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Andrew B Dodd, Josef M Ling, Edward J Bedrick, Timothy B Meier, Andrew R Mayer
The neuroimaging community has seen a renewed interest in algorithms that provide a location-independent summary of subject-specific abnormalities (SSA) to assess individual lesion load. More recently, these methods have been extended to assess whether multiple individuals within the same cohort exhibit extrema in the same spatial location (e.g., voxel or region of interest). However, the statistical validity of this approach has not been rigorously established. The current study evaluated the potential for a spatial bias in the distribution of SSA using several common z-transformation algorithms (leave-one-out [LOO]; independent sample [IDS]; Enhanced Z-Score Microstructural Assessment of Pathology [EZ-MAP]; distribution-corrected z-scores [DisCo-Z]) using both simulated data and DTI data from 50 healthy controls...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
B I Haynes, M Pitkanen, R Kulasegaram, S J Casey, M Schutte, K Towgood, B Peters, G J Barker, M D Kopelman
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to investigate the hypothesis of accelerated cognitive ageing in HIV-positive individuals using longitudinal assessment of cognitive performance and quantitative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: We assessed a broad cognitive battery and quantitative MRI metrics [voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)] in asymptomatic HIV-positive men who have sex with men (15 aged 20-40 years and 15 aged ≥ 50 years), and HIV-seronegative matched controls (nine aged 20-40 years and 16 aged ≥ 50 years)...
February 14, 2018: HIV Medicine
Xiao-Yan Deng, Li Wang, Ting-Ting Yang, Rui Li, Gang Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterized by severe, selective loss of pigmented neurons in the substantial nigra (SN). Previous studies have indicated that such loss could be detected by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Here, we try to consolidate current DTI data to both quantitatively determine the imaging changes in SN, as well as explore the potential use of DTI for PD diagnosis. Fourteen research articles are included in this meta-analysis, each obtained by searching PubMed, EMBASE, or Cochrane library database dated until July 2017...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Takuya Urushihata, Hiroyuki Takuwa, Chie Seki, Yasuhiko Tachibana, Manami Takahashi, Jeff Kershaw, Yuhei Takado, Ichio Aoki, Makoto Higuchi, Hiroshi Ito, Takayuki Obata
PURPOSE: Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model mice were created by unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO) surgery, which does not cause cerebral infarction, but which does cause long-term reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF) to the occluded side. Cognitive dysfunction in this mouse model has been demonstrated in behavioral experiments, but neuron density change was not found in a previous positron emission tomography (PET) study. As a next step, in this study we investigated the injury of neuronal fibers in chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model mice using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI)...
February 13, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Magalie Ladouceur, Stephanie Baron, Valérie Nivet-Antoine, Gérard Maruani, Gilles Soulat, Helena Pereira, Anne Blanchard, Pierre Boutouyrie, Jean Louis Paul, Elie Mousseaux
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is a serious event in patients with transposition of the great arteries (D-TGA) after atrial redirection surgery. We aimed to determine the association between myocardial fibrosis and systolic and diastolic systemic right ventricle (sRV) dysfunction. METHODS: Diastolic and systolic function of sRV was prospectively assessed using echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) in 48 patients with atrially switched D-TGA and 26 healthy subjects...
January 31, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Alessandro Frati, Alessandro Pesce, Giancarlo D'Andrea, Flavia Fraschetti, Maurizio Salvati, Marco Cimatti, Vincenzo Esposito, Antonino Raco
BACKGROUND AND STUDY OBJECT: The Dominant Atrium (DA) is a crossroad of eloquent white matter bundles difficult to preserve with a standard "anatomical" approach. The aim of this work is to evaluate the results of a cohort of patients who underwent surgery with the aid of a purely functional MRI and DTI-based approach. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 43 patients suffering from lesions involving the DA have been included in the final cohort and studied in regards to quality of life (KPS); a special attention was lent on the incidence of new or worsening of preexisting neurological deficits, with a focus on motor, visual and speech disturbances after the surgical treatment...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
S N Chen, Y C Wang, Y L Feng, Y T Gao, S S Ju
Objective: To evaluate the application value of intravoxel incoherent motion (IVIM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in detecting early-stage diabetic nephropathy and to assess the damage of ralated renal function. Methods: A total of 52 patients with type 2 diabetes diagnosed in Zhongda Hospital were collected from April 2016 to May 2017 and were assigned to DM group (diabetes without nephropathy, n=32) and DN group (diabetes with nephropathy, n=20) according to detection of microalbuminuria, a cohort of healthy recipients were included as control group (n=27) in the meantime...
