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Directional migration

Metin Uz, Suprem R Das, Shaowei Ding, Donald S Sakaguchi, Jonathan C Claussen, Surya K Mallapragada
Adult stems cells, possessing the ability to grow, migrate, proliferate, and transdifferentiate into various specific phenotypes, constitute a great asset for peripheral nerve regeneration. Adult stem cells' ability to undergo transdifferentiation is sensitive to various cell-to-cell interactions and external stimuli involving interactions with physical, mechanical, and chemical cues within their microenvironment. Various studies have employed different techniques for transdifferentiating adult stem cells from distinct sources into specific lineages (e...
April 14, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Diana Yepes, Pablo Jaque, Israel Fernandez
By means of Density Functional Theory calculations, the hydrogenation reaction of multiple bonds mediated by geminal aminoborane-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) has been explored. It is found that the release of the activated dihydrogen occurs in a concerted, yet highly asynchronous, manner. The physical factors controlling the transformation are quantitatively described in detail by means of the Activation Strain Model of reactivity in combination with the Energy Decomposition Analysis method. This approach suggests a cooperative double hydrogen transfer mechanism which is initiated by the migration of the protic (N)H and followed by the nucleophilic attack of the hydride (B)H to the carbon atom of the multiple bond...
April 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Tiziana Tosco, Rajandrea Sethi
Nanosized particles (NPs), such as TiO2 , Silver, graphene NPs, nanoscale zero-valent iron, carbon nanotubes, etc., are increasingly used in industrial processes, and releases at production plants and from landfills are likely scenarios for the next years. As a consequence, appropriate procedures and tools to quantify the risks for human health associated to these releases are needed. The tiered approach of the standard ASTM procedure (ASTM-E2081-00) is today the most applied for human health risk assessment at sites contaminated by chemical substances, but it cannot be directly applied to nanoparticles: NP transport along migration pathways follows mechanisms significantly different from those of chemicals; moreover, also toxicity indicators (namely, reference dose and slope factor) are NP-specific...
April 12, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Ana Isabel Bocanegra Gondan, Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo, Aintzane Zabaleta, Nina Gómez Blanco, Beatriz Macarena Cobaleda-Siles, María Jesús García-Granda, Daniel Padro, Jordi Llop, Blanca Arnaiz, María Gato, David Escors, Juan C Mareque-Rivas
Encouraging results are emerging from systems that exploit Toll like receptor (TLR) signaling, nanotechnology, checkpoint inhibition and molecular imaging for cancer immunotherapy. A major remaining challenge is developing effective, durable and tumour-specific immune responses without systemic toxicity. Here, we report a simple and versatile system based on synergistic activation of immune responses and direct cancer cell killing by combined TLR ligation using polyIC as TLR3 and imiquimod (R837) as TLR7 agonist, in combination with the model antigen ovalbumin (OVA) and phospholipid micelles loaded with zinc-doped iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs)...
April 3, 2018: Biomaterials
William Ramos-Lewis, Andrea Page-McCaw
Basement membrane plays a foundational role in the structure and maintenance of many tissues throughout the animal kingdom. In addition to signaling to cells through cell-surface receptors, basement membrane directly influences the development and maintenance of organ shape via its mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of basement membrane are dictated by its composition, geometry, and crosslinking. Distinguishing between the ways the basement membrane influences morphology in vivo poses a major challenge...
April 12, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Qin Yao, Yihua Pei, Xin Zhang, Bozhen Xie
AIMS: microRNA-96 (miR-96) is considered as a tumor suppressor in multiple malignancies. Some studies have indicated that EZRIN could be regulated by the miR-96 in several kinds of cancer cells. However, the function of miR-96 in human osteosarcoma has not been investigated intensively so far. In this study, we mainly explored the relationship between miR-96 and the expression of EZRIN in human osteosarcoma cells. MAIN METHODS: The levels of miR-96 and EZRIN in osteosarcoma tissues and paracancerous tissues of patients were evaluated with qPCR...
April 12, 2018: Life Sciences
Olivier Glippa, Jonna Engström-Öst, Mirella Kanerva, Anni Rein, Kristiina Vuori
On a daily basis, planktonic organisms migrate vertically and thus experience widely varying conditions in their physico-chemical environment. In the Gulf of Finland, these changes are larger than values predicted by climate change scenarios predicted for the next century (up to 0.5 units in pH and 5°C in temperature). In this work, we are interested in how temporal variations in physico-chemical characteristics of the water column on a daily and weekly scale influence oxidative stress level and antioxidant responses in the planktonic copepod of the genus Acartia...
