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Hepatitis B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340509/liver-transplant-lt-recipients-with-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-nash-have-lower-risk-hepatocellular-carcinoma-hcc
#1
Sara M Lewin, Neil Mehta, R Kate Kelley, John P Roberts, Francis Y Yao, Danielle Brandman
BACKGROUND: Liver transplantation is a well-established treatment for HCC in carefully selected patients. Risk factors for tumors with poor prognostic features on explant have not been well described in a national cohort. METHODS: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult LT recipients with HCC transplanted from 4/8/12 (when explant pathology in UNOS became available) until 9/30/2014. We evaluated the association between listing diagnosis and other demographic factors with tumor features on explant using logistic regression...
March 24, 2017: Liver Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340322/immunogenicity-and-safety-of-primary-and-booster-vaccination-with-2-investigational-formulations-of-diphtheria-tetanus-and-haemophilus-influenzae-type-b-antigens-in-a-hexavalent-dtpa-hbv-ipv-hib-combination-vaccine-in-comparison-with-the-licensed-infanrix-hexa
#2
Timo Vesikari, Luis Rivera, Tiina Korhonen, Anitta Ahonen, Brigitte Cheuvart, Marjan Hezareh, Winnie Janssens, Narcisa Mesaros
Safety and immunogenicity of 2 investigational formulations of diphtheria, tetanus and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigens of the combined diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis-hepatitis B-inactivated poliomyelitis-Hib vaccine (DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) were evaluated in a Primary (NCT01248884) and a Booster vaccination (NCT01453998) study. In the Primary study, 721 healthy infants (randomized 1:1:1) received 3 doses of DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib formulation A (DATAPa-HBV-IPV/Hib), or B (DBTBPa-HBV-IPV/Hib) or the licensed DTPa-HBV-IPV/Hib vaccine (Infanrix hexa, GSK; control group) at 2, 3, 4 months of age...
March 24, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339910/rituximab-and-hepatitis-b-reactivation-in-hbsag-negative-anti-hbc-positive-kidney-transplant-recipients
#3
Juhan Lee, Jun Yong Park, Kyu Ha Huh, Beom Seok Kim, Myoung Soo Kim, Soon Il Kim, Hoon Sang Ahn, Yu Seun Kim
Background.: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation is a well-known complication of immunosuppressive therapy. Although rituximab is increasingly used for desensitization of ABO-incompatible or positive crossmatch kidney transplantation, the risk of HBV reactivation in hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative/hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc)-positive kidney transplant patients receiving rituximab desensitization remains undetermined. Methods.: We analysed 172 resolved HBV patients who underwent living donor kidney transplantation between 2008 and 2014...
February 23, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339906/interstitial-fibrosis-scored-on-whole-slide-digital-imaging-of-kidney-biopsies-is-a-predictor-of-outcome-in-proteinuric-glomerulopathies
#4
Laura H Mariani, Sebastian Martini, Laura Barisoni, Pietro A Canetta, Jonathan P Troost, Jeffrey B Hodgin, Matthew Palmer, Avi Z Rosenberg, Kevin V Lemley, Hui-Ping Chien, Jarcy Zee, Abigail Smith, Gerald B Appel, Howard Trachtman, Stephen M Hewitt, Matthias Kretzler, Serena M Bagnasco
Background.: Interstitial fibrosis (IF), tubular atrophy (TA) and interstitial inflammation (II) are known determinants of progression of renal disease. Standardized quantification of these features could add value to current classification of glomerulopathies. Methods.: We studied 315 participants in the Nephrotic Syndrome Study Network (NEPTUNE) study, including biopsy-proven minimal change disease (MCD = 98), focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS = 121), membranous nephropathy (MN = 59) and IgA nephropathy (IgAN = 37)...
