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"Directional migration"

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530660/endoglin-prevents-vascular-malformation-by-regulating-flow-induced-cell-migration-and-specification-through-vegfr2-signalling
#1
Yi Jin, Lars Muhl, Mikhail Burmakin, Yixin Wang, Anne-Claire Duchez, Christer Betsholtz, Helen M Arthur, Lars Jakobsson
Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in the endothelial cell (EC)-enriched gene endoglin (ENG) cause the human disease hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia-1, characterized by vascular malformations promoted by vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA). How ENG deficiency alters EC behaviour to trigger these anomalies is not understood. Mosaic ENG deletion in the postnatal mouse rendered Eng LOF ECs insensitive to flow-mediated venous to arterial migration. Eng LOF ECs retained within arterioles acquired venous characteristics and secondary ENG-independent proliferation resulting in arteriovenous malformation (AVM)...
May 22, 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526750/pdgf-controls-contact-inhibition-of-locomotion-by-regulating-n-cadherin-during-neural-crest-migration
#2
Isabel Bahm, Elias H Barriga, Antonina Frolov, Eric Theveneau, Paul Frankel, Roberto Mayor
A fundamental property of neural crest (NC) migration is Contact inhibition of locomotion (CIL), a process by which cells change their direction of migration upon cell contact. CIL has been proven to be essential for NC migration in amphibian and zebrafish by controlling cell polarity in a cell contact dependent manner. Cell contact during CIL requires the participation of the cell adhesion molecule N-cadherin, which starts to be expressed by NC cells as a consequence of the switch between E- and N-cadherins during epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)...
May 19, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512197/interstitial-fluid-osmolarity-modulates-the-action-of-differential-tissue-surface-tension-in-progenitor-cell-segregation-during-gastrulation
#3
S F Gabriel Krens, Jim H Veldhuis, Vanessa Barone, Daniel Čapek, Jean-Léon Maître, G Wayne Brodland, Carl-Philipp Heisenberg
The segregation of different cell types into distinct tissues is a fundamental process in metazoan development. Differences in cell adhesion and cortex tension are commonly thought to drive cell sorting by regulating tissue surface tension (TST). However, the role that differential TST plays in cell segregation within the developing embryo is as yet unclear. Here, we have analyzed the role of differential TST for germ layer progenitor cell segregation during zebrafish gastrulation. Contrary to previous observations that differential TST drives germ layer progenitor cell segregation in vitro, we show that germ layers display indistinguishable TST within the gastrulating embryo, arguing against differential TST driving germ layer progenitor cell segregation in vivo We further show that the osmolarity of the interstitial fluid (IF) is an important factor that influences germ layer TST in vivo, and that lower osmolarity of the IF compared with standard cell culture medium can explain why germ layers display differential TST in culture but not in vivo Finally, we show that directed migration of mesendoderm progenitors is required for germ layer progenitor cell segregation and germ layer formation...
May 15, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465529/wnt5a-induces-ror1-to-complex-with-hs1-to-enhance-migration-of-chronic-lymphocytic-leukemia-cells
#4
K Hasan, J Yu, L Chen, B Cui, G F Widhopf, L Rassenti, Z Shen, S P Briggs, T J Kipps
ROR1 is a conserved, oncoembryonic surface-antigen expressed in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). We found that ROR1 associates with Hematopoietic-lineage-cell-Specific protein 1 (HS1) in freshly-isolated CLL cells or in CLL cells cultured with exogenous Wnt5a. Wnt5a also induced HS1 tyrosine phosphorylation, recruitment of ARHGEF1, activation of RhoA, and enhanced chemokine-directed migration; such effects could be inhibited by cirmtuzumab, a humanized anti-ROR1 mAb. We generated truncated forms of ROR1 and found its extra-cellular cysteine-rich domain or kringle domain was necessary for Wnt5a-induced HS1 phosphorylation...
