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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903130/risk-factors-and-mortality-in-the-carbapenem-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-infection-case-control-study
#1
Fethiye Akgul, Ilkay Bozkurt, Mustafa Sunbul, Saban Esen, Hakan Leblebicioglu
Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) has been known as a nosocomial pathogen, both for the last 10 years in Turkey and for 20 years worldwide. Due to limited treatment options and high mortality rates, despite improvements in the field of medicine at the present time, CRKP is still a big threat for public health. This study was carried out between the dates of January 2010 and September 2014. Patients ≥18 who were hospitalized for at least 72 h and who also had CRKP growth were included in the study as a case group...
December 1, 2016: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897206/the-incidence-and-drug-resistance-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-mainland-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#2
Chenjie Tang, Lunbiao Cui, Yuqiao Xu, Le Xie, Pengfei Sun, Chengcheng Liu, Wenying Xia, Genyan Liu
It has been widely reported that the incidence and severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) have increased dramatically in North America and Europe. However, little is known about CDI in Mainland China. In this study, we aimed to investigate the incidence of CDI and the main epidemic and drug-resistant strains of C. difficile in Mainland China through meta-analysis of related studies published after the year 2010. A total of 51 eligible studies were included. The pooled incidence of toxigenic C. difficile among patients with diarrhoea was 14% (95% CI = 12-16%)...
November 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895019/nephrotoxicity-during-vancomycin-therapy-in-combination-with-piperacillin-tazobactam-or-cefepime
#3
W Cliff Rutter, Jessica N Cox, Craig A Martin, Donna R Burgess, David S Burgess
BACKGROUND: Recent reports have demonstrated that vancomycin (VAN) may lead to an increase in acute kidney injury (AKI) when combined with anti-pseudomonal beta-lactams. This study compared the incidence of AKI associated with VAN plus piperacillin-tazobactam (TZP) or cefepime (FEP). METHODS: This was a retrospective, matched cohort study at an academic medical center between September 2010 and September 2014 including adult patients receiving TZP-VAN or FEP-VAN for at least 48 hours and without severe chronic or structural kidney disease, dialysis, pregnancy, cystic fibrosis, or hospital transfer...
November 28, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894388/-analysis-of-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-isolated-from-541-hospitalized-children-with-burn-infection
#4
J X Dai, L Li, L Xu, Z H Chen, X Y Li, M Liu, Y Q Wen, X D Chen
Objective: To investigate the distribution and drug resistance of pathogens isolated from hospitalized children with burn infection. Methods: Totally 541 patients were hospitalized in Fujian Medical University Union Hospital, the 180th Hospital of Chinese People's Liberation Army(PLA), the 92th Hospital of PLA, and Longyan First Hospital from January 2013 to December 2015. Totally 848 clinical specimens (blood, catheter tip attachments, wound exudate, etc.) were collected for pathogen detection. After being identified by an automatic microbiological identification system, drug resistance of pathogens to 41 commonly-used antibiotics in clinic including gentamicin, aztreonam, erythromycin, clindamycin, etc...
November 20, 2016: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891050/evaluating-the-effect-of-oxygen-concentrations-on-antibiotic-sensitivity-growth-and-biofilm-formation-of-human-pathogens
#5
Shilpi Gupta, Nozrin Laskar, Daniel E Kadouri
Standard antimicrobial susceptibility tests are performed in vitro under normal room oxygen conditions to predict the in vivo effectiveness of antimicrobial therapy. The aim of this study was to conduct a comprehensive analysis of the effect of different oxygen levels on the antibiotic susceptibility of two strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. It was found that anoxic conditions caused reduced sensitivity of bacteria to aminoglycoside antibiotics in four of six bacteria used in the study...
2016: Microbiology Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890724/clinical-characteristics-and-antimicrobial-susceptibilities-of-anaerobic-bacteremia-in-an-acute-care-hospital
#6
Thean Yen Tan, Lily Siew Yong Ng, Lee Ling Kwang, Suma Rao, Li Ching Eng
: This study investigated the clinical features of anaerobic bacteraemia in an acute-care hospital, and evaluated the antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates to commonly available antibiotics. MATERIALS & METHODS: Microbiological and epidemiological data from 2009-2011were extracted from the laboratory information system and electronic medical records. One hundred and eleven unique patient episodes consisting of 116 anaerobic isolates were selected for clinical review and antibiotic susceptibility testing...
