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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615558/requirement-of-the-dynein-adaptor-spindly-for-mitotic-and-post-mitotic-functions-in-drosophila
#1
Giuliana D Clemente, Matthew R Hannaford, Hamze Beati, Katja Kapp, Jens Januschke, Eric R Griffis, Hans-Arno J Müller
Spindly was originally identified as a specific regulator of Dynein activity at the kinetochore. In early prometaphase, Spindly recruits the Dynein/Dynactin complex, promoting the establishment of stable kinetochore-microtubule interactions and progression into anaphase. While details of Spindly function in mitosis have been worked out in cultured human cells and in the C. elegans zygote, the function of Spindly within the context of an organism has not yet been addressed. Here, we present loss- and gain-of-function studies of Spindly using transgenic RNAi in Drosophila ...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580687/beadex-a-drosophila-lim-domain-only-protein-function-in-follicle-cells-is-essential-for-egg-development-and-fertility
#2
Subhash Kairamkonda, Upendra Nongthomba
LIM domain, constituted by two tandem C2H2 zinc finger motif, proteins regulate several biological processes. They are usually found associated with various functional domains like Homeodomain, kinase domain and other protein binding domains. LIM proteins that are devoid of other domains are called LIM only proteins (LMO). LMO proteins were first identified in humans and are implicated in development and oncogenesis. They regulate various cell specifications by regulating the activity of respective transcriptional complexes...
March 23, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563067/paraquat-initially-damages-cochlear-support-cells-leading-to-anoikis-like-hair-cell-death
#3
Jianhui Zhang, Hong Sun, Richard Salvi, Dalian Ding
Paraquat (PQ), one of the most widely used herbicides, is extremely dangerous because it generates the highly toxic superoxide radical. When paraquat was applied to cochlear organotypic cultures, it not only damaged the outer hair cells (OHCs) and inner hair cells (IHCs), but also caused dislocation of the hair cell rows. We hypothesized that the dislocation arose from damage to the support cells (SCs) that anchors hair cells within the epithelium. To test this hypothesis, rat postnatal cochlear cultures were treated with PQ...
March 13, 2018: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29562172/hippocampal-global-remapping-can-occur-without-input-from-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#4
Magdalene I Schlesiger, Brittney L Boublil, Jena B Hales, Jill K Leutgeb, Stefan Leutgeb
The high storage capacity of the episodic memory system relies on distinct representations for events that are separated in time and space. The spatial component of these computations includes the formation of independent maps by hippocampal place cells across environments, referred to as global remapping. Such remapping is thought to emerge by the switching of input patterns from specialized spatially selective cells in medial entorhinal cortex (mEC), such as grid and border cells. Although it has been shown that acute manipulations of mEC firing patterns are sufficient for inducing hippocampal remapping, it remains unknown whether specialized spatial mEC inputs are necessary for the reorganization of hippocampal spatial representations...
March 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537481/in-search-for-a-gold-standard-procedure-to-count-motor-neurons-in-the-spinal-cord
#5
REVIEW
Michela Ferrucci, Gloria Lazzeri, Marina Flaibani, Francesca Biagioni, Federica Cantini, Michele Madonna, Domenico Bucci, Fiona Limanaqi, Paola Soldani, Francesco Fornai
Counting motor neurons within the spinal cord and brainstem represents a seminal step to comprehend the anatomy and physiology of the final common pathway sourcing from the CNS. Motor neuron loss allows to assess the severity of motor neuron disorders while providing a tool to assess disease modifying effects. Counting motor neurons at first implies gold standard identification methods. In fact, motor neurons may occur within mixed nuclei housing a considerable amount of neurons other than motor neurons. In the present review, we analyse various approaches to count motor neurons emphasizing both the benefits and bias of each protocol...
March 14, 2018: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466741/rap1-negatively-regulates-the-hippo-pathway-to-polarize-directional-protrusions-in-collective-cell-migration
#6
Yu-Chiuan Chang, Jhen-Wei Wu, Yi-Chi Hsieh, Tzu-Han Huang, Zih-Min Liao, Yi-Shan Huang, James A Mondo, Denise Montell, Anna C-C Jang
In collective cell migration, directional protrusions orient cells in response to external cues, which requires coordinated polarity among the migrating cohort. However, the molecular mechanism has not been well defined. Drosophila border cells (BCs) migrate collectively and invade via the confined space between nurse cells, offering an in vivo model to examine how group polarity is organized. Here, we show that the front/back polarity of BCs requires Rap1, hyperactivation of which disrupts cluster polarity and induces misoriented protrusions and loss of asymmetry in the actin network...
