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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786506/wing-morphogenesis-in-lepidoptera
#1
REVIEW
H Frederik Nijhout, Kenneth Z McKenna
The wings of Lepidoptera develop from imaginal disks that are made up of a simple two-layered epithelium whose structure is always congruent with the final adult wing. It is therefore possible to map every point on the imaginal disk to a location on the adult wing throughout the period of growth and morphogenesis. The wings of different species of Lepidoptera differ greatly in both size and shape, yet it is possible to fate-map homologous locations on the developing wing disks and explicitly monitor the growth, size, and shape of the wing, or any of its regions, throughout the entire ontogeny of the wing...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#2
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784997/mechanics-guided-embryonic-patterning-of-neuroectoderm-tissue-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#3
Xufeng Xue, Yubing Sun, Agnes M Resto-Irizarry, Ye Yuan, Koh Meng Aw Yong, Yi Zheng, Shinuo Weng, Yue Shao, Yimin Chai, Lorenz Studer, Jianping Fu
Classic embryological studies have successfully applied genetics and cell biology principles to understand embryonic development. However, it remains unresolved how mechanics, as an integral driver of development, is involved in controlling tissue-scale cell fate patterning. Here we report a micropatterned human pluripotent stem (hPS)-cell-based neuroectoderm developmental model, in which pre-patterned geometrical confinement induces emergent patterning of neuroepithelial and neural plate border cells, mimicking neuroectoderm regionalization during early neurulation in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783804/-acquired-cystic-kidney-disease-associated-renal-cell-carcinoma-a-clinicopathologic-study-of-three-cases
#4
W Zhang, L L Xu, W J Yu, Q Wang, Y X Jiang, Y Liu, Y J Li
Objective: To study the clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical (IHC), histogenetic and prognostic features of acquired cystic kidney disease-associated renal cell carcinoma (ACKD-RCC). Methods: Three cases of ACKD-RCC, including two from 401 Hospital of PLA and one from the Affiliated Hospital of Qingdao University were studied by clinical, histological and IHC analysis with review of relevant literature. Results: All the three patients were male, ranging from 46 to 78 years old. All patients had history of chronic renal failure; two patients were treated with hemodialysis for 9 years and 11 years, respectively...
May 8, 2018: Zhonghua Bing Li Xue za Zhi Chinese Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782846/abnormal-small-intestinal-epithelial-microvilli-in-patients-with-crohn-s-disease
#5
Kelli L VanDussen, Aleksandar Stojmirović, Katherine Li, Ta-Chiang Liu, Patrick K Kimes, Brian D Muegge, Katherine F Simpson, Matthew A Ciorba, Jacqueline G Perrigoue, Joshua R Friedman, Jennifer E Towne, Richard D Head, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Crohn's disease (CD) presents as chronic and often progressive intestinal inflammation, but the contributing pathogenic mechanisms are unclear. We aimed to identify alterations in intestinal cells that could contribute to the chronic and progressive course of CD. METHODS: We took an unbiased, system-wide approach, performing sequence analysis of RNA extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded ileal tissue sections from patients with CD (n=36) and without CD (controls, n=32)...
May 18, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782308/activation-of-herpes-simplex-infection-after-tattoo
#6
Antigona Begolli Gerqari, Mybera Ferizi, Merita Kotori, Aferdita Daka, Syzana Hapciu, Ilir Begolli, Mirije Begolli, Idriz Gerqari
Tattooing is a procedure where ink is applied to an area of the skin, mostly intraepidermally (1). This procedure is carried out mainly for aesthetic purposes. Lately, it has been used as a corrective medical procedure following amputation of mammilla. The procedure is aggressive (2), and the fact that skin is punctured many times with the same needle which cannot be fully sterilized may cause infection of the treated area with bacterial, fungal, or viral agents that may lead to health consequences manifesting in the form of verrucae vulgaris, molluscum contagiosum, and herpes simplex...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782304/role-of-in-vivo-reflectance-confocal-microscopy-in-the-analysis-of-melanocytic-lesions
#7
Elena-Daniela Serban, Francesca Farnetani, Giovanni Pellacani, Maria Magdalena Constantin
Worldwide melanoma incidence and mortality are increasing (1). Despite the ongoing research, advanced melanoma is still incurable; therefore, the most appropriate solution seems to be early detection combined with complete surgical excision (2). Since the diagnostic protocol of suspicious lesions includes a complete excision with safety margins (2), the problem of unnecessary scarring is significant. The real challenge in this case is to have a properly formulated diagnosis before acquiring a biopsy. Currently available non-invasive techniques are coherence tomography, digital dermoscopy, and reflectance confocal microscopy...