November 24, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889371/identification-and-molecular-characterization-of-escherichia-coli-blashv-genes-in-a-chinese-teaching-hospital
#7
Mei Zhu, Guangjian Yang, Ailing Li, Li Zong, Zhaoguang Dong, Junwan Lu, Kaibo Zhang, Cong Cheng, Qingli Chang, Xiuying Wu, Jianchao Ying, Xianneng Li, Li Ding, Haixiao Zheng, Junping Yu, Jun Ying, Teng Xu, Huiguang Yi, Peizhen Li, Kewei Li, Songquan Wu, Qiyu Bao, Junrong Wang
Escherichia coli (E. coli) commonly reside in human intestine and most E. coli strains are harmless, but some serotypes cause serious food poisoning. This study identified and molecularly characterized E. coli blaSHV genes from 490 E. coli strains with multi-drug resistance in a hospital population. PCR and molecular cloning and southern blot were performed to assess functions and localizations of this resistant E. coli gene and the pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was utilized to demonstrate the clonal relatedness of the positive E...
November 23, 2016: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888542/clinical-outcomes-of-extended-versus-intermittent-infusion-of-piperacillin-tazobactam-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-clinical-trial
#8
Sheung-Yin Fan, Hoi-Ping Shum, Wing-Yee Cheng, Yat-Hei Chan, Sik-Yin McShirley Leung, Wing-Wa Yan
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To determine whether critically ill patients receiving extended-infusion (EI) piperacillin/tazobactam would have improved clinical outcomes compared with patients receiving intermittent infusions. DESIGN: Single-center, open-label, prospective study. SETTING: Twenty-two-bed intensive care unit (ICU) in a regional hospital in Hong Kong. PATIENTS: A total of 367 adults who had a diagnosis of either bacterial infection or neutropenic fever and had received treatment with piperacillin/tazobactam for at least 48 hours between December 1, 2013, and August 31, 2015...
November 26, 2016: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886041/antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-before-and-after-initiation-of-inhaled-tobramycin-in-bulgaria
#9
Guergana Petrova, Tanya Strateva, Dimitrinka Miteva, Snezhina Lazova, Penka Perenovska
INTRODUCTION: In aim to achieve better infection control and possible eradication of the pathogens involved in chronic infections of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) scientists have developed a new way to administer antimicrobials - inhalation. The first and so far the only available inhalable antimicrobial in Bulgaria is inhaled tobramycin (TOBI), introduced in 2009. We aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from cystic fibrosis (CF) patients before and after initiation of TOBI in the regular treatment regimen...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885558/aeromonas-and-plesiomonas-species-from-scarlet-ibis-eudocimus-ruber-and-their-environment-monitoring-antimicrobial-susceptibility-and-virulence
#10
Débora Souza Collares Maia Castelo-Branco, Aline Lobão da Silva, Frederico Ozanan Barros Monteiro, Glaucia Morgana de Melo Guedes, Jamille Alencar Sales, Jonathas Sales de Oliveira, José Erisvaldo Maia Junior, Stefânia Araújo Miranda, José Júlio Costa Sidrim, Lucas Pereira de Alencar, Raimunda Sâmia Nogueira Brilhante, Rossana de Aguiar Cordeiro, Tereza de Jesus Pinheiro Gomes Bandeira, Waldemiro de Aquino Pereira Neto, Marcos Fábio Gadelha Rocha
The present study aimed at evaluating the role of captive scarlet ibises (Eudocimus ruber) and their environment as reservoirs of Aeromonas spp. and Plesiomonas spp., and analyzing the in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility and virulence of the recovered bacterial isolates. Thus, non-lactose and weak-lactose fermenting, oxidase positive Gram-negative bacilli were recovered from cloacal samples (n = 30) of scarlet ibises kept in a conservational facility and from water samples (n = 30) from their environment...
