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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161110/biotechnological-applications-of-an-insect-specific-alphavirus
#1
Jesse H Erasmus, Scott C Weaver
The coupling of viral and arthropod host diversity, with evolving methods of virus discovery, has resulted in the identification and classification of a growing number of novel insect-specific viruses (ISVs) that appear to be evolutionarily related to many human pathogens but have either lost or have yet to gain the ability to replicate in vertebrates. The discovery of ISVs has raised many questions as to the origin and evolution of many human pathogenic viruses and points to the role that arthropods may play in this evolutionary process...
November 21, 2017: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159756/patient-provider-communication-and-health-outcomes-among-individuals-with-hepato-pancreato-biliary-disease-in-the-usa
#2
Qinyu Chen, Eliza W Beal, Eric B Schneider, Victor Okunrintemi, Xu-Feng Zhang, Timothy M Pawlik
BACKGROUND: Patient-provider communication (PPC) is utilized as a value-based metric in pay-for-performance programs. We sought to evaluate the association of PPC with patient-reported health outcomes, as well as healthcare resource utilization among a nationally representative cohort of patients with hepato-pancreato-biliary (HPB) diagnoses. METHODS: Patients with HPB diseases were identified from the 2008-2014 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey cohort. A weighted PPC composite score was categorized using the responses from the CAHPS (Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems) survey as optimal, average, or poor...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159423/characterizing-pediatric-surgical-capacity-in-the-eastern-democratic-republic-of-congo-results-of-a-pilot-study
#3
Sarah B Cairo, Luc Malemo Kalisya, Richard Bigabwa, David H Rothstein
PURPOSE: Characterize pediatric surgical capacity in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) to identify areas of potential improvement. METHODS: The Pediatric Personnel, Infrastructure, Procedures, Equipment, and Supplies (PediPIPES) survey was used in two representative eastern DRC provinces to assess existing surgical infrastructure and capacity. We compared our results to previously published reports from other sub-Saharan African countries. RESULTS: Fourteen hospitals in the eastern DRC and 37 in 19 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries were compared...
November 20, 2017: Pediatric Surgery International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158723/the-usefulness-of-traditional-birth-attendants-to-women-living-with-hiv-in-resource-poor-settings-the-case-of-mfuwe-zambia
#4
Choolwe Muzyamba, Wim Groot, Sonila M Tomini, Milena Pavlova
Background: Although there is increased attention on the role of trained traditional birth attendants (TBAs) in maternal care, most of the research has mainly focused on providing evidence of the relevance of trained TBAs to women in general without a specific focus on women who are HIV positive, despite them being most vulnerable. Therefore, the aim of this study is to fill this gap by assessing the relevance of trained TBAs to women living with HIV in resource-poor settings by using Zambia as a case study...
2017: Tropical Medicine and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158207/school-counselors-perspectives-of-a-web-based-stepped-care-mental-health-service-for-schools-cross-sectional-online-survey
#5
Bridianne O'Dea, Catherine King, Mirjana Subotic-Kerry, Kathleen O'Moore, Helen Christensen
BACKGROUND: Mental health problems are common among youth in high school, and school counselors play a key role in the provision of school-based mental health care. However, school counselors occupy a multispecialist position that makes it difficult for them to provide care to all of those who are in need in a timely manner. A Web-based mental health service that offers screening, psychological therapy, and monitoring may help counselors manage time and provide additional oversight to students...
November 20, 2017: JMIR Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158206/pulmonary-rehabilitation-with-balance-training-for-fall-reduction-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Marla K Beauchamp, Dina Brooks, Cindy Ellerton, Annemarie Lee, Jennifer Alison, Pat G Camp, Gail Dechman, Kimberley Haines, Samantha L Harrison, Anne E Holland, Alda Marques, Rahim Moineddin, Elizabeth H Skinner, Lissa Spencer, Michael K Stickland, Feng Xie, Roger S Goldstein
BACKGROUND: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. A growing body of evidence shows that individuals with COPD have important deficits in balance control that may be associated with an increased risk of falls. Pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) is a key therapeutic intervention for individuals with COPD; however, current international guidelines do not include balance training and fall prevention strategies. OBJECTIVE: The primary aim of this trial is to determine the effects of PR with balance training compared to PR with no balance training on the 12-month rate of falls in individuals with COPD...
November 20, 2017: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157368/livestock-as-sentinels-for-an-infectious-disease-in-a-sympatric-or-adjacent-living-wildlife-reservoir-host
#7
D P Anderson, A M Gormley, M Bosson, P G Livingstone, G Nugent
A central question to address in managing wildlife diseases is how much effort and resources are required to reduce infection prevalence to below a requisite threshold? This requires surveillance for infection in at least one species involved in the infection cycle, a process that is often expensive and time-consuming but one which could be enhanced using additional sources of readily-obtainable surveillance data. We demonstrate how surveillance data from ruminant livestock monitored for bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in New Zealand can be employed in spatially-explicit modelling to help predict the probability of freedom from Mycobacterium bovis infection in a sympatric wildlife reservoir species, the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula)...