April 2018: Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica: ADC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776664/rhod-localization-and-function-is-dependent-on-its-gtp-gdp-bound-state-and-unique-n-terminal-motif
#8
Magdalena Blom, Katarina Reis, Pontus Aspenström
The atypical Rho GTPase RhoD has previously been shown to have a major impact on the organization and function of the actin filament system. However, when first discovered, RhoD was found to regulate endosome trafficking and dynamics and we therefore sought to investigate this regulation in more detail. We found that exogenously expressed RhoD in human fibroblasts localized to vesicles and the plasma membrane and that the active GTP-bound conformation was required for the plasma membrane localization but not for vesicle localization...
May 16, 2018: European Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774076/the-human-somatostatin-receptor-type-2-as-an-imaging-and-suicide-reporter-gene-for-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-therapy-of-myocardial-infarction
#9
Katrien Neyrinck, Natacha Breuls, Bryan Holvoet, Wouter Oosterlinck, Esther Wolfs, Hubert Vanbilloen, Olivier Gheysens, Robin Duelen, Willy Gsell, Ivo Lambrichts, Uwe Himmelreich, Catherine M Verfaillie, Maurilio Sampaolesi, Christophe M Deroose
Rationale: Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are being investigated as a cell source for regenerative medicine since they provide an infinitive pool of cells that are able to differentiate towards every cell type of the body. One possible therapeutic application involves the use of these cells to treat myocardial infarction (MI), a condition where billions of cardiomyocytes (CMs) are lost. Although several protocols have been developed to differentiate PSCs towards CMs, none of these provide a completely pure population, thereby still posing a risk for neoplastic teratoma formation...
2018: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772364/pathophysiology-and-non-surgical-treatment-of-chronic-subdural-hematoma-from-past-to-present-to-future
#10
REVIEW
Dana C Holl, Victor Volovici, Clemens M F Dirven, Wilco C Peul, Fop van Kooten, Korné Jellema, Niels A van der Gaag, Ishita P Miah, Kuan H Kho, Heleen M den Hertog, Hester F Lingsma, Ruben Dammers
BACKGROUND: Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the more frequent pathological entities in daily neurosurgical practice. Historically, CSDH was considered a progressive, recurrent bleeding with a traumatic etiology. However, recent evidence suggests a complex intertwined pathway of inflammation, angiogenesis, local coagulopathy, recurrent microbleeds and exudates. The aim of the present review is to collect existing data on pathophysiology of CSDH in order to direct further research questions aiming to optimize treatment for the individual patient...