November 24, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881616/performance-of-vitek%C3%A2-2-for-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-with-vitek%C3%A2-2-2009-fda-and-clsi-m100s-26th-edition-breakpoints
#11
April M Bobenchik, Eszter Deak, Janet A Hindler, Carmen L Charlton, Romney M Humphries
Performance of Vitek 2 AST-GN69 and AST-XN06 cards was compared to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) reference broth microdilution (BMD) for 99 isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 26 Acinetobacter baumannii and 11 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia In total 15 antimicrobials were evaluated, 11 for P. aeruginosa, 14 for A. baumannii, and 2 for S. maltophilia. Categorical agreement (CA) was assessed using both Vitek 2 breakpoints and 2016 CLSI M100S 26(th) edition breakpoints. Essential agreement for P...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876276/piperacillin-tazobactam-as-an-alternative-antibiotic-therapy-to-carbapenems-in-the-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infections-due-to-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-enterobacteriaceae-an-in-silico-pharmacokinetic-study
#12
Hélène Guet-Revillet, Elise Tomini, Aurélie Emirian, Olivier Join-Lambert, Hervé Lécuyer, Jean-Ralph Zahar, Vincent Jullien
Piperacillin/tazobactam (TZP) as an alternative treatment to carbapenems for infections involving extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) remains debated. In this study, the probabilities of pharmacodynamic (PD) target attainment with different TZP regimens in ESBL-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-Ec) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) were evaluated in the context of pyelonephritis. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 144 ESBL-Ec and 111 ESBL-Kp from pyelonephritis were measured, and two previously published population pharmacokinetic models were used to determine by Monte Carlo simulation the probabilities of reaching two PD targets (50%fT>MIC and 100%fT>MIC) with TZP doses of 4 g three times daily and 4...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873451/a-prospective-randomized-trial-comparing-piperacillin-tazobactam-with-meropenem-as-empirical-antibiotic-treatment-of-febrile-neutropenic-children-and-adolescents-with-hematologic-and-malignant-disorders
#13
Hirozumi Sano, Ryoji Kobayashi, Daisuke Suzuki, Daiki Hori, Kenji Kishimoto, Kunihiko Kobayashi
BACKGROUND: This randomized prospective study was designed to assess whether piperacillin/tazobactam (PIPC/TAZ) is as effective as meropenem (MEPM) as a first-line antibiotic treatment for febrile neutropenia (FN). PROCEDURE: FN episodes were randomly assigned to receive either PIPC/TAZ (337.5 mg/kg per day in three doses, 1-hr DIV, maximum 13.5 g per day) or MEPM (120 mg/kg per day in three doses, 1-hr DIV, maximum 3 g per day). Clinical responses were evaluated 120 hr after the DIV...
November 22, 2016: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867083/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-among-bacteroides-species-and-parabacteroides-species-in-the-united-states-from-2010-2012-with-comparison-to-2008-2009
#14
REVIEW
D R Snydman, N V Jacobus, L A McDermott, E J C Goldstein, L Harrell, S G Jenkins, D Newton, R Patel, D W Hecht
The susceptibility trends for Bacteroides fragilis and related species against various antibiotics were determined using data from 3 years of surveillance (2010-2012) on 779 isolates referred by 7 medical centers. The antibiotic test panel included imipenem, ertapenem, meropenem, ampicillin-sulbactam, piperacillin-tazobactam, cefoxitin, clindamycin, moxifloxacin, tigecycline, linezolid, chloramphenicol and . MICs were determined using the agar dilution CLSI reference method. Carbapenem resistance remained low (range 1...
