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Directional migration

Meriem Echbarthi, Josefine Vallin, Julie Grantham
Chaperonin containing tailless complex polypeptide 1 (CCT) is a molecular chaperone consisting of eight distinct protein subunits, that when oligomeric is essential for the folding of newly synthesized tubulin and actin. In addition to folding, CCT activity includes functions of individual subunits in their monomeric form. For example, when CCTδ monomer levels are increased in cultured mammalian cells, numerous cell surface protrusions are formed from retraction fibres, indicating that an underlying function for the CCTδ monomer exists...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Cell Research
Kong Heng, Mathieu Chevalier, Sovan Lek, Pascal Laffaille
Tropical lakes and their associated floodplain habitats are dynamic habitat mosaics strongly influenced by seasonal variations in hydrologic conditions. In flood-pulse systems, water level oscillations directly influence the connectivity to floodplain habitats for fish. Here, we aimed to investigate whether seasonal changes in the water level of a flood-pulse system (the Tonle Sap Lake, Cambodia) differentially affect diet breadth and dietary overlap of three common and commercially important fish species (Anabas testudineus, Boesemania microplepis and Notopterus notopterus) presenting important differences in their life-cycle (e...
2018: PloS One
Raul Torres, Zachary A Szpiech, Ryan D Hernandez
Natural populations often grow, shrink, and migrate over time. Such demographic processes can affect genome-wide levels of genetic diversity. Additionally, genetic variation in functional regions of the genome can be altered by natural selection, which drives adaptive mutations to higher frequencies or purges deleterious ones. Such selective processes affect not only the sites directly under selection but also nearby neutral variation through genetic linkage via processes referred to as genetic hitchhiking in the context of positive selection and background selection (BGS) in the context of purifying selection...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Genetics
Zeqi Zheng, Lijuan Liu, Yuliang Zhan, Songping Yu, Ting Kang
OBJECTIVE: To explore the potential mechanism of miRNA released from adipose-derived stem cell (ADSC)-derived micro vesicle (MV) on the modulation of proliferation, migration and invasion of endothelial cells. MATERIALS AND METHODS: miR-210 level was detected by qT-PCR. Alix, VEGF and RUNX3 expressions were detected by Western blot. The proliferation, migration and invasion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were observed by MTT assay and Transwell assay...
June 18, 2018: Cell Cycle
Judit Symmank, Cathrin Bayer, Christiane Schmidt, Anne Hahn, Daniel Pensold, Geraldine Zimmer
Epigenetic mechanisms of gene regulation, including DNA methylation and histone modifications, call increasing attention in the context of development and human health. Thereby, interactions between DNA methylating enzymes and histone modifications tremendously multiply the spectrum of potential regulatory functions. Epigenetic networks are critically involved in the establishment and functionality of neuronal circuits that are composed of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-positive inhibitory interneurons and excitatory principal neurons in the cerebral cortex...
June 18, 2018: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Judit Symmank, Vanessa Gölling, Katrin Gerstmann, Geraldine Zimmer
The delicate balance of excitation and inhibition is crucial for proper function of the cerebral cortex, relying on the accurate number and subtype composition of inhibitory gamma-aminobutyric (GABA)-expressing interneurons. Various intrinsic and extrinsic factors precisely orchestrate their multifaceted development including the long-range migration from the basal telencephalon to cortical targets as well as interneuron survival throughout the developmental period. Particularly expressed guidance receptors were described to channel the migration of cortical interneurons deriving from the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE) and the preoptic area (POA) along distinct routes...
April 18, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
Heonjae Jeong, Edmund G Seebauer, Elif Ertekin
Properties related to transport such as self-diffusion coefficients are relevant to fuel cells, electrolysis cells, and chemical/gas sensors. Prediction of self-diffusion coefficients from first-principles involves precise determination of both enthalpy and entropy contributions for point defect formation and migration. We use first-principles density functional theory to estimate the self-diffusion coefficient for neutral O0i and doubly ionized Oi2- interstitial oxygen in rutile TiO2 and compare the results to prior isotope diffusion experiments...