January 30, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Eric Aliotta, Kévin Moulin, Patrick Magrath, Daniel B Ennis
PURPOSE: To quantify the precision of in vivo cardiac DTI (cDTI) acquired with a spin echo, first- and second-order motion-compensated (M1 M2 ), convex optimized diffusion encoding (CODE) sequence. METHODS: Free-breathing CODE-M1 M2 cDTI were acquired in healthy volunteers (N = 10) at midsystole and diastole with 10 repeated acquisitions per phase. 95% confidence intervals of uncertainty in reconstructed diffusion tensor eigenvectors ( E→1, E→2, E→3), mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA), and tensor Mode were measured using a bootstrapping approach...
February 9, 2018: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Nuno Mendonça, Marcondes C França, António Freire Gonçalves, Cristina Januário
Machado-Joseph disease (MJD) also known as Spinocerebellar ataxia type 3, is a hereditary neurodegenerative disease associated with severe clinical manifestations and premature death. Although rare, it is the most common autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia worldwide and has a distinct geographic distribution, reaching peak prevalence in certain regions of Brazil, Portugal and China. Due to its clinical heterogeneity, it was initially described as several different entities and as had many designations over the last decades...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Catherine Arnold Fiebelkorn, Prashanthi Vemuri, Alejandro A Rabinstein, Michelle M Mielke, Scott A Przybelski, Kejal Kantarci, David T Jones, Robert D Brown, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, Jonathan Graff-Radford
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of incidental acute or subacute cerebral infarction (CI) in a population-based study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We identified 2095 participants aged 50 to 98 years in the population-based Mayo Clinic Study of Aging from October 23, 2009, to October 5, 2016, with a usable diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) sequence (total scans=3230). Acute and subacute infarcts were identified by neuroradiologists. For each participant, vascular risk factors, medications, clinical symptoms, and neurological examination near the time of the CI were abstracted from the medical record...
February 6, 2018: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
Benjamin M Ellingson, Noriko Salamon, Davis C Woodworth, Hajime Yokota, Langston T Holly
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to quantify the reproducibility, temporal stability, and functional correlation of diffusion MR characteristics in the spinal cord in patients with cervical stenosis with or without myelopathy. The association between longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) measurements and serial neurological function assessment was explored at both the group and individual level. METHODS Sixty-six nonoperatively treated patients with cervical stenosis were prospectively followed (3 months to > 5 years) using synchronous serial MRI and functional outcome assessment...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery. Spine
Wieke Haakma, Jeroen Hendrikse, Lars Uhrenholt, Alexander Leemans, Lene Warner Thorup Boel, Michael Pedersen, Martijn Froeling
BACKGROUND: Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been applied in the lumbar and sacral nerves in vivo, but information about the reproducibility of this method is needed before DTI can be used reliably in clinical practice across centers. PURPOSE: In this multicenter study the reproducibility of DTI of the lumbosacral nerves in healthy volunteers was investigated. STUDY TYPE: Prospective control series. SUBJECTS: Twenty healthy subjects...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Chiara Giraudo, Stanislav Motyka, Michael Weber, Manuela Karner, Christoph Resinger, Thorsten Feiweier, Siegfried Trattnig, Wolfgang Bogner
OBJECTIVES: To assess acute muscle tears in professional football players by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and evaluate the impact of normalization of data. METHODS: Eight football players with acute lower limb muscle tears were examined. DTI metrics of the injured muscle and corresponding healthy contralateral muscle and of ROIs drawn in muscle tears (ROItear) in the corresponding healthy contralateral muscle (ROIhc_t) in a healthy area ipsilateral to the injury (ROIhi) and in a corresponding contralateral area (ROIhc_i) were compared...
February 8, 2018: European Radiology
Ming Hao, Stephen H Bryant, Yanli Wang
While novel technologies such as high-throughput screening have advanced together with significant investment by pharmaceutical companies during the past decades, the success rate for drug development has not yet been improved prompting researchers looking for new strategies of drug discovery. Drug repositioning is a potential approach to solve this dilemma. However, experimental identification and validation of potential drug targets encoded by the human genome is both costly and time-consuming. Therefore, effective computational approaches have been proposed to facilitate drug repositioning, which have proved to be successful in drug discovery...