December 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157286/farmers-perception-of-termites-in-agriculture-production-and-their-indigenous-utilization-in-northwest-benin
#8
Laura Estelle Yêyinou Loko, Azize Orobiyi, Paterne Agre, Alexandre Dansi, Manuele Tamò, Yves Roisin
BACKGROUND: Although termites are considered as agricultural pests, they play an important role in maintaining the ecosystem. Therefore, it matters to investigate the farmers' perception of the impacts of the termites on the agriculture and their indigenous utilization. METHODS: A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 94 farmers through 10 villages of Atacora department, in the northwestern region of Benin, to obtain information for the development of successful strategies of termite management and conservation...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157275/the-prevent-study-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-and-acceptability-of-a-community-based-intervention-to-prevent-childhood-tuberculosis-in-lesotho-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Yael Hirsch-Moverman, Andrea A Howard, Koen Frederix, Limakatso Lebelo, Anneke Hesseling, Sharon Nachman, Joanne E Mantell, Tsepang Lekhela, Llang Bridget Maama, Wafaa M El-Sadr
BACKGROUND: Effective, evidence-based interventions to prevent childhood tuberculosis (TB) in high TB/HIV-burden, resource-limited settings are urgently needed. There is limited implementation of evidence-based contact management strategies, including isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), for child contacts of TB cases in Lesotho. METHODS/DESIGN: This mixed-methods implementation science study utilizes a two-arm cluster-randomized trial design with randomization at the health facility level...
November 21, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157251/slender-women-and-overweight-men-gender-differences-in-the-educational-gradient-in-body-weight-in-south-korea
#10
Yeonjin Lee
BACKGROUND: Little is known about the gender-specific mechanisms through which education is associated with weight status in societies that have experienced a rapid rise in their obesity rates. This study extends previous literature by examining how the link between education and weight status operates within the structure of gender relations in South Korea where huge gender differences have been observed in the educational inequalities in weight status. METHODS: Using the Korean National Health Survey (N = 17,947) conducted in 2008-2012 conditional quantile regression models were estimated to assess the associations between education and body weight distribution...
November 21, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156284/temporal-characterization-and-statistical-analysis-of-flowback-and-produced-waters-and-their-potential-for-reuse
#11
Karl Oetjen, Kevin E Chan, Kristoffer Gulmark, Jan H Christensen, Jens Blotevogel, Thomas Borch, John R Spear, Tzahi Y Cath, Christopher P Higgins
Hydraulic fracturing (HF) has allowed for the utilization of previously unattainable shale oil and gas (O&G) resources. After HF is complete, the waters used to increase the facies' permeability return uphole as wastewaters. When these waters return to the surface, they are characterized by complex organic and inorganic chemistry, and can pose a health risk if not handled correctly. Therefore, these waters must be treated or disposed of properly. However, the variability of these waters' chemical composition over time is poorly understood and likely limits the applicability of their reuse...
November 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156122/preparation-of-lignin-sds-composite-nanoparticles-and-its-application-in-pickering-emulsion-template-based-microencapsulation
#12
Yuxia Pang, Shengwen Wang, Xueqing Qiu, Yanling Luo, Hongming Lou, Jinhao Huang
Lignin is a vastly underutilized biomass resource. The preparation of water dispersed lignin nanoparticles is an effective way to realize the high-value utilization of lignin. However, the currently reported preparation methods of lignin nanoparticles still have some drawbacks, such as the requirement for toxic organic solvent or chemical modification, complicated operation process and poor dispersibility. Here, lignin/SDS composite nanoparticles (LSNPs) with outstanding water dispersibility and a size range of 70-200 nm were facilely prepared via acidifying the mixed basic solution of alkaline lignin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156016/pectus-excavatum-repair-after-sternotomy-the-chest-wall-international-group-experience-with-substernal-nuss-bars
#13
Dawn E Jaroszewski, Paul J Gustin, Frank-Martin Haecker, Hans Pilegaard, Hyung Joo Park, Shao-Tao Tang, Shuai Li, Li Yang, Sadashige Uemura, Jose Ribas Milanez De Campos, Robert Obermeyer, Frazier W Frantz, Michele Torre, Lisa McMahon, Andre Hebra, Chih-Chun Chu, J Duncan Phillips, David M Notrica, Antonio Messineo, Robert Kelly, Mustafa Yüksel
OBJECTIVES: Patients with pectus excavatum (PE) after prior sternotomy for cardiac surgery present unique challenges for repair of PE. Open repairs have been recommended because of concerns about sternal adhesions and cardiac injury. We report a multi-institutional experience with repair utilizing substernal Nuss bars in this patient population. METHODS: Surgeons from the Chest Wall International Group were queried for experience and retrospective data on PE repair using sub-sternal Nuss bars in patients with a history of median sternotomy for cardiac surgery (November 2000 to August 2015)...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155794/an-array-based-comparative-genomic-hybridization-platform-for-efficient-detection-of-copy-number-variations-in-fast-neutron-induced-medicago-truncatula-mutants
#14
Yuhui Chen, Xianfu Wang, Shunfei Lu, Hongcheng Wang, Shibo Li, Rujin Chen
Mutants are invaluable genetic resources for gene function studies. To generate mutant collections, three types of mutagens can be utilized, including biological such as T-DNA or transposon, chemical such as ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS), or physical such as ionization radiation. The type of mutation observed varies depending on the mutagen used. For ionization radiation induced mutants, mutations include deletion, duplication, or rearrangement. While T-DNA or transposon-based mutagenesis is limited to species that are susceptible to transformation, chemical or physical mutagenesis can be applied to a broad range of species...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155579/catalytic-conversion-of-carbohydrates-to-initial-platform-chemicals-chemistry-and-sustainability
#15
László T Mika, Edit Cséfalvay, Áron Németh
The replacement of fossil resources that currently provide more than 90% of our energy needs and feedstocks of the chemical industry in combination with reduced emission of carbon dioxide is one of the most pressing challenges of mankind. Biomass as a globally available resource has been proposed as an alternative feedstock for production of basic building blocks, which could partially or even fully replace the currently utilized fossil-based ones in well-established chemical processes. The destruction of lignocellulosic feed followed by oxygen removal from its cellulose and hemicellulose content by catalytic processes results in the formation of initial platform chemicals (IPCs)...
