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Mette Tranberg, Peter Vedsted, Bodil Hammer Bech, Morten Bondo Christensen, Søren Birkeland, Grete Moth
BACKGROUND: Low patient satisfaction with the quality of out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) has been linked with several individual and organizational factors. However, findings have been ambiguous and may not apply to the Danish out-of-hours (OOH) setting in which general practitioners (GPs) perform the initial telephone triage. This study aimed to identify patient-related, GP-related and organizational factors associated with low patient satisfaction. METHODS: The study was based on data from a 1-year population-based survey of OOH-PC (LV-KOS) in the Central Denmark Region in 2010-2011...
January 11, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Tobias Hens, Joël Brugger, Susan Cumberland, Barbara Etschmann, Andrew J Frierdich
The recrystallization of Mn(III,IV) oxides is catalyzed by aqueous Mn(II) (Mn(II)aq) during (bio)geochemical Mn redox cycling. It is poorly understood how trace metals associated with Mn oxides (e.g., Ni) are cycled during such recrystallization. Here, we use X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) to examine the speciation of Ni associated with manganite (γ-Mn(III)OOH) suspensions in the presence or absence of Mn(II)aq under variable pH conditions (pH 5.5 and 7.5). In a second set of experiments, we used a 62Ni isotope tracer to quantify the amount of dissolved Ni that exchanges with Ni incorporated in the manganite crystal structure during reactions in 1 mM Mn(II)aq and in Mn(II)-free solutions...
January 11, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Yingxiang Yu, Yiran Lv, Bin Yao, Liguang Duan, Xiaoyuan Zhang, Lan Xie, Cuiqing Chang
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Information technology has been previously used for the research and practice of health promotion. Appropriate and effective health promotion methods used by professional groups remain to be investigated. This study aimed to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of a weight management program among the Chinese occupational population using and a novel information technology exercise prescription. STUDY DESIGN AND PARTICIPANTS: A 3-month open, self-monitored intervention trial, involving individualized pedometer-assisted exercise prescription and a one-time targeted dietary guidance prior to exercise was conducted on the Chinese occupational population aged 18-65 years in China from 2015 to 2016...
2018: PloS One
Xiao-Chen Liu, Hui-Hui Du, Li-Min Fu, Rui-Min Han, Peng Wang, Xi-Cheng Ai, Jian-Ping Zhang, Leif H Skibsted
We have attempted to evaluate, on the basis of optical microscopy for single giant unilamellar vesicle (GUV), the potency of antioxidants in protecting GUV membranes from oxidative destruction. Photosensitized membrane budding of GUVs prepared from soybean phosphatidylcholine with chlorophyll a (Chl a) and β-carotene (β-Car) as photosensitizer and protector, respectively, were followed by microscopic imaging. A dimensionless entropy parameter, ΔE, as derived from the time resolved microscopic images, was employed to describe the evolution of morphological variation of GUVs...
January 3, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Grete Moth, Linda Huibers, Astrid Ovesen, Morten Bondo Christensen, Peter Vedsted
BACKGROUND: Out-of-hours primary care (OOH-PC) is intended to provide medical care services for health problems that cannot wait until normal office hours. Children under five years of age represent about 19% of all OOH-PC contacts in Denmark, and the frequency of calls assessed as severe by health professionals is markedly lower for children than for other age groups. Several studies have questioned the appropriateness of the parents' use of OOH-PC. We aimed to identify factors associated with calls from parents of pre-school children concerning perceived non-severe health problems that were ranked by the triaging GPs as more appropriate for GP office hours (defined as 'medically irrelevant')...
December 28, 2017: BMC Family Practice
Ji Liu, Xiaofeng Fan, Chang Q Sun, Weiguang Zhu
Detailed density functional theory (DFT) calculations of the adsorption energies (Ead) for oxygen on monolayer Pd on top of the Pd-Cu face-centered cubic (FCC) alloy and intermetallic B2 structure revealed a linear correspondence between the adsorption energies and the d-band center position. The calculated barrier (Ebarrier) for oxygen dissociation depends linearly on the reaction energy difference (ΔE). The O₂ has a stronger adsorption strength and smaller barrier on the intermetallic Pd-Cu surface than on its FCC alloy surface...
December 26, 2017: Materials
Mikel Leturiondo, Sofía Ruiz de Gauna, Jesus M Ruiz, J Julio Gutiérrez, Luis A Leturiondo, Digna M González-Otero, James K Russell, Dana Zive, Mohamud Daya
BACKGROUND: Capnography has been proposed as a method for monitoring the ventilation rate during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). A high incidence (above 70%) of capnograms distorted by chest compression induced oscillations has been previously reported in out-of-hospital (OOH) CPR. The aim of the study was to better characterize the chest compression artefact and to evaluate its influence on the performance of a capnogram-based ventilation detector during OOH CPR. METHODS: Data from the MRx monitor-defibrillator were extracted from OOH cardiac arrest episodes...