February 6, 2018: Briefings in Bioinformatics
Choukri Mekkaoui, Marcel P Jackowski, William J Kostis, Christian T Stoeck, Aravinda Thiagalingam, Timothy G Reese, Vivek Y Reddy, Jeremy N Ruskin, Sebastian Kozerke, David E Sosnovik
BACKGROUND: Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) is the current standard for myocardial scar delineation. In this study, we introduce the tractographic propagation angle (PA), a metric of myofiber curvature (degrees/unit distance) derived from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and compare its use to LGE and invasive scar assessment by endocardial voltage mapping. METHODS AND RESULTS: DTI was performed on 7 healthy human volunteers, 5 patients with myocardial infarction, 6 normal mice, and 7 mice with myocardial infarction...
February 2, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
T Guttuso, N Bergsland, J Hagemeier, D G Lichter, O Pasternak, R Zivadinov
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Free water in the posterior substantia nigra obtained from a bi-tensor diffusion MR imaging model has been shown to significantly increase over 1- and 4-year periods in patients with early-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease compared with healthy controls, which suggests that posterior substantia nigra free water may be an idiopathic Parkinson disease progression biomarker. Due to the known temporal posterior-to-anterior substantia nigra degeneration in idiopathic Parkinson disease, we assessed longitudinal changes in free water in both the posterior and anterior substantia nigra in patients with later-stage idiopathic Parkinson disease and age-matched healthy controls for comparison...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
Xiaojun Guan, Peiyu Huang, Qiaoling Zeng, Chunlei Liu, Hongjiang Wei, Min Xuan, Quanquan Gu, Xiaojun Xu, Nian Wang, Xinfeng Yu, Xiao Luo, Minming Zhang
Myelinated white matter showing diamagnetic susceptibility is important for information transfer in the brain. In Parkinson's disease (PD), the white matter is also suffering degenerative alterations. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is a novel technique for noninvasive assessment of regional white matter ultrastructure, and provides different information of white matter in addition to standard diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). In this study, we used QSM to detect spatial white matter alterations in PD patients (n = 65) and age- and sex-matched normal controls (n = 46)...
February 7, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Jessika Nystedt, Markus Nilsson, Andreas Jönsen, Petra Nilsson, Anders Bengtsson, Åsa Lilja, Jimmy Lätt, Peter Mannfolk, Pia C Sundgren
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether white matter microstructure is altered in patients suffering from systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), and if so, whether such alterations differed between patients with and without neuropsychiatric symptoms. METHODS: Structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were performed in 64 female SLE patients (mean age 36.9 years, range 18.2-52.2 years) and 21 healthy controls (mean age 36.7 years, range 23...
February 7, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
Shengwei Zhang, Konstantinos Arfanakis
Digital diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) templates of the adult human brain are commonly used in neuroimaging research, and their characteristics influence the accuracy of the application. However, a systematic evaluation of the characteristics and performance of standardized and study-specific DTI templates has not been conducted. The purpose of this work was to compare eight available standardized DTI templates to each other (ICBM81, ENIGMA, FMRIB58, SRI24, IIT2, NTU-DSI-122-DTI, IIT v.3.0, Eve), as well as to study-specific templates, in terms of template characteristics (image sharpness, ability to identify small brain structures, artifacts, mean values, noise properties) and performance in spatial normalization and detection of small inter-group FA differences...
January 24, 2018: NeuroImage
Arjun Sethi, Sagari Sarkar, Flavio Dell'Acqua, Essi Viding, Marco Catani, Declan G M Murphy, Michael C Craig
We recently reported that emotional detachment in adult psychopathy was associated with structural abnormalities in the dorsal 'default-mode' network (DMN). However, it is unclear whether these differences are present in young people at risk of psychopathy. The most widely recognised group at risk for psychopathy are children/adolescents with conduct disorder (CD) and callous-unemotional (CU) traits. We therefore examined the microstructure of the dorsal DMN in 27 CD youths (14-with/13-without CU traits) compared to 16 typically developing controls using DTI tractography...
January 27, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
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