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Hepatitis B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527146/real-time-elastography-rte-a-valuable-sonography-based-non-invasive-method-for-the-assessment-of-liver-fibrosis-in-chronic-hepatitis-b
#1
Tianyi Wang, Cuiping Shao, Guosheng Zhang, Youqing Xu
PURPOSE: To investigate the diagnostic usefulness of real-time elastography (RTE) for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis B (CHB). METHODS: 89 CHB patients were enrolled in the cross-sectional study. Ultrasound-guided percutaneous liver biopsies, RTE, and blood testing were performed in all patients. Areas under receiver operating characteristic curves (AUROC) were used to examine the diagnostic performance of liver fibrosis index (LFI) for the assessment of liver fibrosis...
May 19, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526938/reducing-liver-cancer-risk-in-african-born-immigrants-through-culturally-targeted-hepatitis-b-group-education-programs
#2
Kemi Bolutayo, Alexandre Ly van Manh, Noah Cohen, Daouda Ndiaye, Lina Jandorf, Ponni V Perumalswami
Of 900 West African-born immigrants living in New York City who were tested for hepatitis B virus (HBV), over 9% were found to have the infection (Shankar H et al. Clin Infectious Dis 62(S4):S289-s297, 2016). Community targeted group education programs (EP) have been shown to improve immigrant population's health (Bailey E et al. J Natl Med Assoc 92(3):136-42, 2000). Our aim is to enhance HBV screening in at-risk West African immigrants through the development of a group EP as a first critical step to reducing liver cancer risk...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526925/polyphenolic-extract-attenuates-fatty-acid-induced-steatosis-and-oxidative-stress-in-hepatic-and-endothelial-cells
#3
Laura Vergani, Giulia Vecchione, Francesca Baldini, Elena Grasselli, Adriana Voci, Piero Portincasa, Pier Francesco Ferrari, Bahar Aliakbarian, Alessandro A Casazza, Patrizia Perego
PURPOSE: Phenolic compounds (PC) of virgin olive oil exert several biochemical and pharmacological beneficial effects. Some dietary PC seem to prevent/improve obesity and metabolic-related disorders such as non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the possible effects of PC extracted from olive pomace (PEOP) and of the main single molecules present in the extract (tyrosol, apigenin, oleuropein, p-coumaric and caffeic acid) in protecting hepatocytes and endothelial cells against triglyceride accumulation and oxidative stress...
May 19, 2017: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526760/tissue-resident-t-cells-in-hepatitis-b-a-new-target-for-cure
#4
Fabian J Bolte, Barbara Rehermann
A hallmark of chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the functional impairment and depletion of antiviral T cells. In this issue of JEM, Pallett et al. (https://doi.org/10.1084/jem.20162115) identify a reservoir of functional HBV-specific T cells among liver-resident T cells.
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526759/il-2-high-tissue-resident-t-cells-in-the-human-liver-sentinels-for-hepatotropic-infection
#5
Laura J Pallett, Jessica Davies, Emily J Colbeck, Francis Robertson, Navjyot Hansi, Nicholas J W Easom, Alice R Burton, Kerstin A Stegmann, Anna Schurich, Leo Swadling, Upkar S Gill, Victoria Male, TuVinh Luong, Amir Gander, Brian R Davidson, Patrick T F Kennedy, Mala K Maini
The liver provides a tolerogenic immune niche exploited by several highly prevalent pathogens as well as by primary and metastatic tumors. We have sampled healthy and hepatitis B virus (HBV)-infected human livers to probe for a subset of T cells specialized to overcome local constraints and mediate immunity. We characterize a population of T-bet(lo)Eomes(lo)Blimp-1(hi)Hobit(lo) T cells found within the intrahepatic but not the circulating memory CD8 T cell pool expressing liver-homing/retention markers (CD69(+)CD103(+) CXCR6(+)CXCR3(+))...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526339/magnesium-isoglycyrrhizinate-blocks-fructose-induced-hepatic-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-and-lipid-metabolism-disorder
#6
Xiao-Juan Zhao, Yan-Zi Yang, Yan-Jing Zheng, Shan-Chun Wang, Hong-Mei Gu, Ying Pan, Shui-Juan Wang, Hong-Jiang Xu, Ling-Dong Kong
Magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate as a hepatoprotective agent possesses immune modulation and anti-inflammation, and treats liver diseases. But its effects on immunological-inflammatory and metabolic profiles for metabolic syndrome with liver injury and underlying potential mechanisms are not fully understood. In this study, magnesium isoglycyrrhizinate alleviated liver inflammation and lipid accumulation in fructose-fed rats with metabolic syndrome. It also suppressed hepatic inflammatory signaling activation by reducing protein levels of phosphorylation of nuclear factor-kappa B p65 (p-NF-κB p65), inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B kinase α/β (p-IKKα/β) and inhibitor of NF-κB α (p-IκBα) as well as nucleotide-binding domain (NOD)-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein (ASC) and Caspase-1 in rats, being consistent with its reduction of interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and IL-6 levels...