May 3, 2017: Leukemia: Official Journal of the Leukemia Society of America, Leukemia Research Fund, U.K
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456102/enhanced-electrical-conductivity-of-collagen-films-through-long-range-aligned-iron-oxide-nanoparticles
#5
Valentina Bonfrate, Daniela Manno, Antonio Serra, Luca Salvatore, Alessandro Sannino, Alessandro Buccolieri, Tiziano Serra, Gabriele Giancane
The development of biocompatible collagen substrates able to conduct electric current along specific pathways represent an appealing issue in tissue engineering, since it is well known that electrical stimuli significantly affects important cell behaviour, such as proliferation, differentiation, directional migration, and, therefore, tissue regeneration. In this work, a cheap and easy approach was proposed to produce collagen-based films exhibiting enhanced electrical conductivity, through the simple manipulation of a weak external magnetic trigger...
April 22, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424337/physical-and-chemical-gradients-in-the-tumor-microenvironment-regulate-tumor-cell-invasion-migration-and-metastasis
#6
Madeleine J Oudin, Valerie M Weaver
Cancer metastasis requires the invasion of tumor cells into the stroma and the directed migration of tumor cells through the stroma toward the vasculature and lymphatics where they can disseminate and colonize secondary organs. Physical and biochemical gradients that form within the primary tumor tissue promote tumor cell invasion and drive persistent migration toward blood vessels and the lymphatics to facilitate tumor cell dissemination. These microenvironment cues include hypoxia and pH gradients, gradients of soluble cues that induce chemotaxis, and ions that facilitate galvanotaxis, as well as modifications to the concentration, organization, and stiffness of the extracellular matrix that produce haptotactic, alignotactic, and durotactic gradients...
April 19, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412554/prompt-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-induced-by-a-hierarchically-aligned-fibrin-nanofiber-hydrogel
#7
Jinrong Du, Jianheng Liu, Shenglian Yao, Haiquan Mao, Jiang Peng, Xun Sun, Zheng Cao, Yongdong Yang, Bo Xiao, Yiguo Wang, Peifu Tang, Xiumei Wang
Fibrin plays a crucial role in peripheral nerve regeneration, which could occur spontaneously in the format of longitudinally oriented fibrin cables during the initial stage of nerve regeneration. This fibrin cable can direct migration and proliferation of Schwann cells and axonal regrowth, which is very important to nerve regeneration. In the present study, we prepared a three-dimensional hierarchically aligned fibrin nanofiber hydrogel (AFG) through electrospinning and molecular self-assembly to resemble the architecture and biological function of the native fibrin cable...
April 12, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401884/anisotropic-forces-from-spatially-constrained-focal-adhesions-mediate-contact-guidance-directed-cell-migration
#8
Arja Ray, Oscar Lee, Zaw Win, Rachel M Edwards, Patrick W Alford, Deok-Ho Kim, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed migration by contact guidance is a poorly understood yet vital phenomenon, particularly for carcinoma cell invasion on aligned collagen fibres. We demonstrate that for single cells, aligned architectures providing contact guidance cues induce constrained focal adhesion maturation and associated F-actin alignment, consequently orchestrating anisotropic traction stresses that drive cell orientation and directional migration. Consistent with this understanding, relaxing spatial constraints to adhesion maturation either through reduction in substrate alignment density or reduction in adhesion size diminishes the contact guidance response...
April 12, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396712/interplay-of-chemical-and-thermal-gradient-on-bacterial-migration-in-a-diffusive-microfluidic-device
#9
Nithya Murugesan, Purbarun Dhar, Tapobrata Panda, Sarit K Das
Living systems are constantly under different combinations of competing gradients of chemical, thermal, pH, and mechanical stresses allied. The present work is about competing chemical and thermal gradients imposed on E. coli in a diffusive stagnant microfluidic environment. The bacterial cells were exposed to opposing and aligned gradients of an attractant (1 mM sorbitol) or a repellant (1 mM NiSO4) and temperature. The effects of the repellant/attractant and temperature on migration behavior, migration rate, and initiation time for migration have been reported...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376260/cdc42-regulates-branching-in-angiogenic-sprouting-in-vitro
#10
Duc-Huy T Nguyen, Lin Gao, Alec Wong, Christopher S Chen
OBJECTIVES: The morphogenetic events that occur during angiogenic sprouting involve several members of the Rho family of GTPases, including Cdc42. However, the precise roles of Cdc42 in angiogenic sprouting have been difficult to elucidate owing to the lack of models to study these events in vitro. Here, we aim to identify the roles of Cdc42 in branching morphogenesis in angiogenesis. METHODS: Using a 3D biomimetic model of angiogenesis in vitro, where endothelial cells were seeded inside a cylindrical channel within collagen gel and sprouted from the channel in response to a defined biochemical gradient of angiogenic factors, we inhibited Cdc42 activity with a small molecule inhibitor ML141 and examined the effects of Cdc42 on the morphogenetic processes of angiogenic sprouting...