2018: PloS One
Hee-Jun Kim, Won-Haeng Lee, Mo-Jong Kim, Sunmee Shin, Byungki Jang, Jae-Bong Park, Wilma Wasco, Joseph D Buxbaum, Yong-Sun Kim, Eun-Kyoung Choi
Calsenilin modulates A-type potassium channels, regulates presenilin-mediated γ-secretase activity, and represses prodynorphin and c-fos genes expression. RhoA is involved in various cellular functions including proliferation, differentiation, migration, transcription, and regulation of the actin cytoskeleton. Although recent studies demonstrate that calsenilin can directly interact with RhoA and that RhoA inactivation is essential for neuritogenesis, it is uncertain whether there is a link between calsenilin and RhoA-regulated neuritogenesis...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Robert David Hume, Lorraine Berry, Stefanie Reichelt, Michael D'Angelo, Jenny Gomm, Ruth Elizabeth Cameron, Christine Watson
Adipocytes are one of the major stromal cell components of the human breast. These cells play a key role in the development of the gland and are implicated in breast tumorigenesis. Frequently, directional stromal collagen I fibres are found surrounding aggressive breast tumours. These fibres enhance breast cancer cell migration and are associated with poor patient prognosis. We sought to recapitulate these stromal components in vitro to provide a 3D model comprising human adipose tissue and anisotropic collagen fibres...
March 8, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
Markus Brown, Louise A Johnson, Dario A Leone, Peter Majek, Kari Vaahtomeri, Daniel Senfter, Nora Bukosza, Helga Schachner, Gabriele Asfour, Brigitte Langer, Robert Hauschild, Katja Parapatics, Young-Kwon Hong, Keiryn L Bennett, Renate Kain, Michael Detmar, Michael Sixt, David G Jackson, Dontscho Kerjaschki
Lymphatic endothelial cells (LECs) release extracellular chemokines to guide the migration of dendritic cells. In this study, we report that LECs also release basolateral exosome-rich endothelial vesicles (EEVs) that are secreted in greater numbers in the presence of inflammatory cytokines and accumulate in the perivascular stroma of small lymphatic vessels in human chronic inflammatory diseases. Proteomic analyses of EEV fractions identified >1,700 cargo proteins and revealed a dominant motility-promoting protein signature...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
Mar Collado-González, Miguel R Pecci-Lloret, Christopher J Tomás-Catalá, David García-Bernal, Ricardo E Oñate-Sánchez, Carmen Llena, Leopoldo Forner, Vinicius Rosa, Francisco J Rodríguez-Lozano
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of Equia Forte (GC, Tokyo, Japan) and Ionostar Molar (Voco, Cuxhaven, Germany) on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). METHODS: hDPSCs isolated from third molars were exposed to several dilutions of Equia Forte and Ionostar Molar eluates (1/1, 1/2 and 1/4). These eluates were obtained by storing material samples in respective cell culture medium for 24h (n=40). hDPSCs in basal growth culture medium were the control...
April 9, 2018: Dental Materials: Official Publication of the Academy of Dental Materials
A-Young Lee, Hyun-Soo Ra, Dohyun Kwak, Jeong Min-Hye, Jeong-Hyun Park, Yeon-Su Kang, Weon-Sik Chae, Jong-Soo Lee
Recently, black phosphorus (BP) with direct band gap exhibited excellent potential for optoelectronic applications due to its high charge carrier mobility and low dark current as well as the variable band gap of 0.3 eV to 1.5 eV depending on the number of layers. However, few-layer BP-based phototransistors (photo-FETs) have been limited in sensitivity and wavelength selectivity. To overcome the drawback of these photo-FETs, we studied hybrid photo-FETs combined with the novel properties of the two materials between the channel and sensitizer layers...
April 13, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaofeng Yin, Xiaoning Li, Wen Gu, Wei Zou, Huan Liu, Liuyang Zhu, Zhengping Fu, Yalin Lu
In this work, the Aurivillius-phase ferroelectric Bi3Fe0.5Nb1.5O9 were synthesized by hydrothermal (BFNO-H) and solid state methods (BFNO-S) respectively. The BFNO-H shows a hierarchical morphology, which is stacked by intersecting single-crystal nanosheets with {001} and {110} exposed facets, while the BFNO-S shows disorganized micron-scale morphology. BFNO-H shows a much stronger photodegradation activity (10.4 times and 9.8 times) than BFNO-S in the visible-light photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) and salicylic acid (SA)...
April 12, 2018: Nanotechnology
E T Spear, E A Holt, E J Joyce, M M Haag, S M Mawe, G W Hennig, B Lavoie, A M Applebee, C Teuscher, G M Mawe
BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that, in addition to motor, sensory, and cognitive symptoms, also causes constipation, which is poorly understood. Here, we characterize gastrointestinal (GI) dysmotility in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model of MS and evaluate whether autoantibodies target the enteric nervous system (ENS) and cause dysmotility. METHODS: EAE was induced in male SJL and B6 mice...
