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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821748/anxiety-related-experience-dependent-white-matter-structural-differences-in-adolescence-a-monozygotic-twin-difference-approach
#1
Nagesh Adluru, Zhan Luo, Carol A Van Hulle, Andrew J Schoen, Richard J Davidson, Andrew L Alexander, H Hill Goldsmith
Anxiety is linked to deficits in structural and functional connectivity between limbic structures and pre-frontal cortices. We employed a monozygotic (MZ) twin difference design to examine the relationship between structural characteristics of the uncinate fasciculus (UF) measured by Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) and anxiety symptoms in a sample of N = 100 monozygotic (genetically identical), adolescent twins. The MZ difference design allowed us focus on environmental factors that vary within twin pairs while controlling for genetic and environmental factors shared by twin pairs...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818826/test-retest-and-interreader-reproducibility-of-semiautomated-atlas-based-analysis-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-data-in-acute-cervical-spine-trauma-in-adult-patients
#2
D J Peterson, A M Rutman, D S Hippe, J G Jarvik, F H Chokshi, M R Reyes, C H Bombardier, M Mossa-Basha
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: DTI is a tool for microstructural spinal cord injury evaluation. This study evaluated the reproducibility of a semiautomated segmentation algorithm of spinal cord DTI. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-two consecutive patients undergoing acute trauma cervical spine MR imaging underwent 2 axial DTI scans in addition to their clinical scan. The datasets were put through a semiautomated probabilistic segmentation algorithm that selected white matter, gray matter, and 24 individual white matter tracts...
August 17, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818116/distinct-white-matter-microstructural-abnormalities-and-extracellular-water-increases-relate-to-cognitive-impairment-in-alzheimer-s-disease-with-and-without-cerebrovascular-disease
#3
Fang Ji, Ofer Pasternak, Siwei Liu, Yng Miin Loke, Boon Linn Choo, Saima Hilal, Xin Xu, Mohammad Kamran Ikram, Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian, Christopher Li-Hsian Chen, Juan Zhou
BACKGROUND: Mixed vascular and neurodegenerative dementia, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) with concomitant cerebrovascular disease, has emerged as the leading cause of age-related cognitive impairment. The brain white matter (WM) microstructural changes in neurodegeneration well-documented by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can originate from brain tissue or extracellular free water changes. The differential microstructural and free water changes in AD with and without cerebrovascular disease, especially in normal-appearing WM, remain largely unknown...
August 17, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817577/detailing-neuroanatomical-development-in-late-childhood-and-early-adolescence-using-noddi
#4
Alyssa Mah, Bryce Geeraert, Catherine Lebel
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) studies have provided much evidence of white and subcortical gray matter changes during late childhood and early adolescence that suggest increasing myelination, axon density, and/or fiber coherence. Neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging (NODDI) can be used to further characterize development in white and subcortical grey matter regions in the brain by improving specificity of the MRI signal compared to conventional DTI. We used measures from NODDI and DTI to examine white and subcortical gray matter development in a group of 27 healthy participants aged 8-13 years...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817574/diffusion-tensor-imaging-profiles-reveal-specific-neural-tract-distortion-in-normal-pressure-hydrocephalus
#5
Nicole C Keong, Alonso Pena, Stephen J Price, Marek Czosnyka, Zofia Czosnyka, Elise E DeVito, Charlotte R Housden, Barbara J Sahakian, John D Pickard
BACKGROUND: The pathogenesis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) remains unclear which limits both early diagnosis and prognostication. The responsiveness to intervention of differing, complex and concurrent injury patterns on imaging have not been well-characterized. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to explore the topography and reversibility of white matter injury in NPH pre- and early after shunting. METHODS: Twenty-five participants (sixteen NPH patients and nine healthy controls) underwent DTI, pre-operatively and at two weeks post-intervention in patients...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816545/role-of-diffusion-tensor-imaging-in-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-post-traumatic-anosmia
#6
Lilla Bonanno, Silvia Marino, Simona De Salvo, Rosella Ciurleo, Antonio Costa, Daniele Bruschetta, Demetrio Milardi, Galletti Francesco, Placido Bramanti, Fabrizia Caminiti
INTRODUCTION: Anosmia is a possible complication of Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Psychometric and electrophysiological methods of olfaction measure and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are the tools to evaluate the post-traumatic olfactory loss. Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) provides useful data for a better understanding of etiopathogenesis TBI-related anosmia, in particular the loss of neural connections and their eventual recovery over time. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study describes a case of TBI-related anosmia...