May 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525625/characteristics-of-us-born-versus-foreign-born-americans-of-african-descent-with-chronic-hepatitis-b
#7
Mohamed A Hassan, W Ray Kim, Ruosha Li, Coleman I Smith, Michael W Fried, Richard K Sterling, Marc G Ghany, Abdus S Wahed, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, Lewis R Roberts, Anna S F Lok
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is more common in African Americans than in white Americans. We compared the epidemiologic, clinical, and virological characteristics of US-born African Americans (USAAs) to those of foreign-born African Americans (FBAAs) with chronic hepatitis B. The adult cohort study of the Hepatitis B Research Network enrolls patients with HBV infection from 21 clinical sites in the United States and Canada. A total of 237 (15%) of the adult participants with chronic HBV infection that were enrolled from January 20, 2011, to October 2, 2013, were of African descent, including 57 USAAs and 180 FBAAs (76%)...
May 19, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524366/contrasting-hcv-and-hiv-seroepidemiology-in-11-years-of-blood-donors-screening-in-brazil
#8
J E Levi, S M Lira, C B Bub, M B Polite, C C Terzian, J M Kutner
BACKGROUND: Blood donors are, in principle, healthy individuals who may be revealed as infectious for blood-borne agents by the laboratory screening process, depicting the asymptomatic burden of the disease. Therefore, monitoring hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected donor and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected donor and associating to their demographical and behavioural characteristics may shed light on the dynamics and contemporary changes in these viruses' epidemiology. METHODS: Donors presenting repeatedly reactive HCV or HIV serology/nucleic acid testing (NAT) screening results were submitted to confirmatory testing...
May 19, 2017: Transfusion Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523950/levocarnitine-and-vitamin-b-complex-for-the-treatment-of-pegaspargase-induced-hepatotoxicity-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#9
Alison Blackman, Alyssa Boutin, Alexei Shimanovsky, William J Baker, Nicholas Forcello
Asparaginase is a chemotherapeutic agent that is commonly used in combination with other medications for the treatment of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. An adverse effect of asparaginase includes hepatotoxicity, which can lead to severe liver failure and death. Several reports have documented successful treatment of asparaginase-induced hepatotoxicity using levocarnitine (l-carnitine) and vitamin B complex. Herein, we report a patient with acute lymphoblastic leukemia that experienced acute liver injury following pegaspargase administration...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523056/low-bone-mineral-density-in-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-a-case-control-study
#10
Zengfa Huang, Hui Wei, Cheng Cheng, Shuhua Yang, Jing Wang, Xianzhe Liu
OBJECTIVE: Osteoporosis is the well-known major complication in chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. Fewer reports are available of the relationship between bone loss and chronic HBV infection. We investigated the bone mineral density (BMD) and prevalence of osteoporosis in chronic HBV patients in comparison with healthy subjects. METHODS: We assessed 148 chronic HBV patients and 148 age- and gender-matched healthy controls by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for determination of BMD...