May 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769249/spatial-distribution-and-function-of-t-follicular-regulatory-cells-in-human-lymph-nodes
#11
Ismail Sayin, Andrea J Radtke, Laura A Vella, Wenjie Jin, E John Wherry, Marcus Buggert, Michael R Betts, Ramin S Herati, Ronald N Germain, David H Canaday
T follicular regulatory (Tfr) cells are a population of CD4+ T cells that express regulatory T cell markers and have been shown to suppress humoral immunity. However, the precise mechanisms and location of Tfr-mediated suppression in the lymph node (LN) microenvironment are unknown. Using highly multiplexed quantitative imaging and functional assays, we examined the spatial distribution, suppressive function, and preferred interacting partners of Tfr cells in human mesenteric LNs. We find that the majority of Tfr cells express low levels of PD-1 and reside at the border between the T cell zone and B cell follicle, with very few found in the germinal centers (GCs)...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761784/ripply2-recruits-proteasome-complex-for-tbx6-degradation-to-define-segment-border-during-murine-somitogenesis
#12
Wei Zhao, Masayuki Oginuma, Rieko Ajima, Makoto Kiso, Akemi Okubo, Yumiko Saga
The metameric structure in vertebrates is based on the periodic formation of somites from the anterior end of the presomitic mesoderm (PSM). The segmentation boundary is defined by the Tbx6 expression domain, whose anterior limit is determined by Tbx6 protein destabilization via Ripply2. However, the molecular mechanism of this process is poorly understood. Here, we show that Ripply2 directly binds to Tbx6 in cultured cells without changing the stability of Tbx6, indicating an unknown mechanism for Tbx6 degradation in vivo...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761765/arbovirus-surveillance-near-the-mexico-u-s-border-isolation-and-sequence-analysis-of-chikungunya-virus-from-patients-with-dengue-like-symptoms-in-reynosa-tamaulipas
#13
S Viridiana Laredo-Tiscareño, Carlos Machain-Williams, Mario A Rodríguez-Pérez, Javier A Garza-Hernandez, Gloria L Doria-Cobos, Rosa C Cetina-Trejo, Lucio A Bacab-Cab, Chandra S Tangudu, Jermilia Charles, Erick J De Luna-Santillana, Julian E Garcia-Rejon, Bradley J Blitvich
A total of 1,090 residents of the city of Reynosa, Tamaulipas, on the Mexico-U.S. border presented at hospitals and clinics of the Secretariat of Health, Mexico, in 2015 with symptoms characteristic of dengue. Dengue virus (DENV) antigen was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in acute sera from 134 (12.3%) patients. Sera from select patients ( N = 34) were also tested for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) RNA by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Thirteen (38.2%) patients, including five DENV antigen-positive patients, were positive...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757911/caspase-inhibition-during-cold-storage-improves-graft-function-and-histology-in-a-murine-kidney-transplant-model
#14
Trevor L Nydam, Robert Plenter, Swati Jain, Scott Lucia, Alkesh Jani
BACKGROUND: Prolonged cold ischemia is a risk factor for delayed graft function of kidney transplants, and is associated with caspase-3 mediated apoptotic tubular cell death. We hypothesized that treatment of tubular cells and donor kidneys during cold storage with a caspase inhibitor before transplant would reduce tubular cell apoptosis and improve kidney function after transplant. METHODS: Mouse tubular cells were incubated with either DMSO or Q-VD-OPh during cold storage in saline followed by rewarming in normal media...
May 1, 2018: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755673/role-of-epigenetic-factors-in-the-selection-of-the-alternative-splicing-isoforms-of-human-kras-in-colorectal-cancer-cell-lines
#15
Ángela L Riffo-Campos, Francisco Gimeno-Valiente, Fernanda M Rodríguez, Andrés Cervantes, Gerardo López-Rodas, Luis Franco, Josefa Castillo
Mutation-driven activation of KRAS is crucial to cancer development. The human gene yields four mRNA splicing isoforms, 4A and 4B being translated to protein. Their different properties and oncogenic potential have been studied, but the mechanisms deciding the ratio 4A/4B are not known. To address this issue, the expression of the four KRAS isoforms was determined in 9 human colorectal cancer cell lines. HCT116 and SW48 were further selected because they present the highest difference in the ratio 4A/4B (twice as much in HCT116 than in SW48)...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752437/caspase-mediated-cleavage-of-the-centrosomal-proteins-during-apoptosis
#16
Mi Young Seo, Kunsoo Rhee
The centrosome is the major microtubule-organizing center and plays important roles in intracellular transport, cellular morphology, and motility. In mitotic cells, centrosomes function as spindle poles to pull a set of chromosomes into daughter cells. In quiescent cells, primary cilia are originated from the centrosomes. Given its involvement in various cellular processes, it is little surprising that the organelle would also participate in apoptotic events. However, it remains elusive how the centrosome changes in structure and organization during apoptosis...
