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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913681/the-borg-family-of-cdc42-effector-proteins-cdc42ep1-5
#1
REVIEW
Aaron J Farrugia, Fernando Calvo
Despite being discovered more than 15 years ago, the Borg (binder of Rho GTPases) family of Cdc42 effector proteins (Cdc42EP1-5) remains largely uncharacterised and relatively little is known about their structure, regulation and role in development and disease. Recent studies are starting to unravel some of the key functional and mechanistic aspects of the Borg proteins, including their role in cytoskeletal remodelling and signalling. In addition, the participation of Borg proteins in important cellular processes such as cell shape, directed migration and differentiation is slowly emerging, directly linking Borgs with important physiological and pathological processes such as angiogenesis, neurotransmission and cancer-associated desmoplasia...
December 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913619/the-caenorhabditis-elegans-nf2-merlin-molecule-nfm-1-non-autonomously-regulates-neuroblast-migration-and-interacts-genetically-with-the-guidance-cue-slt-1-slit
#2
Matthew P Josephson, Rana Aliani, Megan L Norris, Matthew E Ochs, Mahekta Gujar, Erik A Lundquist
During nervous system development, neurons and their progenitors migrate to their final destinations. In Caenorhabditis elegans, the bilateral Q neuroblasts and their descendants migrate long distances in opposite directions, despite being born in the same posterior region. QR on the right migrates anteriorly and generates the AQR neuron positioned near the head, and QL on the left migrates posteriorly, giving rise to the PQR neuron positioned near the tail. In a screen for genes required for AQR and PQR migration, we identified an allele of nfm-1, which encodes a molecule similar to vertebrate NF2/Merlin, an important tumor suppressor in humans...
December 2, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913185/mir-346-promotes-the-biological-function-of-breast-cancer-cells-by-targeting-srcin1-and-reduces-chemosensitivity-to-docetaxel
#3
Fan Yang, Long-Ji Luo, Lei Zhang, Dan-Dan Wang, Su-Jin Yang, Li Ding, Jian Li, Dan Chen, Rong Ma, Jian-Zhong Wu, Jin-Hai Tang
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of highly conserved small noncoding RNAs that play pivotal roles at the post-transcriptional level in the biological function of various cancers, including breast cancer. In our study, miR-346 mimic, inhibitor, negative control or si-SRCIN1 were transfected into MCF-7 and MCF-7/Doc cells, respectively. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to measure miR-346 and SRCIN1 mRNA expressions and western blot was used to detect the expression of SRCIN1 in protein level. CCK-8 and colony formation were employed to verify cell viability and proliferation...
November 29, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911812/cytoskeleton-dynamics-control-the-first-asymmetric-cell-division-in-arabidopsis-zygote
#4
Yusuke Kimata, Takumi Higaki, Tomokazu Kawashima, Daisuke Kurihara, Yoshikatsu Sato, Tomomi Yamada, Seiichiro Hasezawa, Frederic Berger, Tetsuya Higashiyama, Minako Ueda
The asymmetric cell division of the zygote is the initial and crucial developmental step in most multicellular organisms. In flowering plants, whether zygote polarity is inherited from the preexisting organization in the egg cell or reestablished after fertilization has remained elusive. How dynamically the intracellular organization is generated during zygote polarization is also unknown. Here, we used a live-cell imaging system with Arabidopsis zygotes to visualize the dynamics of the major elements of the cytoskeleton, microtubules (MTs), and actin filaments (F-actins), during the entire process of zygote polarization...
November 22, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911586/mirna-181a-b-regulates-phenotypes-of-vessel-smooth-muscle-cells-through-serum-response-factor
#5
Xiaoxing Wei, Xue Hou, Jianhua Li, Yongnian Liu
The phenotypic modulation of vessel smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) plays a crucial role in the physiological and pathological conditions of vasculature in response to local environmental changes. The phenotypic transition of VSMCs is largely modulated by the serum response factor (SRF). MiR-181a and miR-181b are members of the well-studied miR-181 family and both have complementary sequence in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of SRF gene. In this article, evidence insinuates that miR-181a/b was involved in VSMCs differentiation through upregulating synthetic marker genes and downregulating contractile ones, respectively...
