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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679951/surgical-site-infection-rate-after-hemilaminectomy-and-laminectomy-in-dogs-without-perioperative-antibiotic-therapy
#1
Barbara A R Dyall, Hugo G Schmökel
OBJECTIVE:  The aim of this study was to retrospectively review the surgical site infection (SSI) rate in dogs undergoing laminectomies without perioperative antibiotics, and compare those data with the expected infection rate for clean surgical wounds in dogs undergoing similar procedures. METHODS:  This was a retrospective single-centre study composed of dogs that underwent hemilaminectomies or laminectomies for thoracolumbar disc herniation or lumbosacral disease during a 2-year period (during 2015 and 2016)...
April 21, 2018: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679947/tissue-factor-coagulant-activity-is-regulated-by-the-plasma-membrane-microenvironment
#2
Yuanjie Yu, Anita N Böing, Chi M Hau, Najat Hajji, Wolfram Ruf, Auguste Sturk, Rienk Nieuwland
BACKGROUND:  Tissue factor (TF) can be present in a non-coagulant and coagulant form. Whether the coagulant activity is affected by the plasma membrane microenvironment is unexplored. OBJECTIVE:  This article studies the presence and coagulant activity of human TF in plasma membrane micro-domains. METHODS:  Plasma membranes were isolated from human MIA PaCa2 cells, MDA-MB-231 cells and human vascular smooth muscle cells by Percoll gradient ultracentrifugation after cell disruption...
April 21, 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679925/tocotrienol-rich-fraction-supplementation-reduces-hyperglycemia-induced-skeletal-muscle-damage-through-regulation-of-insulin-signaling-and-oxidative-stress-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#3
Heaji Lee, Yunsook Lim
Chronic hyperglycemia induces impairment of muscle growth and development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Since skeletal muscle is the major site for disposal of ingested glucose, impaired glucose metabolism causes imbalance between protein synthesis and degradation which adversely affects physical mobility. In this study, we investigated the effect of tocotrienol-rich fraction (TRF) supplementation on skeletal muscle damage in diabetic mice. Diabetes was induced by a high-fat diet with streptozotocin (STZ) injection (100 mg/kg) in male C57BL/6J mice...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679912/effects-of-ugt2b7-scn1a-and-cyp3a4-on-the-therapeutic-response-of-sodium-valproate-treatment-in-children-with-generalized-seizures
#4
Weixing Feng, Shenghui Mei, Leting Zhu, Yazhen Yu, Weili Yang, Baoqin Gao, Xiaojuan Wu, Zhigang Zhao, Fang Fang
PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the associations between genetic polymorphisms and the effect of sodium valproate (VPA) therapy in children with generalized seizures. METHODS: A total of 174 children with generalized seizures on VPA therapy were enrolled. Steady-state trough plasma concentrations of VPA were analyzed. Seventy-six single nucleotide polymorphisms involved in the absorption, metabolism, transport, and target receptor of VPA were identified, and their associations with the therapeutic effect (seizure reduction) were evaluated using logistic regression adjusted by various influence factors...
April 14, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679911/the-effects-of-valproate-and-topiramate-use-on-serum-insulin-leptin-neuropeptide-y-and-ghrelin-levels-in-epileptic-children
#5
Nafiye Polat Çiçek, Tülay Kamaşak, Mine Serin, Aysenur Okten, Ahmet Alver, Ali Cansu
PURPOSE: Although some drugs used in the treatment of epilepsy are known to affect body weight, the hormonal factors responsible have not been sufficiently described. The purpose of this study was to compare insulin, leptin, neuropeptide Y and ghrelin levels in children with epilepsy receiving monotherapy with topiramate (TPM) and valproic acid (VPA), the drugs whose effects on body weight have been most discussed, with those of a control group. METHOD: 48 patients (25 VPA, 23 TPM) aged between 6 and 15...
