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"Border cell"

Melissa M McGovern, Joseph Brancheck, Auston C Grant, Kaley A Graves, Brandon C Cox
Four CreER lines that are commonly used in the auditory field to label cochlear supporting cells (SCs) are expressed in multiple SC subtypes, with some lines also showing reporter expression in hair cells (HCs). We hypothesized that altering the tamoxifen dose would modify CreER expression and target subsets of SCs. We also used two different reporter lines, ROSA26 (tdTomato) and CAG-eGFP, to achieve the same goal. Our results confirm previous reports that Sox2 (CreERT2) and Fgfr3-iCreER (T2) are not only expressed in neonatal SCs but also in HCs...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Jin Yang, Mei Qu, Jing Fang, Ren Fang Shen, Ying Ming Feng, Jia You Liu, Jian Feng Bian, Li Shu Wu, Yong Ming He, Min Yu
We investigated the hypothesis that a discrepancy of Al binding in cell wall constituents determines Al mobility in root border cells (RBCs) of pea (Pisum sativum), which provides protection for RBCs and root apices under Al toxicity. Plants of pea (P. sativum L. 'Zhongwan no. 6') were subjected to Al treatments under mist culture. The concentration of Al in RBCs was much higher than that in the root apex. The Al content in RBCs surrounding one root apex (10(4) RBCs) was approximately 24.5% of the total Al in the root apex (0-2...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
Drosophila border cells undergo a straightforward and stereotypical collective migration during egg development. However, a complex genetic program underlies this process. A variety of approaches, including biochemical, genetic, and imaging strategies have identified many regulatory components, revealing layers of control. This complexity suggests that the active processes of evaluating the environment, remodeling the cytoskeleton, and coordinating movements among cells, demand rapid systems for modulating cell behaviors...
October 2016: Trends in Genetics: TIG
Florent Weiller, John P Moore, Philip Young, Azeddine Driouich, Melané A Vivier
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Root border cells and border-like cells (BLCs), the latter originally described in Arabidopsis thaliana, have been described as cells released at the root tips of the species in which they occur. BLCs are thought to provide protection to root meristems similar to classical root border cells. In addition, four defensin peptides (Hc-AFP1-4) have previously been characterized from Heliophila coronopifolia, a South African semi-desert flower, and found to be strongly antifungal...
August 1, 2016: Annals of Botany
José Antonio Pérez-Escobar, Olga Kornienko, Patrick Latuske, Laura Kohler, Kevin Allen
Neurons of the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) provide spatial representations critical for navigation. In this network, the periodic firing fields of grid cells act as a metric element for position. The location of the grid firing fields depends on interactions between self-motion information, geometrical properties of the environment and nonmetric contextual cues. Here, we test whether visual information, including nonmetric contextual cues, also regulates the firing rate of MEC neurons. Removal of visual landmarks caused a profound impairment in grid cell periodicity...
2016: ELife
Christian Laut Ebbesen, Eric Torsten Reifenstein, Qiusong Tang, Andrea Burgalossi, Saikat Ray, Susanne Schreiber, Richard Kempter, Michael Brecht
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) and the adjacent parasubiculum are known for their elaborate spatial discharges (grid cells, border cells, etc.) and the precessing of spikes relative to the local field potential. We know little, however, about how spatio-temporal firing patterns map onto cell types. We find that cell type is a major determinant of spatio-temporal discharge properties. Parasubicular neurons and MEC layer 2 (L2) pyramids have shorter spikes, discharge spikes in bursts, and are theta-modulated (rhythmic, locking, skipping), but spikes phase-precess only weakly...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Julia Lautemann, Johannes Bohrmann
BACKGROUND: Ion-transport mechanisms and gap junctions are known to cooperate in creating bioelectric phenomena, like pH gradients, voltage gradients and ion fluxes within single cells, tissues, organs, and whole organisms. Such phenomena have been shown to play regulatory roles in a variety of developmental and regenerative processes. Using Drosophila oogenesis as a model system, we aim at characterizing in detail the mechanisms underlying bioelectric phenomena in order to reveal their regulatory functions...