April 11, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
N Bai, L F Yang, L H An, W Wang, Y Q Li, Y Sheng, T Wang, H K Li, L Yuan
OBJECTIVE: To compare the differences of neutrophils chemotaxis ability in peritoneal cavity between normal rats and schizopherenic rats with cell dynamic visualization system. METHODS: In the study,18 healthy Kunming rats were randomly divided into 3 groups which were control group (n=6), 0.3 mg/kg MK-801 treatment group (n=6), 0.6 mg/kg dizocilpine maleate (MK-801) treatment group(n=6), extracted neutrophils separately, and observed the morphology and counted under a microscope...
April 18, 2018: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
Yu Yu, Yohan Suryo Rahmanto, Meng-Horng Lee, Pei-Hsun Wu, Jude M Phillip, Chuan-Hsiang Huang, Michele I Vitolo, Stephanie Gaillard, Stuart S Martin, Denis Wirtz, Ie-Ming Shih, Tian-Li Wang
Cell motility and invasiveness are prerequisites for dissemination, and largely account for cancer mortality. We have identified an actionable kinase, spleen tyrosine kinase (SYK), which is keenly tightly associated with tumor progression in ovarian cancer. Here, we report that active recombinant SYK directly phosphorylates cortactin and cofilin, which are critically involved in assembly and dynamics of actin filament through phosphorylation signaling. Enhancing SYK activity by inducing expression of a constitutively active SYK mutant, SYK130E , increased growth factor-stimulated migration and invasion of ovarian cancer cells, which was abrogated by cortactin knockdown...
April 11, 2018: Oncogene
Sunkyu Choi, Aditya M Bhagwat, Rasha Al Mismar, Neha Goswami, Hisham Ben Hamidane, Lu Sun, Johannes Graumann
Cancer metastasis causes approximately 90% of all cancer-related death and independent of the advancement of cancer therapy, a majority of late stage patients suffers from metastatic cancer. Metastasis implies cancer cell migration and invasion throughout the body. Migration requires the formation of pseudopodia in the direction of movement, but a detailed understanding of this process and accordingly strategies of prevention remain elusive. Here, we use quantitative proteomic profiling of human cancer pseudopodia to examine this mechanisms essential to metastasis formation, and identify potential candidates for pharmacological interference with the process...
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenduo Gu, Xuechong Hong, Alexandra Le Bras, Witold N Nowak, Shirin Issa Bhaloo, Jiacheng Deng, Yao Xie, Yanhua Hu, Xiong Z Ruan, Qingbo Xu
Tissue-engineered vascular grafts with long-term patency are greatly needed in the clinical settings, and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are a critical graft component. Human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are used for generating SMCs and understanding the underlying regulatory mechanisms of the MSC-to-SMC differentiation process could improve SMC generation in the clinic. Here, we found that in response to stimulation of transforming growth factor-β 1 (TGFβ1), human umbilical cord-derived MSCs abundantly express the SMC markers α-smooth muscle actin (αSMA), smooth muscle protein 22 (SM22), calponin and smooth muscle myosin heavy chain (SMMHC) at both gene and protein levels...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yi Xu, Yue Yao, Xingming Jiang, Xiangyu Zhong, Zhidong Wang, Chunlong Li, Pengcheng Kang, Kaiming Leng, Daolin Ji, Zhenglong Li, Lining Huang, Wei Qin, Yunfu Cui
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) behave as a novel class of transcription products during multiple cancer processes. However, the mechanisms responsible for their alteration in cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) are not fully understood. METHODS: The expression of SPRY4-IT1 in CCA tissues and cell lines was determined by RT-qPCR, and the association between SPRY4-IT1 transcription and clinicopathologic features was analyzed...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Song Yi Baek, Ji Hyoun Kang, Seo Hee Jo, Ji Eun Jang, Seo Yeon Byeon, Ju-Hyoun Wang, Hwang-Goo Lee, Jun-Kil Choi, Hyuk Je Lee
BACKGROUND: Life history characteristics are considered important factors influencing the evolutionary processes of natural populations, including the patterns of population genetic structure of a species. The sister species Cottus hangiongensis and C. koreanus are small bottom-dwelling freshwater sculpin fishes from South Korea that display marked life history divergence but are morphologically nearly indistinguishable. Cottus hangiongensis evolved an 'amphidromous' life history with a post-hatching pelagic larval phase...
April 11, 2018: BMC Evolutionary Biology
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