April 11, 2018: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679905/qing-brick-tea-qbt-aqueous-extract-protects-monosodium-glutamate-induced-obese-mice-against-metabolic-syndrome-and-involves-up-regulation-transcription-factor-nuclear-factor-erythroid-2-related-factor-2-nrf2-antioxidant-pathway
#6
Wenqi Gao, Changyi Xiao, Jun Hu, Biaoxin Chen, Chunyan Wang, Bangping Cui, Pengyi Deng, Jian Yang, Zhifang Deng
BACKGROUND: Qing brick tea (QBT), traditional and popular beverage for Chinese people, is an important post-fermentation dark tea. Our present study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of QBT aqueous extract on metabolic syndrome (Mets) in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice and the potential mechanisms. METHOD: Monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the anti-Mets effects of QBT. Content levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonylation, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) in the skeletal muscle were assessed by commercial kits, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679903/isoharringtonine-inhibits-breast-cancer-stem-like-properties-and-stat3-signaling
#7
Wei Chen, Hui Wang, Mei Cheng, Ling Ni, Li Zou, Qin Yang, Xianghai Cai, Baowei Jiao
OBJECTIVES: Breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) contribute to breast cancer progression, relapse, and treatment resistance. Identification of the natural inhibitory components of BCSCs is therefore critical for clinical treatment. Here, we investigated whether isoharringtonine (IHT) had inhibitory effects on BCSCs in breast cancer cell lines. METHODS: HCC1806, HCC1937, and MCF7 cells were treated with IHT. The proliferation and the migration of cells were detected by MTS assay and wound healing migration assay, respectively...
April 18, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679902/new-lipophilic-isoniazid-derivatives-and-their-1-3-4-oxadiazole-analogues-synthesis-antimycobacterial-activity-and-investigation-of-their-mechanism-of-action
#8
Rudolf Vosátka, Martin Krátký, Markéta Švarcová, Jiří Janoušek, Jiřina Stolaříková, Jan Madacki, Stanislav Huszár, Katarína Mikušová, Jana Korduláková, František Trejtnar, Jarmila Vinšová
The development of novel drugs is essential for the treatment of tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections in future. A series of N-alkyl-2-isonicotinoylhydrazine-1-carboxamides was synthesized from isoniazid (INH) and then cyclized to N-alkyl-5-(pyridin-4-yl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-amines. All derivatives were characterised spectroscopically. The compounds were screened for their in vitro antimycobacterial activity against susceptible and multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb.) and nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM; M...
April 10, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679826/improving-the-organic-and-biological-fouling-resistance-and-removal-of-pharmaceutical-and-personal-care-products-through-nanofiltration-by-using-in-situ-radical-graft-polymerization
#9
Yi-Li Lin, Chia-Cheng Tsai, Nai-Yun Zheng
In this study, an insitu radical graft polarization technique using monomers of 3-sulfopropyl methacrylate potassium salt (SPM) and 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA) was applied to a commercial nanofiltration membrane (NF90) to improve its removal of six commonly detected pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) and mitigate organic and biological fouling by humic acid (HA) and sodium alginate (SA). Compared with the virgin membrane, the modified NF90 membrane exhibited considerably improved fouling resistance and an increased reversible fouling percentage, especially for SA+HA composite fouling Moreover, the PPCP removal of the modified NF90 membrane was higher than that of the virgin membrane after SA and SA+HA fouling, respectively...
April 17, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679802/the-evolving-role-of-dna-inter-strand-crosslinks-in-chemotherapy
#10
REVIEW
Halley B Rycenga, David T Long
DNA crosslinking agents make up a broad class of chemotherapy agents that target rapidly dividing cancer cells by disrupting DNA synthesis. These drugs differ widely in both chemical structure and biological effect. In cells, crosslinking agents can form multiple types of DNA lesions with varying efficiencies. Inter-strand crosslinks (ICLs) are considered to be the most cytotoxic lesion, creating a covalent roadblock to replication and transcription. Despite over 50 years in the clinic, the use of crosslinking agents that specialize in the formation of ICLs remains limited, largely due to high toxicity in patients...