July 13, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
Aeri Cho, Masato Kato, Tess Whitwam, Ji Hoon Kim, Denise J Montell
A longstanding mystery has been the absence of cytoplasmic intermediate filaments (IFs) from Drosophila despite their importance in other organisms. In the course of characterizing the in vivo expression and functions of Drosophila Tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms, we discovered an essential but unusual product of the Tm1 locus, Tm1-I/C, which resembles an IF protein in some respects. Like IFs, Tm1-I/C spontaneously forms filaments in vitro that are intermediate in diameter between F-actin and microtubules. Like IFs but unlike canonical Tms, Tm1-I/C contains N- and C-terminal low-complexity domains flanking a central coiled coil...
July 26, 2016: Cell Reports
Abdoul Salam Koroney, Carole Plasson, Barbara Pawlak, Ramatou Sidikou, Azeddine Driouich, Laurence Menu-Bouaouiche, Maïté Vicré-Gibouin
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Potato (Solanum tuberosum) is an important food crop and is grown worldwide. It is, however, significantly sensitive to a number of soil-borne pathogens that affect roots and tubers, causing considerable economic losses. So far, most research on potato has been dedicated to tubers and hence little attention has been paid to root structure and function. METHODS: In the present study we characterized root border cells using histochemical staining, immunofluorescence labelling of cell wall polysaccharides epitopes and observation using laser confocal microscopy...
July 6, 2016: Annals of Botany
Tuan Minh Tran, April MacIntyre, Martha Hawes, Caitilyn Allen
Plant root border cells have been recently recognized as an important physical defense against soil-borne pathogens. Root border cells produce an extracellular matrix of protein, polysaccharide and DNA that functions like animal neutrophil extracellular traps to immobilize pathogens. Exposing pea root border cells to the root-infecting bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum triggered release of DNA-containing extracellular traps in a flagellin-dependent manner. These traps rapidly immobilized the pathogen and killed some cells, but most of the entangled bacteria eventually escaped...
June 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Carmen Martín-Sierra, Teresa Requena, Lidia Frejo, Steven D Price, Alvaro Gallego-Martinez, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Sofía Santos-Pérez, Andrés Soto-Varela, Anna Lysakowski, Jose A Lopez-Escamez
Meniere's Disease (MD) is a complex disorder associated with an accumulation of endolymph in the membranous labyrinth in the inner ear. It is characterized by recurrent attacks of spontaneous vertigo associated with sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) and tinnitus. The SNHL usually starts at low and medium frequencies with a variable progression to high frequencies. We identified a novel missense variant in the PRKCB gene in a Spanish family with MD segregating low-to-middle frequency SNHL. Confocal imaging showed strong PKCB II protein labelling in non-sensory cells, the tectal cells and inner border cells of the rat organ of Corti with a tonotopic expression gradient...
August 15, 2016: Human Molecular Genetics
Michael T Veeman, Jocelyn A McDonald
Tissues in developing embryos exhibit complex and dynamic rearrangements that shape forming organs, limbs, and body axes. Directed migration, mediolateral intercalation, lumen formation, and other rearrangements influence the topology and topography of developing tissues. These collective cell behaviors are distinct phenomena but all involve the fine-grained control of cell polarity. Here we review recent findings in the dynamics of polarized cell behavior in both the Drosophila ovarian border cells and the Ciona notochord...
2016: F1000Research
Wei Dai, Denise J Montell
Border cells are a cluster of cells that migrate from the anterior tip of the Drosophila egg chamber to the border of the oocyte in stage 9. They serve as a useful model to study collective cell migration in a native tissue environment. Here we describe a protocol for preparing ex vivo egg chamber cultures from transgenic flies expressing fluorescent proteins in the border cells, and using confocal microscopy to take a multi-positional time-lapse movie. We include an image analysis method for tracking border cell cluster dynamics as well as tracking individual cell movements...