March 2017: Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences Quarterly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522916/early-hepatitis-b-viral-dna-clearance-predicts-treatment-response-at-week-96
#11
Xiao-Yu Fu, De-Ming Tan, Cui-Mei Liu, Bin Gu, Li-Hua Hu, Zhong-Tian Peng, Bin Chen, Yuan-Lin Xie, Huan-Yu Gong, Xiao-Xuan Hu, Lian-Hui Yao, Xiao-Ping Xu, Zheng-Yuan Fu, Lang-Qiu He, Si-Hai Li, Yun-Zhu Long, De-Hui Li, Ji-Long Gu, Shi-Fang Peng
AIM: To investigate whether hepatitis viral DNA load at 24 wk of treatment predicts response at 96 wk in patients with chronic hepatitis B. METHODS: A total of 172 hepatitis B envelope antigen (HBeAg)-positive chronic hepatitis B patients who received initial treatment at 16 tertiary hospitals in Hunan Province, China were enrolled in this study. All patients received conventional doses of lamivudine and adefovir dipivoxil, telbivudine, entecavir dispersible tablets, or entecavir tablets for 96 wk...
April 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522795/risk-factors-for-hepatic-venous-outflow-obstruction-in-piggyback-liver-transplantation-the-role-of-recipient-s-pattern-of-hepatic-veins-drainage-into-the-inferior-vena-cava
#12
Qifa Ye, Cheng Zeng, Yanfeng Wang, Zhehong Fang, Xiaoyan Hu, Yan Xiong, Ling Li
BACKGROUND The recipient's pattern of hepatic veins (HVs) drainage into the inferior vena cava (IVC) (drainage pattern, for short) may influence outflow reconstruction and thus hepatic venous outflow obstruction (HVOO) in piggyback liver transplantation (PBLT). However, no previous study has investigated this association. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of 202 PBLT (2000-2016) was conducted. Based on drainage patterns, the patients were divided into Group A (common trunk of left and middle HVs), Group B (common trunk of right and middle HVs), and Group C (common trunk of 3 HVs)...
May 19, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522646/mr-spectroscopy-of-hepatic-fat-and-adiponectin-and-leptin-levels-during-testosterone-therapy-in-type-2-diabetes-a-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-trial
#13
Line Velling Magnussen, Poul Erik Andersen, Anabel Diaz, Jelena Markovic Ostojic, Kurt Højlund, David M Hougaard, Anders Nymark Christensen, Torben Leo Nielsen, Marianne Skovsager Andersen
BACKGROUND: Men with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D) often have lowered testosterone levels and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Ectopic fat increases the risk of CVD, whereas subcutaneous gluteofemoral fat protects against CVD and has a beneficial adipokine secreting profile. HYPOTHESIS: Testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) may reduce the content of ectopic fat and improve the adipokine profile in men with T2D. DESIGN AND METHODS: A randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 39 men aged 50-70 years with T2D and bioavailable testosterone levels <7...
May 18, 2017: European Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522427/association-of-chitosan-and-aluminium-as-a-new-adjuvant-strategy-for-improved-vaccination
#14
F Lebre, D Bento, J Ribeiro, M Colaço, G Borchard, M C Pedroso de Lima, O Borges
The use of particulate adjuvants offers an interesting possibility to enhance and modulate the immune responses elicited by vaccines. Aluminium salts have been extensively used as vaccine adjuvants, but they lack the capacity to induce a strong cellular and mucosal immune response. Taking this into consideration, in this study we designed a new antigen delivery system combining aluminium salts with chitosan. Chitosan-aluminium nanoparticles (CH-Al NPs) exhibited a mean diameter of 280nm and a positive surface charge...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522205/hepatitis-b-treatment-could-we-extend-the-current-treatment-indication
#15
Marc Bourliere
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 15, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522204/peg-interferon-plus-nucleotide-analogue-treatment-versus-no-treatment-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-with-a-low-viral-load-a-randomised-controlled-open-label-trial
#16
Annikki de Niet, Louis Jansen, Femke Stelma, Sophie B Willemse, Sjoerd D Kuiken, Sebastiaan Weijer, Carin M J van Nieuwkerk, Hans L Zaaijer, Richard Molenkamp, R Bart Takkenberg, Maarten Koot, Joanne Verheij, Ulrich Beuers, Hendrik W Reesink
BACKGROUND: Antiviral treatment is currently not recommended for patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. However, they might benefit from acquiring a functional cure (hepatitis B surface antigen [HBsAg] loss with or without formation of antibodies against hepatitis B surface antigen [anti-HBs]). We assessed HBsAg loss during peg-interferon-alfa-2a (peg-IFN) and nucleotide analogue combination therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B with a low viral load. METHODS: In this randomised controlled, open-label trial, patients were enrolled from the Academic Medical Center (AMC), Amsterdam, Netherlands...