June 18, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Kamyar Esmaeili Pourfarhangi, Edgar Cardenas De La Hoz, Andrew R Cohen, Bojana Gligorijevic
Cancer cell migration is essential for metastasis, during which cancer cells move through the tumor and reach the blood vessels. In vivo , cancer cells are exposed to contact guidance and chemotactic cues. Depending on the strength of such cues, cells will migrate in a random or directed manner. While similar cues may also stimulate cell proliferation, it is not clear whether cell cycle progression affects migration of cancer cells and whether this effect is different in random versus directed migration. In this study, we tested the effect of cell cycle progression on contact guided migration in 2D and 3D environments, in the breast carcinoma cell line, FUCCI-MDA-MB-231...
September 2018: APL bioengineering
Maria Eischen-Loges, Karla M C Oliveira, Mit B Bhavsar, John H Barker, Liudmila Leppik
Background: Electrical stimulation (ES) has a long history of successful use in the clinical treatment of refractory, non-healing bone fractures and has recently been proposed as an adjunct to bone tissue-engineering treatments to optimize their therapeutic potential. This idea emerged from ES's demonstrated positive effects on stem cell migration, proliferation, differentiation and adherence to scaffolds, all cell behaviors recognized to be advantageous in Bone Tissue Engineering (BTE)...
2018: PeerJ
Chun-Han Hou, Rong-Sen Yang, Ya-Ting Tsao
Osteosarcoma is the most common bone malignancy that occurs in the young population. After osteosarcoma cells metastasize to the lung, prognosis is very poor owing to difficulties in early diagnosis and effective treatment. Recently, connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) was reported to be a critical contributor to osteosarcoma metastasis. However, the detailed mechanism associated with CTGF-directed migration in bone neoplasms is still mostly unknown. Through the in vivo and in vitro examination of osteosarcoma cells, this study suggests that VCAM-1 up-regulation and increased osteosarcoma cell migration are involved in this process...
June 14, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Zili Chen, Yifei Ma, Yaozhen Pan, Haitao Zhu, Chao Yu, Chengyi Sun
Dysregulation of miR-1297 has been detected in various human cancers, and miR-1297 can function as either an oncogene or tumor suppressor. However, the role of miR-1297 in pancreatic adenocarcinoma has not been previously reported. Here, we investigated miR-1297 expression in pancreatic cancer and the role it plays in the development and metastasis of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. In the present study, MiR-1297 and metadherin (MTDH) expression in pancreatic cancer tissue was detected using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot methods...
June 13, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Probes
Jung Sun Min, Jin Chul Kim, Ji Ae Kim, Inho Kang, Jeong Keun Ahn
SIRT2, a member of the class III histone deacetylase family, has been identified as a tumor suppressor, which is associated with various cellular processes including metabolism and proliferation. However, the effects of SIRT2 on cancer cell migration caused by cytoskeletal rearrangement remain uncertain. Here we show that SIRT2 inhibits cell motility by suppressing actin polymerization. SIRT2 regulates actin dynamics through HSP90 destabilization and subsequent repression of LIM kinase (LIMK) 1/cofilin pathway...
June 13, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Juan Li, Yuting He, Yuan Cao, Yan Yu, Xiaolong Chen, Xiaojuan Gao, Qiuyue Hu
Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in the progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), while its detailed mechanisms are not well illustrated. Our present study revealed that the expression of Gli1, while not Gli2 or Gli3, is significantly increased in HCC cell lines and 20/28 (71.4%) HCC tissues as compared with their corresponding controls. Over expression of Gli1 can promote the migration, invasion, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HCC cells. Gli1 can increase the expression of Twist, while not other EMT transcription factors such as Snail, ZEB1, or Slug...
June 1, 2018: Biological Chemistry
Jane Antony, Elisa Zanini, Zoe Kelly, Tuan Zea Tan, Evdoxia Karali, Mohammad Alomary, Youngrock Jung, Katherine Nixon, Paula Cunnea, Christina Fotopoulou, Andrew Paterson, Sushmita Roy-Nawathe, Gordon B Mills, Ruby Yun-Ju Huang, Jean Paul Thiery, Hani Gabra, Chiara Recchi
In ovarian cancer, the prometastatic RTK AXL promotes motility, invasion and poor prognosis. Here, we show that reduced survival caused by AXL overexpression can be mitigated by the expression of the GPI-anchored tumour suppressor OPCML Further, we demonstrate that AXL directly interacts with OPCML, preferentially so when AXL is activated by its ligand Gas6. As a consequence, AXL accumulates in cholesterol-rich lipid domains, where OPCML resides. Here, phospho-AXL is brought in proximity to the lipid domain-restricted phosphatase PTPRG, which de-phosphorylates the RTK/ligand complex...
