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Melanie Lucas, Mark E Wagshul, Meltem Izzetoglu, Roee Holtzer
Objectives: Using multi-modal neuroimaging methods the current study was designed to examine the relationship between white matter microstructural integrity (WMI) and changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2) during active walking in older adults. Consistent with neural inefficiency, we hypothesized that worse WMI would be associated with a greater increase in PFC HbO2 from single- to dual-task walking in the context of worse or similar gait performance. Method: 55 cognitively-healthy older adults (mean age=74...
June 18, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Georgios Nikolakaros, Timo Kurki, Janina Paju, Sokratis G Papageorgiou, Risto Vataja, Tuula Ilonen
Background: Non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and Korsakoff syndrome are greatly underdiagnosed. There are very few reported cases of neuropsychologically documented non-alcoholic Korsakoff syndrome, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data are scarce. Methods: We report clinical characteristics and neuropsychological as well as radiological findings from three psychiatric patients (one woman and two men) with a history of probable undiagnosed non-alcoholic Wernicke's encephalopathy and subsequent chronic memory problems...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Venkateswaran Rajagopalan, Abhijit Das, Luduan Zhang, Frank Hillary, Glenn R Wylie, Guang H Yue
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the main cause of disability in people younger than 35 in the United States. The mechanisms of TBI are complex resulting in both focal and diffuse brain damage. Fractal dimension (FD) is a measure that can characterize morphometric complexity and variability of brain structure especially white matter (WM) structure and may provide novel insights into the injuries evident following TBI. FD-based brain morphometry may provide information on WM structural changes after TBI that is more sensitive to subtle structural changes post injury compared to conventional MRI measurements...
June 16, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
M Alizadeh, M M Poplawski, J Fisher, R J T Gorniak, A Dresner, F B Mohamed, A E Flanders
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The zonally magnified oblique multislice EPI (ZOOM-EPI) diffusion-weighted sequence has been visually shown to provide superior MR diffusion image quality compared with the full-FOV single-shot EPI sequence (non-ZOOM-EPI) in the adult cervical spinal cord. The purpose of this study was to examine the diffusion tensor imaging indices in the normal human cervical spinal cord between ZOOMED and non-ZOOMED DTI acquisitions and determine whether DTI values are comparable between direct and indirect age-matched groups...
June 14, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Christophe Habas, Mario Manto
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool assessing the organization of white-matter tracts and brain microstructure in vivo. The technique takes into account the three-dimensional (3D) direction of diffusion of water in space, the brownian movements of water being constrained by the brain microstructure. The main direction of diffusion in the brain is extracted to obtain the principal direction of axonal projection within a given voxel. Overall, the diffusion tensor is a mathematic analysis of the magnitude/directionality (anisotropy) of the movement of water molecules in 3D space...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Arianna Rigon, Michelle W Voss, Lyn S Turkstra, Bilge Mutlu, Melissa C Duff
Although facial affect recognition deficits are well documented in individuals with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), little research has examined the neural mechanisms underlying these impairments. Here, we use diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), specifically the scalars fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), and radial diffusivity (RD), to examine relationships between regional white-matter integrity and two facial affect sub-skills: perceptual affect recognition abilities (measured by an affect matching task) and verbal categorization of facial affect (measured by an affect labeling task)...
June 14, 2018: Social Neuroscience
Lorenzo Carnevale, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Giovanni Grillea, Giulio Selvetella, Marianna Storto, Giuseppe Lembo, Daniela Carnevale
Aims: Hypertension is one of the main risk factor for dementia. The subtle damage provoked by chronic high blood pressure in the brain is usually evidenced by conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), in terms of white matter (WM) hyperintensities or cerebral atrophy. However, it is clear that by the time brain damage is visible, it may be too late hampering neurodegeneration. Aim of this study was to characterize a signature of early brain damage induced by hypertension, before the neurodegenerative injury manifests...