May 15, 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521828/markov-modeling-in-hepatitis-b-screening-and-linkage-to-care
#17
Martin A Sehr, Kartik D Joshi, John M Fontanesi, Robert J Wong, Robert R Bitmead, Robert G Gish
BACKGROUND: With up to 240 million people chronically infected with hepatitis B worldwide, including an estimated 2 million in the United States, widespread screening is needed to link the infected to care and decrease the possible consequences of untreated infection, including liver cancer, cirrhosis and death. Screening is currently fraught with challenges in both the developed and developing world. New point-of-care tests may have advantages over standard-of-care tests in terms of cost-effectiveness and linkage to care...
May 18, 2017: Theoretical Biology & Medical Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521822/central-nervous-system-manganese-induced-lesions-and-clinical-consequences-in-patients-with-hereditary-hemorrhagic-telangiectasia
#18
M M Serra, C H Besada, A Cabana Cal, A Saenz, C V Stefani, D Bauso, A B Golimstok, J C Bandi, D H Giunta, C M Elizondo
BACKGROUND: Around 47-74% of patients with hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) have hepatic vascular malformations (HVMs); magnetic resonance images (MRI) of the central nervous system (CNS) might show in T1 sequences a hyper-intensity signal in different areas, mainly in the basal ganglia (BG) as consequence of manganese (Mn) deposits as observed in cirrhotic patients. These patients might suffer from different neuropsychiatric disorders (hepatic encephalopathy). In HHT patients, even in the presence of hepatic shunts, hepatocellular function is usually preserved...
May 18, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521640/antibody-mediated-immunotherapy-against-chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-infection
#19
Ying Gao, Tian-Ying Zhang, Quan Yuan, Ning-Shao Xia
The currently available drugs to treat hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection include interferons and nucleos(t)ide analogues, which can only induce disease remission and are inefficient for the functional cure of patients with chronic HBV infection (CHB). Since high titers of circulating hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) may be essential to exhaust the host anti-HBV immune response and they cannot be significantly reduced by current drugs, new antiviral strategies aiming to suppress serum hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) could help restore virus-specific immune responses and promote the eradication of the virus...
May 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521532/new-antivirals-for-the-treatment-of-chronic-hepatitis-b
#20
Vincent Soriano, Pablo Barreiro, Laura Benitez, Jose M Peña, Carmen de Mendoza
Current treatment with oral nucleos(t)ides entecavir or tenofovir provide sustained suppression of HBV replication and clinical benefit in most chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infected persons. However, HBV rebound generally occurs upon drug discontinuation due to persistence of genomic HBV reservoirs as episomic cccDNA and chromosomic integrated HBV-DNA. There is renewed enthusiasm on HBV drug discovery following recent successes with antivirals for hepatitis C and immunotherapies for some cancers. Areas covered: New drugs that target distinct steps of the HBV life cycle are been developed, including inhibitors of viral entry, new polymerase inhibitors, capsid and assembly inhibitors, virus release blockers, and disruptors of cccDNA formation and transcription...
May 18, 2017: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
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