June 15, 2018: EMBO Reports
Chika Okimura, Yuichi Sakumura, Katsuya Shimabukuro, Yoshiaki Iwadate
Living cells sense the mechanical properties of their surrounding environment and respond accordingly. Crawling cells detect the rigidity of their substratum and migrate in certain directions. They can be classified into two categories: slow-moving and fast-moving cell types. Slow-moving cell types, such as fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells, mesenchymal stem cells, etc., move toward rigid areas on the substratum in response to a rigidity gradient. However, there is not much information on rigidity sensing in fast-moving cell types whose size is ∼10 μm and migration velocity is ∼10 μm/min...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Wenqi Ma, Bailing Liu, Jie Li, Jue Jiang, Ru Zhou, Lili Huang, Xiaopeng Li, Xin He, Qi Zhou
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) contribute to tumorigenesis and progression via acting as tumor suppressors or oncogenes in human cancer. Aberrant expression of miR-302c has been reported in various types of cancer except colorectal cancer (CRC). Thus, our study was aimed to verify the expression of miR-302c and its functional role in CRC. We found a significant reduced expression of miR-302c in CRC tissues compared to tumor-adjacent tissues. Low miR-302c level was remarkably correlated with deeper tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and advanced TNM stage...
June 12, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Qi Deng, Yaling Wang, Lijun Sun, Jianrong Li, Zhijia Fang, Ravi Gooneratne
Water and protein are major constituents of shrimp, any changes in protein and the state of water influence the quality of shrimp. Therefore, a study to examine the law of moisture migration and protein denaturation under different freezing and thawing conditions is important. The proton density images of thawed frozen-shrimp revealed that the water loss during quick-freezing was much greater than that during slow freezing or microfreezing. At room temperature (25 °C), the water loss from brine-thawing was more than still-water thawing and still-water thawing was more than thawing spontaneously...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Xinghui Zhang, Shanshan Li, Xiaoli Wei, Yun Lei
The reaction mechanism of Ru-catalyzed cycloisomerization of 2-alkynylanilides to 3-substituted indole or 2-substituted indole was analyzed at the B3LYP level of density functional theory. The solvation effect of the system was also considered by SMD model. The calculation results show that the reaction system first forms a ruthenium π-alkyne complex. On the one hand, the cyclization reaction of the amino group and the alkyne carbon in the reaction precursor complex directly forms the 2-substituted indole product...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Gabriel Espinosa-Carrasco, Cécile Le Saout, Pierre Fontanaud, Aurélien Michau, Patrice Mollard, Javier Hernandez, Marie Schaeffer
T cell search behavior is dictated by their need to encounter their specific antigen to eliminate target cells. However, mechanisms controlling effector T cell motility are highly tissue-dependent. Specifically, how diabetogenic T cells encounter their target beta cells in dispersed islets throughout the pancreas (PA) during autoimmune diabetes remains unclear. Using intra-vital 2-photon microscopy in a mouse model of diabetes, we found that CXCR3 chemokine downregulated CD8+ T cell motility specifically within islets, promoting effector cell confinement to their target sites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Tao Zhang, Kangfeng Jiang, Xinying Zhu, Gan Zhao, Haichong Wu, Ganzhen Deng, Changwei Qiu
Breast cancer is one of the most lethal cancers in the world. The fight against breast cancer has also become a major task for medical workers. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are often aberrantly expressed in diverse cancers and are involved in progression and metastasis. Many studies have found that miRNAs can act as oncogenes or as tumor suppressor genes. Here, we show that miR-433 is significantly decreased in breast cancer cells. In addition, we demonstrate the effects of miR-433 on breast cancer cell apoptosis, migration and proliferation in an attempt to elucidate the mechanism of action of miR-433...
2018: International Journal of Biological Sciences
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