April 4, 2017: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367566/anomalously-high-na-and-low-li-mobility-in-intercalated-na2ti6o13
#11
Chen Ling, Ruigang Zhang
We report an anomalous diffusion behavior in intercalated Na2Ti6O13. Using first-principles calculations, the direct migration of inserted Na(+) along the tunnel direction is predicted to have a barrier of 0.24-0.44 eV, while the migration of inserted Li(+) along the tunnel direction has a barrier of 0.86-1.15 eV. Although Li(+) can also diffuse along a zig-zag path in the tunnel, the barrier of 0.86-0.99 eV is still much higher than that for Na(+). Our results surprisingly lead to the conclusion that the diffusion of larger Na(+) is 4-8 orders of magnitude faster than Li(+) in the same host lattice, and explain the experimentally observed exceptional rate capability of Na2Ti6O13 as the Na-ion battery anode...
April 12, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360944/multiaxial-polarity-determines-individual-cellular-and-nuclear-chirality
#12
Michael J Raymond, Poulomi Ray, Gurleen Kaur, Michael Fredericks, Ajay V Singh, Leo Q Wan
Intrinsic cell chirality has been implicated in the left-right (LR) asymmetry of embryonic development. Impaired cell chirality could lead to severe birth defects in laterality. Previously, we detected cell chirality with an in vitro micropatterning system. Here, we demonstrate for the first time that chirality can be quantified as the coordination of multiaxial polarization of individual cells and nuclei. Using an object labeling, connected component based method, we characterized cell chirality based on cell and nuclear shape polarization and nuclear positioning of each cell in multicellular patterns of epithelial cells...
February 2017: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346441/altering-the-threshold-of-an-excitable-signal-transduction-network-changes-cell-migratory-modes
#13
Yuchuan Miao, Sayak Bhattacharya, Marc Edwards, Huaqing Cai, Takanari Inoue, Pablo A Iglesias, Peter N Devreotes
The diverse migratory modes displayed by different cell types are generally believed to be idiosyncratic. Here we show that the migratory behaviour of Dictyostelium was switched from amoeboid to keratocyte-like and oscillatory modes by synthetically decreasing phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate levels or increasing Ras/Rap-related activities. The perturbations at these key nodes of an excitable signal transduction network initiated a causal chain of events: the threshold for network activation was lowered, the speed and range of propagating waves of signal transduction activity increased, actin-driven cellular protrusions expanded and, consequently, the cell migratory mode transitions ensued...