June 12, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Qiwei Yu, Weixin Yang, Yi Liu, Hong Wang, Zhuoming Chen, Jiajian Yan
RATIONALE: The corpus callosum, which is the most important fiber pathway linking the bilateral hemispheres, plays a key role in information access, as well as the functional coordination and reorganization between the bilateral hemispheres. However, whether the corpus callosum will undergo structural changes during the recovery of aphasia is still unclear. In the current study, a Chinese aphasic patient with stroke was reported to develop changes in the corpus callosum after speech therapy...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Christine L MacDonald, Jason Barber, Jason Wright, David Coppel, Nina De Lacy, Steve Ottinger, Suzanne Peck, Chris Panks, Samantha Sun, Kody Zalewski, Nancy Temkin
This study longitudinally assessed 10-14-year-old patients with sports and recreational concussion (n=22) who remained symptomatic 3-4 weeks post-injury compared to typically developing controls (n=24). Examination by multimodal MRI and multidomain clinical outcome measures was completed at 1-month and 6-months post-injury. Concussion patients showed evidence of improvement by 6-month follow up in domains of cognitive function while measures of psychological health were less resolved with patients exhibiting sustained symptoms of depression, behavior impairment, and concussion symptoms...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Wenzhi Sun, Jiewen Tan, Zhuo Li, Shibao Lu, Man Li, Chao Kong, Yong Hai, Chunjin Gao, Xuehua Liu
This study aimed to evaluate the therapeutic effect of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) on acute spinal cord injury (SCI) by measuring the in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) and observing diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) of fiber bundle morphology. The rats were randomly divided into sham-operated (SH), SCI, and SCI and hyperbaric oxygen treatment (SCI + HBO) groups (n = 6 in each group). The Basso-Bettie-Bresnahan (BBB) score was used to evaluate motor function recovery, and DTI was performed on days 3, 7, 14, and 21 after surgery...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Qiong Ding, Kitora Tanigawa, Jun Kaneko, Mamoru Totsuka, Yoshinori Katakura, Etsuko Imabayashi, Hiroshi Matsuda, Tatsuhiro Hisatsune
In a previously reported double-blind, randomized controlled trial (RCT), we demonstrated that daily supplementation with anserine (750 mg) and carnosine (250 mg) improves brain blood flow and memory function in elderly people. Here, we conducted a sub-analysis of MRI data and test scores from the same RCT to determine whether anserine/carnosine supplementation specifically benefits elderly people carrying the APOE e4 allele, which is a risk gene for accelerated brain aging and for the onset of Alzheimer's Disease...
June 2018: Aging and Disease
Masaru Kuno, Yoshiyuki Hirano, Akiko Nakagawa, Kenichi Asano, Fumiyo Oshima, Sawako Nagaoka, Koji Matsumoto, Yoshitada Masuda, Masaomi Iyo, Eiji Shimizu
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is among the most debilitating psychiatric disorders. Comorbid autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or autistic traits may impair treatment response in OCD. To identify possible neurostructural deficits underlying autistic traits, we performed white matter tractography on diffusion tensor images (DTI) and assessed autistic trait severity using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ) in 33 OCD patients. Correlations between AQ and the DTI parameters, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were examined in major white matter tracts that were suggested to be altered in previous OCD studies...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Raffaele Nuzzi, Laura Dallorto, Teresa Rolle
Background: Glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. The increasing interest in the involvement of the cortical visual pathway in glaucomatous patients is due to the implications in recent therapies, such as neuroprotection and neuroregeneration. Objective: In this review, we outline the current understanding of brain structural, functional, and metabolic changes detected with the modern techniques of neuroimaging in glaucomatous subjects. Methods: We screened MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL, LILACS, Trip Database, and NICE for original contributions published until 31 October 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Arda Ozdiler, Nursen Bakir-Topcuoglu, Guven Kulekci, Gulbahar Isik-Ozkol