November 17, 2016: Anaerobe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861994/detection-of-drug-responsive-b-lymphocytes-and-anti-drug-igg-in-patients-with-%C3%AE-lactam-hypersensitivity
#15
Mohammed O Amali, Andrew Sullivan, Rosalind E Jenkins, John Farrell, Xiaoli Meng, Lee Faulkner, Paul Whitaker, Daniel Peckham, B Kevin Park, Dean J Naisbitt
BACKGROUND: Delayed-type β-lactam hypersensitivity develops in subset of patients. The cellular immunological processes that underlie the drug-specific response have been described; however, little is known about involvement of the humoral immune system. Thus, the aim of this study was to utilize piperacillin hypersensitivity as an exemplar to (1) develop cell culture methods for the detection of drug-specific B cell responses, (2) characterize drug-specific IgG subtypes and (3) assess reactivity of IgG antibodies against proteins modified to different levels with piperacillin haptens...
November 15, 2016: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861767/antibiotic-resistance-in-healthcare-related-and-nosocomial-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#16
Philipp Lutz, Hans Dieter Nischalke, Benjamin Krämer, Felix Goeser, Dominik J Kaczmarek, Stefan Schlabe, Marijo Parcina, Jacob Nattermann, Achim Hoerauf, Christian P Strassburg, Ulrich Spengler
BACKGROUND: Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) can be life-threatening in patients with liver cirrhosis. In contrast to community-acquired SBP, no standard treatment has been established for healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We prospectively collected healthcare-related and nosocomial SBP cases from March 2012 till February 2016 at the Department of Internal Medicine I of the University of Bonn and analysed the prevalence of antibiotic resistance among the isolated bacteria...
November 15, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856730/multidrug-and-carbapenem-resistant-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-children-united-states-1999-2012
#17
Latania K Logan, Sumanth Gandra, Siddhartha Mandal, Eili Y Klein, Jordan Levinson, Robert A Weinstein, Ramanan Laxminarayan
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common cause of healthcare-associated infection. Multidrug-resistant (MDR) (>3 classes) and carbapenem-resistant (CR) P aeruginosa are significant threats globally. We used a large reference-laboratory database to study the epidemiology of P aeruginosa in children in the United States. METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility data from the Surveillance Network were used to phenotypically identify MDR and CR P aeruginosa isolates in children aged 1 to 17 years between January 1999 and July 2012...
November 16, 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847376/relative-prevalence-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-of-clinical-isolates-of-elizabethkingia-species-based-on-16s-rrna-gene-sequencing
#18
Mi-Soon Han, Hyunsoo Kim, Yangsoon Lee, Myungsook Kim, Nam Su Ku, Jun Yong Choi, Dongeun Yong, Seok Hoon Jeong, Kyungwon Lee, Yunsop Chong
Some of the previously reported clinical isolates of E. meningoseptica could be later named species of Elizabethkingia We determined the accuracy of species identification (with two MALDI-TOF MS and the VITEK 2 GN card), relative prevalence of three Elizabethkingia spp. in clinical specimens, and antimicrobial susceptibility of the species identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Specimens for culture were collected from patients in a university hospital in Korea between 2009 and 2015. All 3 Elizabethkingia spp...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842758/characterisation-of-successive-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolates-from-a-deceased-haemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-patient
#19
Hyeon Jin Choi, Min Cheol Kil, Ji-Young Choi, Sun Ju Kim, Ki-Sup Park, Yae-Jean Kim, Kwan Soo Ko
In this study, 38 Acinetobacter baumannii isolates successively isolated from blood, skin swabs and tracheal aspirates from a single patient who died from haemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were investigated. The isolates were collected between March 2012 and August 2012. A. baumannii genotypes were determined by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In vitro antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed and colistin heteroresistance and persistence were evaluated...
November 8, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27821441/beta-lactamase-inhibitors-enhance-the-synergy-between-beta-lactam-antibiotics-and-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Karl Evans R Henson, Juwon Yim, Jordan R Smith, George Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak
The evidence for using combination therapy for the treatment of serious methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) infections is growing. In this study, we investigate the synergistic effect of daptomycin combined with piperacillin+tazobactam and ampicillin+sulbactam against MRSA using time-kill experiments. Six of 8 strains demonstrated synergy between DAP and the β-lactam/β-lactamase inhibitor (BLI) combination. In 5/8 strains, the synergy occurred only in the presence of the BLI, highlighting a role for BLIs in peptide-beta-lactam synergy...
November 7, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
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