February 27, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339215/discovery-and-pre-clinical-characterization-of-a-3-rd-generation-4-h-heteroaryldihydropyrimidine-hap-analogues-as-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-capsid-inhibitors
#5
Zongxing Qiu, Xianfeng Lin, Weixing Zhang, Mingwei Zhou, Lei Guo, Buelent Kocer, Guolong Wu, Zhisen Zhang, Haixia Liu, Houguang Shi, Buyu Kou, Taishan Hu, Yimin Hu, Mengwei Huang, S Frank Yan, Zhiheng Xu, Zheng Zhou, Ning Qin, Yue Fen Wang, Shuang Ren, Hongxia Qiu, Yuxia Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xiaoyue Wu, Kai Sun, Sheng Zhong, Jianxun Xie, Giorgio Ottaviani, Yuan Zhou, Lina Zhu, Xiaojun Tian, Liping Shi, Fang Shen, Yi Mao, Xue Zhou, Lu Gao, John A T Young, Jim Zhen Wu, Guang Yang, Alexander V Mayweg, Hong C Shen, Guozhi Tang, Wei Zhu
Described herein are the discovery and structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies of the 3(rd) generation 4-H heteroaryldihydropyrimidines (4-H HAPs) featuring the introduction of a C6 carboxyl group as novel HBV capsid inhibitors. This new series of 4-H HAPs showed improved anti-HBV activity and better drug-like properties compared to the 1(st) and 2(nd) generation 4-H HAPs. X-ray crystallographic study of analogue 12 (HAP_R01) with Cp149 Y132A mutant hexamer clearly elucidated the role of C6 carboxyl group played for the increased binding affinity, which formed strong hydrogen bonding interactions with capsid protein and coordinated waters...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335588/recovery-of-nk-cd56-cd3-cells-after-1-year-of-tenofovir-therapy-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-infection
#6
Hwan Hee Lee, Hyojeung Kang, Hyosun Cho
Natural killer (NK) cells have been reported to be dysfunctional in chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection. However, the functional recovery of NK cells was not clearly understood under anti-viral therapeutic agents in CHB. In this study, we investigated the phenotypic changes of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in terms of their functional markers (CD16, NKG2A, NKG2D) during tenofovir therapy in CHB. The frequency of NK(CD56+CD3-) cells in CHB patients was significantly increased after 12 months of tenofovir therapy when compared to baseline...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335554/complete-and-incomplete-hepatitis-b-virus-particles-formation-function-and-application
#7
REVIEW
Jianming Hu, Kuancheng Liu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a para-retrovirus or retroid virus that contains a double-stranded DNA genome and replicates this DNA via reverse transcription of a RNA pregenome. Viral reverse transcription takes place within a capsid upon packaging of the RNA and the viral reverse transcriptase. A major characteristic of HBV replication is the selection of capsids containing the double-stranded DNA, but not those containing the RNA or the single-stranded DNA replication intermediate, for envelopment during virion secretion...
March 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#8
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335488/italian-registry-of-congenital-bleeding-disorders
#9
Adele Giampaolo, Francesca Abbonizio, Romano Arcieri, Hamisa Jane Hassan
In Italy, the surveillance of people with bleeding disorders is based on the National Registry of Congenital Coagulopathies (NRCC) managed by the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità). The NRCC collects epidemiological and therapeutic data from the 54 Hemophilia Treatment Centers, members of the Italian Association of Hemophilia Centres (AICE). The number of people identified with bleeding disorders has increased over the years, with the number rising from approx. 7000 in 2000 to over 11,000 in 2015...
March 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335383/a-biomedical-investigation-of-the-hepatoprotective-effect-of-radix-salviae-miltiorrhizae-and-network-pharmacology-based-prediction-of-the-active-compounds-and-molecular-targets
#10
Ming Hong, Sha Li, Ning Wang, Hor-Yue Tan, Fan Cheung, Yibin Feng
Radix salviae miltiorrhizae (Danshen in Chinese), a classic traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) herb, has been used for centuries to treat liver diseases. In this study, the preventive and curative potential of Danshen aqueous extract on acute/chronic alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) was studied. The in vivo results indicated that Danshen could alleviate hepatic inflammation, fatty degeneration, and haptic fibrogenesis in ALD and NAFLD models. In the aspect of mechanism of action, the significant reduction in MDA levels in both ALD and NAFLD models implies the decreased levels of oxidative stress by Danshen...
March 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334898/changing-knowledge-and-practices-of-mothers-on-newborn-care-through-mother-class-an-intervention-study-in-indonesia
#11
Narila Mutia Nasir, Yuli Amran, Yasuhide Nakamura
Poor knowledge and practices of newborn care may contribute to high neonatal mortality. This study aims to analyze the effect of prenatal education, namely 'mother class', on knowledge and practices of newborn care among mothers in Tangerang Selatan District, Indonesia. An intervention study with a quasi-experimental design was conducted. Using a questionnaire, 427 mothers were interviewed: an intervention group (n = 214) that attended mother class and a control group (n = 213) that had not. A home visit followed the intervention to assess newborn care practices...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334319/erbb4-acts-as-a-suppressor-in-the-development-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#12
Yao Liu, Liming Song, Hengli Ni, Lina Sun, Weijuan Jiao, Lin Chen, Qun Zhou, Tong Shen, Hongxia Cui, Tianming Gao, Jianming Li
ERBB4, one member of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family, plays a key role in physiological and pathological processes. Recently, we identified that ERBB4 played a protective role from chronic hepatitis B virus infection. However, the role of ERBB4 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is still unclear. Here, we explore the role of ERBB4 in the development of HCC using in vitro models, in vivo animal models and clinical samples of HCC. Liver-specific ERBB4 knockout alleles and full ERBB4 except heart knockout mice were used in this study...