February 20, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456138/the-inr-akt-torc1-growth-promoting-signaling-negatively-regulates-jak-stat-activity-and-migratory-cell-fate-during-morphogenesis
#7
Di Kang, Dou Wang, Jianbing Xu, Chao Quan, Xuan Guo, Heng Wang, Jun Luo, Zhongzhou Yang, Shuai Chen, Jiong Chen
Cell growth and cell differentiation are two distinct yet coupled developmental processes, but how they are coordinated is not well understood. During Drosophila oogenesis, we found that the growth-promoting InR/Akt/TOR pathway was involved in suppressing the fate determination of the migratory border cells. The InR/Akt/TOR pathway signals through TOR and Raptor, components of TORC1, to downregulate the JAK/STAT pathway, which is necessary and sufficient for border cell fate determination. TORC1 promotes the protein stability of SOCS36E, the conserved negative regulator of JAK/STAT signaling, through physical interaction, suggesting that TORC1 acts as a key regulator coordinating both cell growth and cell differentiation...
February 26, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428263/evidence-based-diagnosis-and-management-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-a-review-of-the-literature
#8
REVIEW
Vikram Mehta, Stephen C Harward, Eric W Sankey, Gautam Nayar, Patrick J Codd
Chronic subdural hematomas are encapsulated blood collections within the dural border cells with characteristic outer "neomembranes". Affected patients are more often male and typically above the age of 70. Imaging shows crescentic layering of fluid in the subdural space on a non-contrast computed tomography (CT) scan, best appreciated on sagittal or coronal reformats. Initial medical management involves reversing anticoagulant/antiplatelet therapies, and often initiation of anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs)...
April 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29386260/neurons-in-primate-entorhinal-cortex-represent-gaze-position-in-multiple-spatial-reference-frames
#9
Miriam L R Meister, Elizabeth A Buffalo
Primates predominantly rely on vision to gather information from the environment, and neurons representing visual space and gaze position are found in many brain areas. Within the medial temporal lobe, a brain region critical for memory, neurons in the entorhinal cortex of macaque monkeys exhibit spatial selectivity for gaze position. Specifically, the firing rate of single neurons reflects fixation location within a visual image (Killian et al., 2012). In the rodents, entorhinal cells such as grid cells, border cells, and head direction cells show spatial representations aligned to visual environmental features instead of the body (Hafting et al...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073644/spatial-representation-in-the-hippocampal-formation-a-history
#10
REVIEW
Edvard I Moser, May-Britt Moser, Bruce L McNaughton
Since the first place cell was recorded and the cognitive-map theory was subsequently formulated, investigation of spatial representation in the hippocampal formation has evolved in stages. Early studies sought to verify the spatial nature of place cell activity and determine its sensory origin. A new epoch started with the discovery of head direction cells and the realization of the importance of angular and linear movement-integration in generating spatial maps. A third epoch began when investigators turned their attention to the entorhinal cortex, which led to the discovery of grid cells and border cells...
October 26, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057959/challenging-fret-based-e-cadherin-force-measurements-in-drosophila
#11
Dominik Eder, Konrad Basler, Christof M Aegerter
Mechanical forces play a critical role during embryonic development. Cellular and tissue wide forces direct cell migration, drive tissue morphogenesis and regulate organ growth. Despite the relevance of mechanics for these processes, our knowledge of the dynamics of mechanical forces in living tissues remains scarce. Recent studies have tried to address this problem with the development of tension sensors based on Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). These sensors are integrated into force bearing proteins and allow the measurement of mechanical tensions on subcellular structures...
October 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031909/the-retromer-subunit-vps26-mediates-notch-signaling-during-drosophila-oogenesis
#12
Rebecca Starble, Nancy J Pokrywka
During endocytosis, molecules are internalized by the cell through the invagination of the plasma membrane. Endocytosis is required for proper cell function and for normal development in Drosophila. One component of the endocytic pathway is the retromer complex, which recycles transmembrane proteins to other parts of the cell such as the plasma membrane and the trans-Golgi network. Previous studies have shown that mutations to the retromer complex result in developmental defects in Drosophila. In humans, retromer dysfunction has been implicated in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, but little is known about the role of the retromer complex in Drosophila oogenesis...
October 11, 2017: Mechanisms of Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965758/parvalbumin-and-somatostatin-interneurons-control-different-space-coding-networks-in-the-medial-entorhinal-cortex
#13
Chenglin Miao, Qichen Cao, May-Britt Moser, Edvard I Moser
The medial entorhinal cortex (MEC) contains several discrete classes of GABAergic interneurons, but their specific contributions to spatial pattern formation in this area remain elusive. We employed a pharmacogenetic approach to silence either parvalbumin (PV)- or somatostatin (SOM)-expressing interneurons while MEC cells were recorded in freely moving mice. PV-cell silencing antagonized the hexagonally patterned spatial selectivity of grid cells, especially in layer II of MEC. The impairment was accompanied by reduced speed modulation in colocalized speed cells...