April 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679796/flame-retardant-superhydrophobic-coating-derived-from-fly-ash-on-polymeric-foam-for-efficient-oil-corrosive-water-and-emulsion-separation
#11
Jintao Wang, Hongfei Wang, Guihong Geng
Developing novel oil sorbents with both superhydrophobicity and flame resistance reveals an enticing prospect for oil/water separation. In this study, superhydrophobic foam with superior flame retardancy and sorption capability is reported through a simple one-step fabrication route in alkaline water/ethanol system containing dopamine, fly ash (FA) and dodecanethiol (DT). The introduction of FA endows the foam with excellent flame retardancy, and the as-prepared foam reveals improved flame resistance compared with original and polydopamine (PDA) coated foams, The obtained foams can quickly absorb various types of oils up to 34-47 times of their own weight, and the absorbed oils can be repeatedly recovered by a simple vacuum filtration process...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679795/self-controlled-release-of-oxaliplatin-prodrug-from-d-%C3%AE-tocopheryl-polyethylene-glycol-1000-succinate-tpgs-functionalized-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-for-cancer-therapy
#12
Chaoyu Liang, Heping Wang, Min Zhang, Wei Cheng, Zihuang Li, Junpeng Nie, Gan Liu, Daizheng Lian, Zhenhua Xie, Laiqiang Huang, Xiaowei Zeng
Oxaliplatin is a promising antitumor drug, but its effectiveness is limited by its side effects in vivo. In this study, we introduced an Oxaliplatin prodrug (Oxa(IV)) self-controlled release strategy, in which Oxa(IV) is encapsulated by TPGS functionalized mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), and its release is controlled by biological stimuli, such as acidic environments in tumor tissue and high concentrations of reductants in cancer cells. Despite the lack of auxiliary "gatekeepers" to MSNs, this simplified model of Oxa(IV)-MSNs-TPGS could fine-tune the movements of the drug release...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679778/recapitulating-spatiotemporal-tumor-heterogeneity-in-vitro-through-engineered-breast-cancer-microtissues
#13
Claudia Mazio, Costantino Casale, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo Antonio Netti
Tumor and microenvironmental heterogeneity hinders the study of breast cancer biology and the assessment of therapeutic strategies, being associated with high variability and drug resistance. In this context, it is mandatory to develop three-dimensional breast tumor models able to reproduce this heterogeneity and the dynamic interaction occurring between tumor cells and microenvironment. Here we show a new breast cancer microtissue model (T-µTP) uniquely able to present intra-tumor morphological heterogeneity in a dynamic and responsive endogenous matrix...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679761/expression-profiling-and-microbial-ligand-binding-analysis-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-hmgb1-in-turbot-scophthalmus-maximus-l
#14
Xin Cai, Chengbin Gao, Baofeng Su, Fenghua Tan, Ning Yang, Guodong Wang
High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a highly conserved DNA-binding protein, was involved in nucleosome formation and transcriptional regulation, and can also act as an extracellular cytokine to trigger inflammation and immune responses. In this study, we identified a HMGB1 gene in turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). The full-length SaHMGB1 cDNA includes an open reading frame of 615 bp which encoded a 204 amino acid polypeptide with an estimated molecular mass of 23.19°kDa. SaHMGB1 was most closely related to several fish HMGB1 and shared 74...
April 18, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679746/prevalence-of-cfr-in-enterococcus-faecalis-strains-isolated-from-swine-farms-in-china-predominated-cfr-carrying-pcppf5-like-plasmids-conferring-non-linezolid-resistance-phenotype
#15
Liang-Xing Fang, Jia-Hong Duan, Mu-Ya Chen, Hui Deng, Hua-Qing Liang, Yan Q Xiong, Jian Sun, Ya-Hong Liu, Xiao-Ping Liao
The cfr gene associated with linezolid resistance has attracted wide attention. However, little is known about its prevalence and mode of transmission in Enterococcus faecalis. In this study, we investigate the prevalence and genetic environment of the cfr gene in 91 E. faecalis isolates collected from swine faecal swabs in 30 farms in Guangdong Province, China in 2012. A relatively high prevalence of cfr was identified in E. faecalis isolates (11/91, 12.1%) by PCR. All the cfr-positive E. faecalis strains had a multidrug-resistance phenotype including erythrocin, tetracycline, gentamicin, kanamicin and ciprofloxacin, except vancomycin and linezolid...