December 12, 2017: Resuscitation
Eric Gonzalez, Kevin M Johnson, Pradeep S Pallan, Thanh T N Phan, Wei Zhang, L I Lei, Zdzislaw Wawrzak, Francis K Yoshimoto, Martin Egli, F Peter Guengerich
Cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 catalyzes the oxidations of progesterone and pregnenolone and is the major source of androgens. The enzyme catalyzes both 17α-hydroxylation and a subsequent 17α, 20-lyase reaction, and several mechanisms have been proposed for the latter step. Zebrafish P450 17A2 catalyzes only the 17α-hydroxylations. We previously reported high similarity of the crystal structures of zebrafish P450 17A1 and 17A2 and human P450 17A1 (Pallan et al. (2015) J. Biol. Chem. 290, 3248- 3268). Five residues near the heme, which differed, were changed...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Feng Shao, Lifei Gu, Huijuan Chen, Ronghua Liu, Huilian Huang, Lanying Chen, Ming Yang
Background: Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) fruit has enjoyed a great popularity as a pleasant-tasting food associated with hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects. Objective: Our aim was to screen the effective fraction of hawthorn fruit in the treatment of hyperlipidemia rats. Materials and Methods: In this study, ethanol extract of hawthorn fruit (Fr.1) and four fractionated extracts (Fr.2, Fr.3, Fr.4, and Fr.5) were compared to total phenol content evaluated using Folin-Ciocalteu method, and hypolipidemic and antioxidant effects were assessed in hyperlipidemic rats...
October 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Weiyu Chen, Ghassan J Maghzal, Anita Ayer, Cacang Suarna, Louise L Dunn, Roland Stocker
Bilirubin, a byproduct of heme catabolism, has been shown to be an effective lipid-soluble antioxidant in vitro. Bilirubin is able to inhibit free radical chain reactions and protects against oxidant-induced damage in vitro and ex vivo. However, direct evidence for bilirubin's antioxidant effects in vivo remains limited. As bilirubin is formed from biliverdin by biliverdin reductase, we generated global biliverdin reductase-a gene knockout (Bvra-/-) mice to assess the contribution of bilirubin as an endogenous antioxidant...
November 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Joan Serrano-Plana, Ferran Acuña-Parés, Valeria Dantignana, Williamson N Oloo, Esther Castillo, Apparao Draksharapu, Christopher J Whiteoak, Vlad Martin-Diaconescu, Manuel G Basallote, Josep M Luis, Lawrence Que, Miquel Costas, Anna Company
A novel hydroperoxoiron(III) species [FeIII(OOH)(MeCN)(PyNMe3)]2+ (3) has been generated by reaction of its ferrous precursor [FeII(CF3SO3)2(PyNMe3)] (1) with hydrogen peroxide at low temperatures. This species has been characterized by several spectroscopic techniques and cryospray mass spectrometry. Similar to most of the previously described low-spin hydroperoxoiron(III) compounds, 3 behaves as a sluggish oxidant and it is not kinetically competent for breaking weak C-H bonds. However, triflic acid addition makes 3 much more reactive towards organic substrates and becomes capable of oxidizing unactivated C-H bonds with high stereospecificity...
November 28, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
S J Williams, A V Halls, S Tonkin-Crine, M V Moore, S E Latter, P Little, C Eyles, K Postle, G M Leydon
Background: Interventions are needed to reduce unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs). Although community antibiotic prescribing appears to be decreasing in the UK, figures for out-of-hours (OOH) prescribing have substantially increased. Understanding the factors influencing prescribing in OOH and any perceived differences between general practitioner (GP) and nurse prescriber (NP) prescribing habits may enable the development of tailored interventions promoting optimal prescribing in this setting...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Jisheng Zhang, Wen-Jie Wei, Xiaoyan Lu, Hang Yang, Zhuqi Chen, Rong-Zhen Liao, Guochuan Yin
Nonredox metal ions play significant roles in a wide range of biological and chemical oxidations in which they can modulate the oxidative reactivity of those redox metal ions. With environmentally benign H2O2 as oxidant, the influence of nonredox metal ions on an iron(II) complex mediated olefin epoxidation was investigated through experimental studies and theoretical calculations. It was found that adding nonredox metal ions like Sc3+ can substantially improve the oxygen transfer efficiency of the iron(II) complex toward cyclooctene epoxidation even in the presence of certain amount of water...
November 28, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Laura C Dzugan, Jamie Matthews, Amitabha Sinha, Anne B McCoy
The yield of vibrationally excited OH fragments resulting from the vibrationally mediated photodissociation of methyl hydroperoxide (CH3OOH) excited in the vicinity of its 2νOH and 3νOH stretching overtones is compared with that resulting from excitation of the molecule to states with three quanta in the CH stretches and to the state with two quanta in the OH stretch and one in the OOH bend (2νOH + νOOH). We find that the OH fragment vibrational state distribution depends strongly on the vibrational state of CH3OOH prior to photodissociation...