October 19, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950935/neural-stem-cells-induce-the-formation-of-their-physical-niche-during-organogenesis
#14
Ali Seleit, Isabel Krämer, Bea F Riebesehl, Elizabeth M Ambrosio, Julian S Stolper, Colin Q Lischik, Nicolas Dross, Lazaro Centanin
Most organs rely on stem cells to maintain homeostasis during post-embryonic life. Typically, stem cells of independent lineages work coordinately within mature organs to ensure proper ratios of cell types. Little is known, however, on how these different stem cells locate to forming organs during development. Here we show that neuromasts of the posterior lateral line in medaka are composed of two independent life-long lineages with different embryonic origins. Clonal analysis and 4D imaging revealed a hierarchical organisation with instructing and responding roles: an inner, neural lineage induces the formation of an outer, border cell lineage (nBC) from the skin epithelium...
September 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920944/the-dosage-dependent-effect-exerted-by-the-nm23-h1-h2-homolog-ndk-1-on-distal-tip-cell-migration-in-c-elegans
#15
Zsolt Farkas, Luca Fancsalszky, Éva Saskői, Alexandra Gráf, Krisztián Tárnok, Anil Mehta, Krisztina Takács-Vellai
Abnormal regulation of cell migration and altered rearrangement of the cytoskeleton are fundamental properties of metastatic cells. The first identified metastasis suppressor NM23-H1, which displays nucleoside-diphosphate kinase (NDPK) activity is involved in these processes. NM23-H1 inhibits the migratory and invasive potential of some cancer cells. Correspondingly, numerous invasive cancer cell lines (eg, breast, colon, oral, hepatocellular carcinoma, and melanoma) display low endogenous NM23 levels. In this review, we summarize mechanisms, which are linked to the anti-metastatic activity of NM23...
September 18, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882402/visceral-endoderm-and-the-primitive-streak-interact-to-build-the-fetal-placental-interface-of-the-mouse-gastrula
#16
Adriana M Rodriguez, Karen M Downs
Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm...
December 1, 2017: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867347/functional-enterospheres-derived-in%C3%A2-vitro-from-human-pluripotent-stem%C3%A2-cells
#17
Rohan R Nadkarni, Soumeya Abed, Brian J Cox, Sonam Bhatia, Jennifer T Lau, Michael G Surette, Jonathan S Draper
Intestinal organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are valuable in vitro research models that enable simplified access to human gastrointestinal tissues. Here, we report the in vitro generation of enterospheres (hEnS) from hPSC-derived gastrointestinal epithelial precursors. hEnS are cystic spheroids with a simple uniform structure composed entirely of intestinal epithelium. hEnS express markers of mature brush border cells and share a transcriptome profile similar to that of more mature intestinal organoids...
September 12, 2017: Stem Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28865155/a-distinct-class-of-vesicles-derived-from-the-trans-golgi-mediates-secretion-of-xylogalacturonan-in-the-root-border-cell
#18
Pengfei Wang, Xinshi Chen, Cameron Goldbeck, Eric Chung, Byung-Ho Kang
Root border cells lie on the surface of the root cap and secrete massive amounts of mucilage that contains polysaccharides and proteoglycans. Golgi stacks in the border cells have hypertrophied margins, reflecting elevated biosynthetic activity to produce the polysaccharide components of the mucilage. To investigate the three-dimensional structures and macromolecular compositions of these Golgi stacks, we examined high-pressure frozen/freeze-substituted alfalfa root cap cells with electron microscopy/tomography...
September 2, 2017: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769779/size-matters-how-scaling-affects-the-interaction-between-grid-and-border-cells
#19
Diogo Santos-Pata, Riccardo Zucca, Sock C Low, Paul F M J Verschure
Many hippocampal cell types are characterized by a progressive increase in scale along the dorsal-to-ventral axis, such as in the cases of head-direction, grid and place cells. Also located in the medial entorhinal cortex (MEC), border cells would be expected to benefit from such scale modulations. However, this phenomenon has not been experimentally observed. Grid cells in the MEC of mammals integrate velocity related signals to map the environment with characteristic hexagonal tessellation patterns. Due to the noisy nature of these input signals, path integration processes tend to accumulate errors as animals explore the environment, leading to a loss of grid-like activity...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710125/visualization-of-extracellular-dna-released-during-border-cell-separation-from-the-root-cap
#20
Fushi Wen, Gilberto Curlango-Rivera, David A Huskey, Zhongguo Xiong, Martha C Hawes
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Root border cells are programmed to separate from the root cap as it penetrates the soil environment, where the cells actively secrete >100 extracellular proteins into the surrounding mucilage. The detached cells function in defense of the root tip by an extracellular trapping process that also requires DNA, as in mammalian white blood cells. Trapping in animals and plants is reversed by treatment with DNase, which results in increased infection. The goal of this study was to evaluate the role of DNA in the structural integrity of extracellular structures released as border cells disperse from the root tip upon contact with water...
July 2017: American Journal of Botany
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