April 18, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679690/reduced-body-weight-or-increased-muscle-quality-which-is-more-important-for-improving-physical-function-following-exercise-and-weight-loss-in-overweight-and-obese-older-women
#16
Chad R Straight, Alison C Berg, Rachelle A Reed, Mary Ann Johnson, Ellen M Evans
The purpose of this study was to examine the relative contributions of changes in muscle quality and body composition to changes in lower-extremity physical function (LEPF) following a 6-month exercise and weight loss intervention in overweight and obese older women. Thirty-eight overweight and obese (BMI = 30.0 ± 4.4 kg/m2 ) older (age = 69.3 ± 4.1 y) women completed 6 months of multicomponent exercise (cardiorespiratory, resistance, balance and flexibility training) and weight loss (hypocaloric diet that reduced energy intake by ~500 kcal/d)...
April 18, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679688/uv-stabilization-of-wood-by-nano-metal-oxides-dispersed-in-propylene-glycol
#17
Sreeja Nair, Giridhar B Nagarajappa, Krishna K Pandey
Nanoparticles of some of the metal oxides are known to have high UV protective efficiency. The UV filtering efficiency of nanoparticles invariably depends on their size and stability in the dispersion. In the present work, a stable dispersion of nanoparticles of three metal oxides, zinc oxide (ZnO), cerium oxide (CeO2 ) and titanium dioxide (TiO2 ), was prepared in propylene glycol (PG) using ultrasonication. The method is easy and useful as no additional surfactant or dispersant is needed. The particle size and its distribution was confirmed by Scanning Electron Microscopy and Dynamic Light Scattering...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679679/activation-of-cyclic-gmp-dependent-protein-kinase-blocks-alcohol-mediated-cell-death-and-calcium-disruption-in-cerebellar-granule-neurons
#18
Dimitrios E Kouzoukas, Ramesh C Bhalla, Nicholas J Pantazis
Alcohol during brain development leads to the widespread neuronal death observed in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). In comparison, the mature brain is less vulnerable to alcohol. Studies into maturation-acquired alcohol resistance uncovered a protective mechanism that reduces alcohol-induced neuronal death through nitric oxide-cGMP-cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase (NO-cGMP-cGK) signaling. However, the downstream processes underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Alcohol can disrupt levels of intracellular calcium ([Ca2+ ]i ) in vulnerable neuronal populations to trigger cell death in both in vivo and in vitro models of FASD...
April 18, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679674/combined-effects-of-octenylsuccination-and-oregano-essential-oil-on-sweet-potato-starch-films-with-an-emphasis-on-water-resistance
#19
Jing Li, Fayin Ye, Lin Lei, Guohua Zhao
The perishable character of moist food products demands packages with antimicrobial activity and water resistance. Oregano essential oil (OEO) and starch octenylsuccination were first jointly applied to formulate antimicrobial and water-resistant sweet potato starch films. The results showed that octenylsuccination powerfully retarded the coalescence of oil droplets in film casting process and favoured their homogeneity in the dried films. OEO incorporation dose-dependently conferred antimicrobial activity upon the films, which was further enhanced by octenylsuccination to some degree...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679672/cellulose-acetate-composite-membranes-tailored-with-exfoliated-tungsten-disulfide-nanosheets-permeation-characteristics-and-antifouling-ability
#20
S Vetrivel, M Sri Abirami Saraswathi, D Rana, K Divya, A Nagendran
An attempt has been made to demonstrate the effects of exfoliated tungsten disulfide (E-WS2 ) nanosheets on the fabrication, permeation and anti-fouling performance of cellulose acetate (CA) ultrafiltration membranes. The E-WS2 was prepared and characterized in terms of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS) and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD). Pure and composite CA membranes were methodically characterized for its surface, chemical and morphological structure using FT-IR, XRD, SEM and water contact angle analysis...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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