December 2, 2016: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911454/steady-state-acetabular-cartilage-wear-after-bipolar-hemiarthroplasty-a-case-series-of-10-patients-with-radiostereometric-analysis
#6
Masako Tsukanaka, Ragnhild Ø Støen, Wender Figved, Frede Frihagen, Lars Nordsletten, Stephan M Röhrl
INTRODUCTION: Cartilage wear is a concern after hemiarthroplasty. The precise pattern of the progression of wear has not been evaluated. We previously reported the application of radiostereonetric analysis (RSA) for the measurement of cartilage wear in patients. The purpose of this study was to report the amount and the orientation of the steady state wear of cartilage between 1 and 3 years after bipolar hemiarthroplasty. METHODS: 22 patients with a bipolar hemiarthroplasty for displaced femoral neck fracture were included...
December 2, 2016: Hip International: the Journal of Clinical and Experimental Research on Hip Pathology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911279/microrna-101-inhibits-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-human-glioblastoma-by-targeting-sox9
#7
Nan Liu, Lei Zhang, Zhen Wang, Yingduan Cheng, Pengxing Zhang, Xin Wang, Weihong Wen, Hongwei Yang, Hui Liu, Weilin Jin, Yongsheng Zhang, Yanyang Tu
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common primary malignant tumors originating in the brain parenchyma. At present, GBM patients have a poor prognosis despite the continuous progress in therapeutic technologies including surgery, radiotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and chemotherapy. Recent studies revealed that miR-101 was remarkably down-regulated in kinds of human cancers and was associated with aggressive tumor cell proliferation and stem cell self-renewal. Data also showed that miR-101 was down-regulated in primary glioma samples and cell lines, but the underlying molecular mechanism of the deregulation of miR-101 in glioma remained largely unknown...
November 30, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910925/thrombomodulin-regulates-monocye-differentiation-via-pkc%C3%AE-and-erk1-2-pathway-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-artery
#8
Chien-Sung Tsai, Yi-Wen Lin, Chun-Yao Huang, Chun-Min Shih, Yi-Ting Tsai, Nai-Wen Tsao, Chin-Sheng Lin, Chun-Che Shih, Hellen Jeng, Feng-Yen Lin
Thrombomodulin (TM) modulates the activation of protein C and coagulation. Additionally, TM regulates monocyte migration and inflammation. However, its role on monocyte differentiation is still unknown. We investigated the effects of TM on monocyte differentiation. First, we found that TM was increased when THP-1 cells were treated with phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA). Overexpression of TM enhanced the macrophage markers, CD14 and CD68 expression in PMA-induced THP-1. TM siRNA depressed the PMA-induced increase of p21(Cip1/WAF1) via ERK1/2-NF-kB p65 signaling...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910855/l-type-calcium-channels-regulate-filopodia-stability-and-cancer-cell-invasion-downstream-of-integrin-signalling
#9
Guillaume Jacquemet, Habib Baghirov, Maria Georgiadou, Harri Sihto, Emilia Peuhu, Pierre Cettour-Janet, Tao He, Merja Perälä, Pauliina Kronqvist, Heikki Joensuu, Johanna Ivaska
Mounting in vitro, in vivo and clinical evidence suggest an important role for filopodia in driving cancer cell invasion. Using a high-throughput microscopic-based drug screen, we identify FDA-approved calcium channel blockers (CCBs) as potent inhibitors of filopodia formation in cancer cells. Unexpectedly, we discover that L-type calcium channels are functional and frequently expressed in cancer cells suggesting a previously unappreciated role for these channels during tumorigenesis. We further demonstrate that, at filopodia, L-type calcium channels are activated by integrin inside-out signalling, integrin activation and Src...
December 2, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909734/klf4-inhibits-tumor-growth-and-metastasis-by-targeting-microrna-31-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Chuan Tian, Shanshan Yao, Li Liu, Youcheng Ding, Qingwang Ye, Xiao Dong, Yong Gao, Ning Yang, Qi Li
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) are short, endogenous non-coding RNA molecules, demonstrating abnormal expression in cancer initiation and progression. In this study, we profiled 18 differentially regulated miRNAs, including miRNA‑31, using miRNA array. Kruppel (or Krüppel)-like factor 4 (Klf4) is a transcription factor and putative tumor suppressor. Both were found to be significantly downregulated in liver cancer tissues and cells. However, little is known about the correlation between Klf4 and miRNA‑31 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)...