August 17, 2017: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815874/white-matter-alterations-associate-with-onset-symptom-dimension-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#7
Irene Bollettini, Mario Gennaro Mazza, Laura Muzzarelli, Sara Dallaspezia, Sara Poletti, Benedetta Vai, Enrico Smeraldi, Francesco Benedetti
AIM: The high heterogeneity of obsessive-compulsive disorder is best described by a multidimensional model involving symptom dimensions. Our study aimed at investigating white matter alterations associated with obsessive-compulsive disorder focusing on the impact of long lasting effect of symptom dimensions assessed at onset of the illness. Furthermore, we investigate white matter alterations associated with this disorder controlling for the impact of medications and for the prevailing current symptom dimension...
August 16, 2017: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813801/therapeutic-effects-of-an-anti-gravity-locomotor-training-alterg-on-postural-balance-and-cerebellum-structure-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#8
A H Rasooli, P M Birgani, Sh Azizi, A Shahrokhi, M M Mirbagheri
We evaluated the therapeutic effects of anti-gravity locomotor treadmill (AlterG) training on postural stability in children with Cerebral Palsy (CP) and spasticity, particularly in the lower extremity. AlterG can facilitate walking by reducing the weight of CP children by up to 80%; it can also help subjects maintain an appropriate posture during the locomotor AlterG training. Thus, we hypothesized that AlterG training, for a sufficient period of time, has a potential to produce cerebellum neuroplasticity, and consequently result in an effective permanent postural stability...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813000/an-ameliorated-prediction-of-drug-target-interactions-based-on-multi-scale-discrete-wavelet-transform-and-network-features
#9
Cong Shen, Yijie Ding, Jijun Tang, Xinying Xu, Fei Guo
The prediction of drug-target interactions (DTIs) via computational technology plays a crucial role in reducing the experimental cost. A variety of state-of-the-art methods have been proposed to improve the accuracy of DTI predictions. In this paper, we propose a kind of drug-target interactions predictor adopting multi-scale discrete wavelet transform and network features (named as DAWN) in order to solve the DTIs prediction problem. We encode the drug molecule by a substructure fingerprint with a dictionary of substructure patterns...
August 16, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812290/a-preliminary-report-of-cerebral-white-matter-microstructural-changes-associated-with-adolescent-sports-concussion-acutely-and-subacutely-using-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#10
Trevor Wu, Tricia L Merkley, Elisabeth A Wilde, Amanda Barnes, Xiaoqi Li, Zili David Chu, Stephen R McCauley, Jill V Hunter, Harvey S Levin
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has demonstrated its utility in detecting microscopic post-concussion cerebral white matter structural changes, which are not routinely evident on conventional neuroimaging modalities. In this study, we compared 10 adolescents with sports concussion (SC) to 12 orthopedically-injured (OI) individuals within 96 h and three months post injury to 12 typically-developing (TD) participants using DTI and volumetric analyses. In terms of volume, no group differences were noted between SC, OI and TD groups at both 96 h and three months post concussion...
August 15, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812201/effectiveness-of-navigation-guided-cyst-aspiration-before-resection-of-large-cystic-brain-tumors-a-proof-of-concept-for-more-radical-surgery
#11
Tae Hoon Roh, Kyoung Su Sung, Seok-Gu Kang, Ju Hyung Moon, Eui Hyun Kim, Sun Ho Kim, Jong Hee Chang
BACKGROUND: Resection of tumors close to the corticospinal tract (CST) carries a high risk of damage to the CST. For cystic tumors, aspirating the cyst before resection may reduce the risk of damage to vital structures. This study evaluated the effectiveness of cyst aspiration, by comparing the results before and after aspiration of diffusion tensor image (DTI) tractography. METHODS: This study enrolled 23 patients with large cystic brain tumors (>20 cm(3)) between 2012 and 2016...
August 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#12
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808275/screening-drug-target-interactions-with-positive-unlabeled-learning
#13
Lihong Peng, Wen Zhu, Bo Liao, Yu Duan, Min Chen, Yi Chen, Jialiang Yang
Identifying drug-target interaction (DTI) candidates is crucial for drug repositioning. However, usually only positive DTIs are deposited in known databases, which challenges computational methods to predict novel DTIs due to the lack of negative samples. To overcome this dilemma, researchers usually randomly select negative samples from unlabeled drug-target pairs, which introduces a lot of false-positives. In this study, a negative sample extraction method named NDTISE is first developed to screen strong negative DTI examples based on positive-unlabeled learning...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805691/structural-and-neuronal-integrity-measures-of-fatigue-severity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#14
Evanthia Bernitsas, Kalyan Yarraguntla, Fen Bao, Rishi Sood, Carla Santiago-Martinez, Rajkumar Govindan, Omar Khan, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad
Fatigue is a common and disabling symptom in Multiple Sclerosis (MS). However, consistent neuroimaging correlates of its severity are not fully elucidated. In this article, we study the neuronal correlates of fatigue severity in MS. Forty-three Relapsing Remitting MS (RRMS) patients with MS-related fatigue (Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) range: 1-7) and Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) ≤ 4, were divided into high fatigue (HF, FSS ≥ 5.1) and low fatigue groups (LF, FSS ≤ 3). We measured T2 lesion load using a semi-automated technique...