May 11, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751831/intravenous-injection-of-allogeneic-umbilical-cord-derived-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-reduces-the-infarct-area-and-ameliorates-cardiac-function-in-a-porcine-model-of-acute-myocardial-infarction
#17
Meikuang Lim, Weiqiang Wang, Lu Liang, Zhi-Bo Han, Zongjin Li, Jie Geng, Meng Zhao, Honghong Jia, Jie Feng, Zhe Wei, Baoquan Song, Jiemin Zhang, Jun Li, Tianwen Liu, Fan Wang, Ting Li, Jianming Li, Yihu Fang, Jianhua Gao, Zhongchao Han
BACKGROUND: Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) therapy has been widely recognized as a feasible strategy for regenerating injured myocardial tissue. However, little is known about the efficacy of intravenous injection of allogeneic umbilical cord (UC) MSCs in preclinical models of porcine myocardial infarction. METHODS: Different dosages of allogeneic UC-MSCs or the vehicle [phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)] were delivered intravenously into an acute myocardial infarction (AMI) porcine model twice after coronary ligation...
May 11, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750702/morphologic-features-of-gastric-type-cervical-adenocarcinoma-in-small-surgical-and-cytology-specimens
#18
Gulisa Turashvili, Elizabeth G Morency, Mihaela Kracun, Deborah F DeLair, Sarah Chiang, Robert A Soslow, Kay J Park, Rajmohan Murali
Gastric-type cervical adenocarcinoma (GCA) is a human papillomavirus-unassociated, aggressive, chemorefractory tumor. Well-differentiated examples may exhibit bland morphologic appearances, which could potentially lead to misdiagnosis, particularly in limited material. We sought to characterize the morphologic features of GCA in surgical biopsy and cytology specimens. We identified patients with histologic diagnoses of GCA or minimal-deviation adenocarcinoma between 2004 and 2017. Available slides from biopsy, curettage, and cytology specimens were reviewed...
May 10, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750048/genitogluteal-porokeratosis-a-clinical-review
#19
REVIEW
Rajiv Joshi, Khushboo Minni
Porokeratosis is an uncommon disorder of keratinization that presents with keratotic papules or annular plaques that expand centrifugally with a thread-like elevated border. A distinctive histologic structure, the cornoid lamella, is diagnostic of this disorder and consists of a column of parakeratosis with the absence of the granular layer and dyskeratotic cells in the upper spinous zone. Porokeratosis confined to the genitogluteal region is rare and may be subclassified into three types, namely, classical porokeratosis on the genital region, ptychotropic porokeratosis most often seen in the natal cleft and buttocks and penoscrotal porokeratosis that is seen on the penis and adjacent scrotal skin in young men in their third decade of life...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746551/a-multi-chamber-microfluidic-intestinal-barrier-model-using-caco-2-cells-for-drug-transport-studies
#20
Hsih-Yin Tan, Sofie Trier, Ulrik L Rahbek, Martin Dufva, Jörg P Kutter, Thomas L Andresen
This paper presents the design and fabrication of a multi-layer and multi-chamber microchip system using thiol-ene 'click chemistry' aimed for drug transport studies across tissue barrier models. The fabrication process enables rapid prototyping of multi-layer microfluidic chips using different thiol-ene polymer mixtures, where porous Teflon membranes for cell monolayer growth were incorporated by masked sandwiching thiol-ene-based fluid layers. Electrodes for trans-epithelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were incorporated using low-melting soldering wires in combination with platinum wires, enabling parallel real-time monitoring of barrier integrity for the eight chambers...
2018: PloS One
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