November 24, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909652/percutaneous-transpedicular-lumbar-endoscopy-a-case-report
#11
Priyank Uniyal, Gun Choi, Bhushan Khedkkar
INTRODUCTION: Since Kambin introduced the concept of percutaneous transforaminal disc surgery in 1973, there has been numerous advances in the field of spine endoscopy and the concept of central debulking of the disc has changed to targeted fragmentectomy and disc preservation. The lumbar disc fragments which are down migrated and to the medial aspect of the pedicle are extremely challenging to deal by transforaminal approach even after foraminoplasties and by various other approaches...
2016: International Journal of Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909439/the-a-allele-of-the-single-nucleotide-polymorphism-rs630923-creates-a-binding-site-for-mef2c-resulting-in-reduced-cxcr5-promoter-activity-in-b-cell-lymphoblastic-cell-lines
#12
Nikita A Mitkin, Alisa M Muratova, Anton M Schwartz, Dmitry V Kuprash
Chemokine receptor CXCR5 is highly expressed in B-cells and under normal conditions is involved in their migration to specific areas of secondary lymphoid organs. B-cells are known to play an important role in various autoimmune diseases including multiple sclerosis (MS) where areas of demyelinating lesions attract B-cells by overexpressing CXCL13, the CXCR5 ligand. In this study, we aimed to determine the functional significance of single-nucleotide polymorphism rs630923 (A/C), which is located in cxcr5 gene promoter, and its common allele is associated with increased risk of MS...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909288/reconstruction-of-isolated-inferior-right-hepatic-vein-s-in-right-lobe-living-donor-liver-transplantation-using-polytetrafluoroethylene-grafts-a-new-feasible-concept-technique-of-bridging-conduit-venoplasty-and-outcomes
#13
Ashok Thorat, Shih-Chao Hsu, Horng-Ren Yang, Ping-Chun Li, Ming-Li Li, Chun-Chieh Yeh, Te-Hung Chen, Kin-Shing Poon, Long-Bin Jeng
BACKGROUND Right lobe living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) remains the most common form of liver transplantation in Asia. However, reconstruction of the venous outflow in a right liver allograft may pose technical difficulties if hepatic venous variations are present. Recently, much emphasis has been given to the reconstruction of large and multiple inferior right hepatic veins (IRHVs). The method of reconstructive technique, type of vascular grafts, and the outcome after the procedure have been a point of debate...
December 2, 2016: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908732/mir-451-inhibits-cell-growth-migration-and-angiogenesis-in-human-osteosarcoma-via-down-regulating-il-6r
#14
Sheng-Yao Liu, Song-Yun Deng, Yong-Bin He, Guo-Xin Ni
Osteosarcoma (OS) has become one of the most common primary malignant tumors in the children and adolescents with a poor prognosis owing to its high malignant and metastatic potential. Although increasing evidence indicates that miR-451 could inhibit the growth and metastasis of OS, its effect on angiogenesis in OS is still very poor. What is more, the mechanism by which miR-451 affects the OS has not been fully elucidated. In the present study, miR-451 was reduced in human osteosarcoma tissues compared with the adjacent bone tissues, and the introduction of miR-451 dramatically inhibited the growth, migration and angiogenesis in OS...
November 28, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908599/prospective-evaluation-of-a-new-biflanged-metal-stent-for-the-treatment-of-pancreatic-fluid-collections-with-videos
#15
Shuntaro Mukai, Takayoshi Tsuchiya, Takao Itoi, Shujiro Tsuji, Reina Tanaka, Ryosuke Tonozuka, Yuichi Nagakawa, Kazuhiko Kasuya, Masaaki Shimatani, Atsushi Sofuni
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: EUS-guided transluminal drainage (EUS-TD) and sequential direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) using a dedicated biflanged metal stent (BFMS) has been reported as a useful alternative to using plastic stents or a conventional metal stent. However, current dedicated BFMSs have limitations. Recently, a new BFMS with solidly constructed biflanges and various stent lengths matched to the PFC condition has been developed. Herein, we prospectively evaluated this new BFMS for the treatment of PFCs...