April 2017: Nature Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338091/intermediate-filament-reorganization-dynamically-influences-cancer-cell-alignment-and-migration
#14
Andrew W Holle, Melih Kalafat, Adria Sales Ramos, Thomas Seufferlein, Ralf Kemkemer, Joachim P Spatz
The interactions between a cancer cell and its extracellular matrix (ECM) have been the focus of an increasing amount of investigation. The role of the intermediate filament keratin in cancer has also been coming into focus of late, but more research is needed to understand how this piece fits in the puzzle of cytoskeleton-mediated invasion and metastasis. In Panc-1 invasive pancreatic cancer cells, keratin phosphorylation in conjunction with actin inhibition was found to be sufficient to reduce cell area below either treatment alone...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335409/the-formyl-peptide-receptors-diversity-of-ligands-and-mechanism-for-recognition
#15
REVIEW
Hui-Qiong He, Richard D Ye
The formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are G protein-coupled receptors that transduce chemotactic signals in phagocytes and mediate host-defense as well as inflammatory responses including cell adhesion, directed migration, granule release and superoxide production. In recent years, the cellular distribution and biological functions of FPRs have expanded to include additional roles in homeostasis of organ functions and modulation of inflammation. In a prototype, FPRs recognize peptides containing N-formylated methionine such as those produced in bacteria and mitochondria, thereby serving as pattern recognition receptors...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302905/protein-kinase-a-regulates-the-ras-rap1-and-torc2-pathways-in-response-to-the-chemoattractant-camp-in-dictyostelium
#16
Margarethakay Scavello, Alexandra R Petlick, Ramya Ramesh, Valery F Thompson, Pouya Lotfi, Pascale G Charest
Efficient directed migration requires tight regulation of chemoattractant signal transduction pathways in both space and time, but the mechanisms involved in such regulation are not well understood. Here, we investigated the role of Protein Kinase A (PKA) in controlling signaling of the chemoattractant cAMP in Dictyostelium We found that cells lacking PKA display severe chemotaxis defects, including impaired directional sensing. Although PKA is an important regulator of developmental gene expression, including the cAMP receptor cAR1, our studies using exogenously expressed cAR1 in cells lacking PKA, cells lacking adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), and cells treated with the PKA-selective pharmacological inhibitor H89, suggest that PKA controls chemoattractant signal transduction, in part, through the regulation of RasG, Rap1, and TORC2...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297639/enhanced-directional-migration-of-cancer-stem-cells-in-3d-aligned-collagen-matrices
#17
Arja Ray, Zachary M Slama, Rachel K Morford, Samantha A Madden, Paolo P Provenzano
Directed cell migration by contact guidance in aligned collagenous extracellular matrix (ECM) is a critical enabler of breast cancer dissemination. The mechanisms of this process are poorly understood, particularly in 3D, in part because of the lack of efficient methods to generate aligned collagen matrices. To address this technological gap, we propose a simple method to align collagen gels using guided cellular compaction. Our method yields highly aligned, acellular collagen constructs with predictable microstructural features, thus providing a controlled microenvironment for in vitro experiments...
March 14, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282403/chemokine-binding-protein-m3-limits-atherosclerosis-in-apolipoprotein-e-mice
#18
Dhanya Ravindran, Anisyah Ridiandries, Laura Z Vanags, Rodney Henriquez, Siân Cartland, Joanne T M Tan, Christina A Bursill
Chemokines are important in macrophage recruitment and the progression of atherosclerosis. The 'M3' chemokine binding protein inactivates key chemokines involved in atherosclerosis (e.g. CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1). We aimed to determine the effect of M3 on plaque development and composition. In vitro chemotaxis studies confirmed that M3 protein inhibited the activity of chemokines CCL2, CCL5 and CX3CL1 as primary human monocyte migration as well as CCR2-, CCR5- and CX3CR1-directed migration was attenuated by M3...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268126/actin-based-growth-cone-motility-and-guidance
#19
REVIEW
Omotola F Omotade, Stephanie L Pollitt, James Q Zheng
Nerve growth cones, the dilated tip of developing axons, are equipped with exquisite abilities to sense environmental cues and to move rapidly through complex terrains of developing brain, leading the axons to their specific targets for precise neuronal wiring. The actin cytoskeleton is the major component of the growth cone that powers its directional motility. Past research has provided significant insights into the mechanisms by which growth cones translate extracellular signals into directional migration...
March 6, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261054/the-autophagy-machinery-a-new-player-in-chemotactic-cell-migration
#20
REVIEW
Pierre-Michaël Coly, Pierrick Gandolfo, Hélène Castel, Fabrice Morin
Autophagy is a highly conserved self-degradative process that plays a key role in diverse cellular processes such as stress response or differentiation. A growing body of work highlights the direct involvement of autophagy in cell migration and cancer metastasis. Specifically, autophagy has been shown to be involved in modulating cell adhesion dynamics as well as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. After providing a general overview of the mechanisms controlling autophagosome biogenesis and cell migration, we discuss how chemotactic G protein-coupled receptors, through the repression of autophagy, may orchestrate membrane trafficking and compartmentation of specific proteins at the cell front in order to support the critical steps of directional migration...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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