November 20, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153973/airborn-gamma-ray-spectrometric-data-as-guide-for-probable-hydrocarbon-accumulations-at-al-laqitah-area-central-eastern-desert-of-egypt
#16
Ahmed A Nigm, Mohamed A S Youssef, Fatema M Abdelwahab
An exploration method has been developed to understand the relation between the radiometric measurements and the subsurface petroleum accumulations, where subtle anomalous patterns of radiation flux are detected over subsurface hydrocarbon basins. This technique is mainly based on utilizing the aerial gamma-ray spectral data in the prospecting for petroleum in stratigraphic and structural traps. Al-Laqitah area, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt, was selected to apply this method on its recorded aerial gamma-ray spectrometric survey data...
November 1, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153077/twitter-101-and-beyond-introduction-to-social-media-platforms-available-to-practicing-hematologist-oncologists
#17
REVIEW
Michael A Thompson, Jenny Ahlstrom, Don S Dizon, Yash Gad, Greg Matthews, Howard J Luks, Andrew Schorr
Social media utilizes specific media platforms to allow increased interactivity between participants. These platforms serve diverse groups and purposes including participation from patients, family caregivers, research scientists, physicians, and pharmaceutical companies. Utilization of these information outlets has increased with integration at conferences and between conferences with the use of hashtags and "chats". In the realm of the "e-Patient" it is key to not underestimate your audience. Highly technical information is just as useful as a basic post...
October 2017: Seminars in Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152988/value-and-innovation-of-direct-acting-antivirals-long-term-health-outcomes-of-the-strategic-plan-for-the-management-of-hepatitis-c-in-spain
#18
Juan Turnes, Raquel Domínguez-Hernández, Miguel Ángel Casado
OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term healthcare costs and health outcome in association with the access to new direct-acting antivirals (DAAs), during the first year of the National Strategic Plan for Chronic Hepatitis C (SPCHC) in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) in Spain. METHODS: A decision tree and a lifetime Markov model were developed to simulate the natural history, morbidity, and mortality of a cohort of 51,900 patients with CHC before (pre-DAA strategy) and after (post-DAA strategy) access to DAA, following SPCHC approval...
November 20, 2017: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152029/portable-detection-of-trace-metals-in-airborne-particulates-and-sediments-via-%C3%AE-pads-and-smartphone
#19
Yuan Jia, Hui Dong, Jianping Zheng, Hao Sun
Particulate matter (PM), a key indicator of air pollution by natural and anthropogenic activities, contributes to a wide spectrum of diseases that lead to a shortening of life expectancy. It has been recognized that trace metals in airborne PM are highly toxic and can be correlated with lesion in respiratory, gastrointestinal, immunological, and hematological systems. Traditional methods for trace metal assay require sophisticated instrumentations and highly trained operators in centralized laboratories. In this work, by integrating the technologies of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices, additive manufacturing, smartphone, and colorimetric sensing, we developed the first smartphone based paper microfluidic platform for portable, disposable, and quantitative measurements of cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), and iron (Fe) in ambient air and street sediments...
November 2017: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151654/development-and-evaluation-of-simple-dot-blot-assays-for-rapid-detection-of-staphylococcal-enterotoxin-a-in-food
#20
Mamta Singh, Ravi Kant Agrawal, Bhoj Raj Singh, Sanjod Kumar Mendiratta, Rajesh Kumar Agarwal, Mithilesh Kumar Singh, Deepak Kumar
The present study was aimed to develop and evaluate dot-blot assays for rapid detection of staphylococcal enterotoxin-A (SEA) in food. Dot blots were developed in two formats, indirect and sandwich utilizing mouse monoclonal anti-SEA and rabbit polyclonal anti-SEA antibodies. In indirect dot-blot format, recombinant SEA was directly coated on NCM dot-blot strip and detection was carried out by anti-SEA antibodies. In sandwich dot-blot format, SEA was trapped between anti-SEA capture and detection antibodies...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Microbiology
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