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare the bacterial leakage of conical internal connection implants with different taper angles (5.4, 12, 45, and 60 degrees) and examine the efficiency of a disinfectant agent and a silicone sealant agent in the prevention of bacterial leakage under loaded conditions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one implant-abutment connections were studied from each implant system (Ankylos Implants, Dentsply; Bego Semados S Implants, Bego; Trias Implants, Servo-Dental; DTI Implants, DTI), for a total of 84 implants...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants
Zafer Keser, Arash Kamali, Kyan Younes, Paul E Schulz, Flavia M Nelson, Khader M Hasan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: In 1948, Paul Yakovlev described an additional limbic circuit located basolateral to James Papez's circuit (1937) and included orbitofrontal cortex, amygdala, and dorsomedial nucleus of thalamus. This circuit is shown to be an important component of subcortical cognitive abilities. We aimed to demonstrate this circuit in a multiple sclerosis (MS) cohort using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and evaluate its role in MS-related cognitive impairment (CI). METHODS: We enrolled cognitively intact (n = 10) and impaired (n = 36) MS patients who underwent a comprehensive cognitive assessment; the minimal assessment of cognitive function in MS (MACFIMS) and structural magnetic resonance imaging...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
I R Karaca, G Ergun, D N Ozturk
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of biostimulation lasers and ozone therapy on osseointegration of immediately loaded implants. Materials and Methods: A total number of 100 implants (DTI Implant Systems) were applied to 25 patients evenly. Temporary crowns were applied to each patient on the same session as the surgery. Implants were divided into four treatment groups (Group 1: low-level laser therapy (LLLT) group, Group 2: ozone therapy group, Group 3: different protocol of ozone therapy group, and Group 4: control group) each with 25 implants...
June 2018: Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice
Safiye Tokgoz Ozal, Ercan Inci, Aysegul Akdogan Gemici, Hurriyet Turgut, Murat Cikot, Mehmet Karabulut
PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) parameters such as fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), relative anisotropy (RA), and volume ratio (VR) values, and prognostic factors of invasive breast cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study examined 63 patients with pathologically confirmed invasive breast cancers. The patients underwent pre-operative diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 3...
April 5, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Kumi Tsuda, Tomikimi Tsuji, Takuya Ishida, Shun Takahashi, Shinichi Yamada, Yuji Ohoshi, Masaki Terada, Kazuhiro Shinosaki, Satoshi Ukai
Objective: Elucidation of abnormal connections throughout the whole brain is necessary to understand temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We examined abnormalities in whole-brain white matter integrity and their relationship with duration of illness in patients with TLE. Methods: The subjects were 15 patients with TLE and 17 healthy controls. Mean duration of illness in the TLE group was 21.6 years. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used for diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) analysis...
June 2018: Epilepsia Open
N Law, M L Smith, E Widjaja
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Largely accepted in the literature is the role the interconnections between the thalamus and cortex play in generalized epilepsy. However, thalamocortical involvement is less understood in focal epilepsy in terms of the effect of seizures on thalamocortical circuitry in the developing brain and subsequent cognitive outcome. We investigated thalamocortical pathway microstructure in pediatric frontal lobe epilepsy and temporal lobe epilepsy and examined the associations between pathway microstructure and measures of executive function...
June 7, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Manuel A Schmidt, Michael Knott, Robin Heidemann, Georg Michelson, Tobias Kober, Arnd Dörfler, Tobias Engelhorn
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that glaucoma is a neurodegenerative disease involving the whole visual pathway. We prospectively examined potential benefits of volumetry of the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) using a new 7T scanner. METHODS: 20 patients with normal tension glaucoma and 16 control individuals were examined. LGN volume and fractional anisotropy (FA) of the optic tract (OT) and the optic radiation (OR) and their correlation with RNFL (retinal nerve fiber layer) thickness were analyzed...
2018: PloS One
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