November 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Taryn D Palluccio, Xiaochen Cai, Subhojit Majumdar, Leonardo F Serafim, Neil C Tomson, Karl Wieghardt, Catherine S J Cazin, Steven P Nolan, Elena V Rybak-Akimova, Miguel Angel Fernández-González, Manuel Temprado, Burjor Captain, Carl D Hoff
Reaction of [Pd(IPr)2] (IPr = 1,3-bis-(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene) and O2 leads to the surprising discovery that at low temperature the initial reaction product is a highly labile peroxide complex cis-[Pd(IPr)2(η2-O2)]. At temperatures of above ≈-40°C, cis-[Pd(IPr)2(η2-O2)] adds a second O2 to form trans-[Pd(IPr)2(η1-O2)2]. Squid magnetometry and EPR studies yield data that are consistent with a singlet diradical ground state with a thermally accessible triplet state for this unique bis-superoxide complex...
November 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Fabio Ribeiro Negreiros, Luana Sucupira Pedroza, Flavio Leandro Souza, Gustavo Martini Dalpian
Haematite (α-Fe2O3) is a potential candidate for photo-electrochemical water splitting. It is abundant and its electronic properties fit those needed for this kind of device. However, very little is known about the intermediate steps of this photon-induced water splitting process. We propose here that surface iron vacancies can be the main defects responsible for the activity of haematite in the photoelectrochemical reaction. We perform DFT+U calculations and explicitly add holes to show that these defects are common in iron-terminated (0001) surfaces...
November 20, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ryo Yamauchi, Tomomi Kinoshita, Yoshinori Hasegawa, Satoshi Iwamoto
The secondary process of lipid peroxidation proceeds by the free radical reaction to produce some toxic aldehydes. Since γ-tocopherol (γ-TH), one of the major forms of vitamin E in some vegetable oils, acts as a free radical scavenger, γ-TH may suppress the formation of such aldehydes. This study reports the effect and reaction products of γ-TH on the hemin- or myoglobin-catalyzed decomposition of 1-palmitoyl-2-linoleoyl-3-sn-phosphatidylcholine 13-hydroperoxide (PLPC-OOH) in micelles and liposomes. γ-TH and PLPC-OOH in micelles were reacted in the presence of hemin, and the reaction products were characterized as 1-palmitoyl-2-[(8a-dioxy-γ-tocopherone)-12,13-epoxyoctadecenoyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (γT-OO-epoxyPLPC), 1-palmitoyl-2-[(γ-tocopheroxy)-12,13-epoxyoctadecenoyl]-3-sn-phosphatidylcholines (γT-epoxyPLPC), and the adducts of γ-TH dimer with PLPC-OOH derived epoxyperoxyl and epoxyalkyl radicals (γTD-OO-epoxyPLPC and γTD-epoxyPLPC)...
November 7, 2017: Chemistry and Physics of Lipids
Samuel I Mann, Tillmann Heinisch, Thomas R Ward, A S Borovik
Copper-hydroperoxido species (Cu(II)-OOH) have been proposed to be key intermediates in biological and synthetic oxidations. Using biotin-streptavidin (Sav) technology, artificial copper proteins have been developed to stabilize a Cu(II)-OOH complex in solution and in crystallo. Stability is achieved because the Sav host provides a local environment around the Cu-OOH that includes a network of hydrogen bonds to the hydroperoxido ligand. Systematic deletions of individual hydrogen bonds to the Cu-OOH complex were accomplished using different Sav variants and demonstrated that stability is achieved with a single hydrogen bond to the proximal O-atom of the hydroperoxido ligand: changing this interaction to only include the distal O-atom produced a reactive variant that oxidized an external substrate...
November 15, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Huayu Chen, Shuxin Ouyang, Ming Zhao, Yunxiang Li, Jinhua Ye
Water splitting has been greatly limited by the sluggish kinetics of the oxygen evolution reaction (OER). High-oxidation-state metal species are required as the favorable active sites in OER. Here, amorphous Cox-Fe-B (x is the molar ratio of Co/Fe), Co-B, and Fe-B compounds were successfully synthesized as the oxygen evolution electrocatalysts. The calculation of turnover frequency (TOF) indicates that both the Co and Fe sites are active for OER. Cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and long-term stability curves were used to demonstrate that Fe can stabilize Co in a higher oxidation level and meanwhile promote the generation of OOH-like species (the key intermediates for OER)...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Olivier Holtomo, Mama Nsangou, Jean Jules Fifen, Ousmanou Motapon
DFT methods including B3LYP, B3PW91 and M05-2x associated to 6-31+G(d,p) were used for the structural and antioxidant potency studies of phenylethyl-3,4-dihydroxy-hydrocinnamate (PDH). Solvents were employed according to their protric and aprotic character. So, calculated structures agree with the experimental data. O4H4 is propitious to scavenge radicals whatever the medium except in water where O3H3 and O4H4 are competitive. The explicit solvents of dichloromethane (DCM) and water present a disparity of OH bond dissociation enthalpy and free energy (BDE and BDFE)...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
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