2016: Methods in Molecular Biology
Rucha Karve, Frank Suárez-Román, Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi
The root cap covers the tip of the root and functions to protect the root from environmental stress. Cells in the last layer of the root cap are known as border cells, or border-like cells (BLCs) in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). These cells separate from the rest of the root cap and are released from its edge as a layer of living cells. BLC release is developmentally regulated, but the mechanism is largely unknown. Here, we show that the transcription factor NIN-LIKE PROTEIN7 (NLP7) is required for the proper release of BLCs in Arabidopsis...
July 2016: Plant Physiology
Martha Hawes, Caitilyn Allen, B Gillian Turgeon, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, Tuan Minh Tran, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong
Root border cells separate from plant root tips and disperse into the soil environment. In most species, each root tip can produce thousands of metabolically active cells daily, with specialized patterns of gene expression. Their function has been an enduring mystery. Recent studies suggest that border cells operate in a manner similar to mammalian neutrophils: Both cell types export a complex of extracellular DNA (exDNA) and antimicrobial proteins that neutralize threats by trapping pathogens and thereby preventing invasion of host tissues...
August 4, 2016: Annual Review of Phytopathology
Afsoon Saadin, Michelle Starz-Gaiano
The Janus Kinase/Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway is an essential regulator of cell migration both in mammals and fruit flies. Cell migration is required for normal embryonic development and immune response but can also lead to detrimental outcomes, such as tumor metastasis. A cluster of cells termed "border cells" in the Drosophila ovary provides an excellent example of a collective cell migration, in which two different cell types coordinate their movements. Border cells arise within the follicular epithelium and are required to invade the neighboring cells and migrate to the oocyte to contribute to a fertilizable egg...
2016: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
Lauren Anllo, Trudi Schüpbach
Cell migration plays crucial roles during development. An excellent model to study coordinated cell movements is provided by the migration of border cell clusters within a developing Drosophila egg chamber. In a mutagenesis screen, we isolated two alleles of the gene rickets (rk) encoding a G-protein-coupled receptor. The rk alleles result in border cell migration defects in a significant fraction of egg chambers. In rk mutants, border cells are properly specified and express the marker Slbo. Yet, analysis of both fixed as well as live samples revealed that some single border cells lag behind the main border cell cluster during migration, or, in other cases, the entire border cell cluster can remain tethered to the anterior epithelium as it migrates...
June 15, 2016: Developmental Biology
George Aranjuez, Ashley Burtscher, Ketki Sawant, Pralay Majumder, Jocelyn A McDonald
Migrating cells need to overcome physical constraints from the local microenvironment to navigate their way through tissues. Cells that move collectively have the additional challenge of negotiating complex environments in vivo while maintaining cohesion of the group as a whole. The mechanisms by which collectives maintain a migratory morphology while resisting physical constraints from the surrounding tissue are poorly understood. Drosophila border cells represent a genetic model of collective migration within a cell-dense tissue...
June 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Carlos Enrique Escárcega-González, Irma Guadalupe Reynoso-Andeola, Fernando Jaramillo-Juárez, Haydée Martínez-Ruvalcaba, Francisco A Posadas Del Rio
The Ginkgo biloba extract (GbE) is a commercial product used as a nutraceutic herbal remedy in Europe and US. It contains 27% of the polyphenols isorhamnetin, kaempferol, and quercetin, as antioxidants. We used male adult Wistar rats (200-300 g), divided into four groups: control group (treated with 5.0 mg/kg of sodium chloride, intravenous), titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) group (5.0 mg/kg, intravenous), GbE group (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and GbE + TiO2-NPs group (treated 24 h before with 10 mg/kg of GbE, intraperitoneal), followed, 24 h later, by 5...
2016: Biochemistry Research International
Danfeng Cai, Wei Dai, Mohit Prasad, Junjie Luo, Nir S Gov, Denise J Montell
A long-standing question in collective cell migration has been what might be the relative advantage of forming a cluster over migrating individually. Does an increase in the size of a collectively migrating group of cells enable them to sample the chemical gradient over a greater distance because the difference between front and rear of a cluster would be greater than for single cells? We combined theoretical modeling with experiments to study collective migration of the border cells in-between nurse cells in the Drosophila egg chamber...
April 12, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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