August 12, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802959/a-combined-tract-based-spatial-statistics-and-voxel-based-morphometry-study-of-the-first-mri-scan-after-diagnosis-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-with-subgroup-analysis
#15
A R Alruwaili, K Pannek, A Coulthard, R Henderson, N D Kurniawan, P McCombe
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: This study aims to compare the cortical and subcortical deep gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of ALS subjects and controls and to compare ALS subjects with (ALScog) and without (ALSnon-cog) cognitive impairment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was performed in 30 ALS subjects, and 19 healthy controls. Structural T1- and diffusion-weighted MRI data were analyzed using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS)...
August 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroradiology. Journal de Neuroradiologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801253/investigating-the-maturation-of-microstructure-and-radial-orientation-in-the-preterm-human-cortex-with-diffusion-mri
#16
Zach Eaton-Rosen, Benoit Scherrer, Andrew Melbourne, Sebastien Ourselin, Jeffrey J Neil, Simon K Warfield
Preterm birth disrupts and alters the complex developmental processes in the cerebral cortex. This disruption may be a contributing factor to widespread delay and cognitive difficulties in the preterm population. Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW MRI) is a noninvasive imaging technique that makes inferences about cellular structures, at scales smaller than the imaging resolution. One established finding is that DW MRI shows a transient radial alignment in the preterm cortex. In this study, we quantify this maturational process with the "radiality index", a parameter that measures directional coherence, which we expect to change rapidly in the perinatal period...
August 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799142/what-to-do-in-failed-hemispherotomy-our-clinical-series-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
REVIEW
Andrea Bartoli, Y El Hassani, B Jenny, S Momjian, C M Korff, M Seeck, S Vulliemoz, K Schaller
Hemispherotomy is an established surgical technique to cure or palliate selected, mostly young patients suffering from refractory epilepsy. However, a few patients continue to have seizures despite the surgical hemispherical disconnection. We present a case series of patients who underwent redo hemispherotomy after a first unsuccessful hemispherical disconnection and provide a roadmap for subsequent workup and treatment. The institutional database of epilepsy surgery was reviewed. Twenty-four patients who underwent hemispherotomies for refractory epilepsy were identified between 2007 and 2016...
August 10, 2017: Neurosurgical Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798672/learning-morse-code-alters-microstructural-properties-in-the-inferior-longitudinal-fasciculus-a-dti-study
#18
Lara Schlaffke, Alexander Leemans, Lauren M Schweizer, Sebastian Ocklenburg, Tobias Schmidt-Wilcke
Learning relies on neuroplasticity, which has mainly been studied in gray matter (GM). However, there is mounting evidence indicating a critical role of white matter changes involved in learning processes. One of the most important learning processes in human development is language acquisition. However, due to the length of this learning process, it has been notoriously difficult to investigate the underlying neuroplastic changes. Here, we report a novel learning paradigm to assess the role of white matter plasticity for language acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797663/improvement-of-olfactory-function-after-sinus-surgery-correlates-with-white-matter-properties-measured-by-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#19
Daniel Güllmar, Tabea Seeliger, Hilmar Gudziol, Ulf K M Teichgräber, Jürgen R Reichenbach, Orlando Guntinas-Lichius, Thomas Bitter
Impaired olfaction is associated with a volume decrease in the olfactory bulb as well as in the gray matter of cortical olfactory areas. On the other hand, restitution of an impaired olfaction results in a regain of volume in these regions. Studies investigating similar changes in the cerebral white matter are virtually not existent. The aim of this prospective study therefore was to investigate cerebral white matter using magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). 31 patients (54±13years) with olfactory impairment (chronic rhinosinusitis) and planned functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) were included...
August 7, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796748/diffusion-basis-spectral-imaging-detects-ongoing-brain-inflammation-in-virologically-well-controlled-hiv-patients
#20
Jeremy F Strain, Tricia H Burdo, Sheng-Kwei Song, Peng Sun, Omar El-Ghazzawy, Brittany Nelson, Elizabeth Westerhaus, Laurie Baker, Florin Vaida, Beau M Ances
Inflammation occurs after HIV infection and persists despite highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), measures HIV associated white matter changes, but can be confounded by inflammation. Currently, the influence of inflammation on white matter integrity in well-controlled HIV+ patients remains unknown. We used diffusion basis spectral imaging (DBSI) derived cellularity to isolate restricted water diffusion associated with inflammation separated from the anisotropic diffusion associated with axonal integrity...
August 5, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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