the most representative homing factors, stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α), which specifically binds to the plasma membrane receptor CXCR4 of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in order to initiate the signaling pathways that lead to directional migration and homing of stem cells. This complex homing process and directional migration of stem cells have been mimicked on a microfluidic device that is capable of generating a chemokine gradient within the collagen matrix and embedding endothelial cell (EC) monolayers to mimic blood vessels...
2017: PloS One
Yung-Shin Sun
Collective cell migration is important in various physiological processes such as morphogenesis, cancer metastasis and cell regeneration. Such migration can be induced and guided by different chemical and physical cues. Electrotaxis, referring to the directional migration of adherent cells under stimulus of electric fields, is believed to be highly involved in the wound-healing process. Electrotactic experiments are conventionally conducted in Petri dishes or cover glasses wherein cells are cultured and electric fields are applied...
September 7, 2017: Sensors
Priscilla A Williams, Kevin T Campbell, Eduardo A Silva
Alginate hydrogels have been widely validated for controlled release of growth factors and cytokines, but studies exploring sustained release of small hydrophobic lipids are lacking. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, is an appealing small molecule for inducing blood vessel formation in the context of ischemic conditions. However, there are numerous biological and engineering challenges associated with designing biomaterial systems for controlled release of this lipid. Thus, the objective of this study was to design an injectable, alginate hydrogel formulation that provides controlled release of S1P to establish locally sustained concentration gradients that promote neovascularization...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Lena Collenburg, Niklas Beyersdorf, Teresa Wiese, Christoph Arenz, Essa M Saied, Katrin Anne Becker-Flegler, Sibylle Schneider-Schaulies, Elita Avota
Breakdown of sphingomyelin as catalyzed by the activity of sphingomyelinases profoundly affects biophysical properties of cellular membranes which is particularly important with regard to compartmentalization of surface receptors and their signaling relay. As it is activated both upon TCR ligation and co-stimulation in a spatiotemporally controlled manner, the neutral sphingomyelinase (NSM) has proven to be important in T cell activation, where it appears to play a particularly important role in cytoskeletal reorganization and cell polarization...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
C Song, L Liang, Y Jin, Y Li, Y Liu, L Guo, C Wu, C-H Yun, Y Yin
RCC2 (also known as TD60) is a highly conserved protein involved in prognosis in colorectal cancer. However, its relationship with tumor development is less understood. Here we demonstrate a signaling pathway defining regulation of RCC2 and its functions in tumor progression. We report that p53 is a transcriptional regulator of RCC2 that acts through its binding to a palindromic motif in the RCC2 promoter. RCC2 physically interacts and deactivates a small GTPase Rac1 that is known to be involved in metastasis...
September 4, 2017: Oncogene
Xingyuan Yang, Xinyue Xu, Yuan Zhang, Weijia Wen, Xinghua Gao
The cell microenvironment consists of multiple types of biophysical and biochemical factors, and represents a complex integrated system that is variable in both time and space. Studies show that changes in biochemical and biophysical factors in cell microenvironments result in significant changes in cellular forms and functions, especially for stem cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are derived from adult stem cells of the mesoderm and play an important role in tissue engineering, regenerative medicine and even cancer therapy...
September 1, 2017: Genes
Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Endothelial cell (EC) branching is critically dependent upon the dynamic nature of the microtubule (MT) cytoskeleton. Extracellular matrix (ECM) mechanosensing is a prominent mechanism by which cytoskeletal reorganization is achieved; yet how ECM-induced signaling is able to target cytoskeletal reorganization intracellularly to facilitate productive EC branching morphogenesis is not known. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the composition and density of the ECM drive the regulation of MT growth dynamics in ECs by targeting the MT stabilizing protein, cytoplasmic linker associated protein 1 (CLASP1)...
October 15, 2017: Biology Open
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