November 28, 2016: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908206/the-role-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-oncology-and-regenerative-medicine
#16
Maliha Khan, Syeda Ezze Rukhshan Adil, Amanda L Olson
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have long been used as therapeutic agents in disease affecting various organ systems. However, MSCs are fast emerging as promising anticancer agents which have the potential to treat a number of different cancer types, including glioblastoma and metastatic breast, ovarian and hepatic carcinoma. The ability of MSC to migrate directly into the tumor microenvironment and to produce IFN-α and -β makes this possible. However, the possibility of MSC undergoing either malignant transformation or transformation into protumorigenic fibroblasts currently limits their role in clinical use...
December 2, 2016: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906498/st3gal6-mediates-the-effect-of-mir-26a-on-cell-growth-migration-and-invasion-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-via-the-akt-mtor-pathway
#17
Mingming Sun, Xuzi Zhao, Leilei Liang, Xufeng Pan, Hao Lv, Yongfu Zhao
Aberrant sialylation profiles on the cell surface have been recognized for their potential diagnostic value in identifying the regulation of tumor properties in several cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, increasing evidence has suggested that the deregulation of microRNA (miRNA) is a common feature in human cancers. In this study, we found obvious up-regulation of ST3GAL6 both in HCC cell lines and in tissue samples. The altered expression of ST3GAL6 was found to correlate with cell proliferation, migration and invasion ability in HCC...
December 1, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906162/activation-of-myeloid-and-endothelial-cells-by-cd40l-gene-therapy-supports-t-cell-expansion-and-migration-into-the-tumor-microenvironment
#18
E Eriksson, R Moreno, I Milenova, L Liljenfeldt, L C Dieterich, L Christiansson, H Karlsson, G Ullenhag, S Mangsbo, A Dimberg, R Alemany, A Loskog
CD40 is an interesting target in cancer immunotherapy due to its ability to stimulate Th1 immunity via maturation of dendritic cells and to drive M2 to M1 macrophage differentiation. Pancreatic cancer has a high M2 content that has shown responsive to anti-CD40 agonist therapy and CD40 may thus be a suitable target for immune activation in these patients. In this study, a novel oncolytic adenovirus armed with a trimerized membrane-bound extracellular CD40L (TMZ-CD40L) was evaluated as a treatment of pancreatic cancer...
December 1, 2016: Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906130/braf-activates-pax3-to-control-muscle-precursor-cell-migration-during-forelimb-muscle-development
#19
Jaeyoung Shin, Shuichi Watanabe, Soraya Hoelper, Marcus Krüger, Sawa Kostin, Jochen Pöling, Thomas Kubin, Thomas Braun
Migration of skeletal muscle precursor cells is a key step during limb muscle development and depends on the activity of PAX3 and MET. Here, we demonstrate that BRAF serves a crucial function in formation of limb skeletal muscles during mouse embryogenesis downstream of MET and acts as a potent inducer of myoblast cell migration. We found that a fraction of BRAF accumulates in the nucleus after activation and endosomal transport to a perinuclear position. Mass spectrometry based screening for potential interaction partners revealed that BRAF interacts and phosphorylates PAX3...
December 1, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904998/alginate-chitosan-hydrogels-provide-a-sustained-gradient-of-sphingosine-1-phosphate-for-therapeutic-angiogenesis
#20
Priscilla A Williams, Kevin T Campbell, Hessam Gharaviram, Justin L Madrigal, Eduardo A Silva
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive lipid, is a potent candidate for treatment of ischemic vascular disease. However, designing biomaterial systems for the controlled release of S1P to achieve therapeutic angiogenesis presents both biological and engineering challenges. Thus, the objective of this study was to design a hydrogel system that provides controlled and sustained release of S1P to establish local concentration gradients that promote neovascularization. Alginate hydrogels have been extensively studied and characterized for delivery of proangiogenic factors...
November 30, 2016: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
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