March 14, 2017: Carcinogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334048/hepatoprotective-effect-of-sitagliptin-against-methotrexate-induced-liver-toxicity
#13
Hany M Abo-Haded, Mohamed A Elkablawy, Zeyad Al-Johani, Osama Al-Ahmadi, Dina S El-Agamy
Sitagliptin is selective dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP4-I), used clinically as a new oral anti-diabetic agent. This study explored the underlying mechanisms of the hepatoprotective role of sitagliptin pretreatment against methotrexate (MTX) induced hepatotoxicity in mice. Forty mice were divided into four groups (10 mice each); control, MTX, and two sitagliptin groups (pretreated with sitagliptin 10 and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively) for five consecutive days prior to MTX injection. Results showed that MTX induced marked hepatic injury in the form of cloudy swelling, hydropic degeneration, apoptosis and focal necrosis in all hepatic zones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333957/immune-response-of-rats-vaccinated-orally-with-various-plant-expressed-recombinant-cysteine-proteinase-constructs-when-challenged-with-fasciola-hepatica-metacercariae
#14
Malgorzata Kesik-Brodacka, Agnieszka Lipiec, Monika Kozak Ljunggren, Luiza Jedlina, Katarzyna Miedzinska, Magdalena Mikolajczak, Andrzej Plucienniczak, Andrzej B Legocki, Halina Wedrychowicz
BACKGROUND: Cysteine proteinases of Fasciola hepatica are important candidates for vaccine antigens because of their role in fluke biology and host-parasite relationships. In our previous experiments, we found that a recombinant cysteine proteinase cloned from adult F. hepatica (CPFhW) can protect rats against liver fluke infections when it is administered intramuscularly or intranasally in the form of cDNA. We also observed considerable protection upon challenge following mucosal vaccination with inclusion bodies containing recombinant CPFhW produced in Escherichia coli...
March 23, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333769/the-incidence-of-low-seroimmunity-to-hepatitis-b-virus-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Abhishek Watts, William E Bennett, Jean P Molleston, Sandeep K Gupta, Joseph M Croffie, Shamaila Waseem, Brian A McFerron, Steven J Steiner, Sanjay Kumar, Charles P Vanderpool, Emily C Hon, Molly A Bozic, Girish C Subbarao, Marian D Pfefferkorn
OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often receive immunosuppressive therapy which may make them vulnerable to infections such as hepatitis B. We hypothesized that hepatitis B virus (HBV) titers are low in the vaccinated pediatric IBD population. The aims of our study were to identify the incidence of lower titers of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and determine which patient factors may be associated with lower HBsAb titers. METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of IBD, ages 5-18 years, were prospectively enrolled...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332476/new-onset-hepatitis-c-virus-associated-glomerulonephritis-following-sustained-virologic-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-therapy%C3%A2
#16
Muriel Ghosn, Matthew B Palmer, Catherine E Najem, Danny Haddad, Peter A Merkel, Jonathan J Hogan
Glomerulonephritis (GN) is an important extra-hepatic manifestation of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV-associated GN occurs due to HCV-induced lymphoproliferation, leading to the generation of pathogenic immune complexes, including complexes containing cryoglobulins. The management of HCV-associated extra-hepatic disease is focused on viral eradication, with direct-acting antiviral agents leading to high rates of sustained virologic remission. There have been a few reports of relapsing cryoglobulinemic vasculitis after sustained virologic remission was achieved with interferon-based therapies...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332361/occult-hbv-among-anti-hbc-alone-mutation-analysis-of-an-hbv-surface-gene-and-pre-s-gene
#17
Myeong Hee Kim, So Young Kang, Woo In Lee
PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate the molecular characteristics of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in 'anti-HBc alone' subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-four patients with 'anti-HBc alone' and 20 control patients diagnosed with HBV were analyzed regarding S and pre-S gene mutations. All specimens were analyzed for HBs Ag, anti-HBc, and anti-HBs. For specimens with an anti-HBc alone, quantitative analysis of HBV DNA, as well as sequencing and mutation analysis of S and pre-S genes, were performed...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332360/entecavir-to-telbivudine-switch-therapy-in-entecavir-treated-patients-with-undetectable-hepatitis-b-viral-dna
#18
Dong Hyun Kim, Jong Won Choi, Jeong Hun Seo, Yong Suk Cho, Sun Young Won, Byung Kyu Park, Han Ho Jeon, Sang Yun Shin, Chun Kyon Lee
PURPOSE: This study examined 2-year outcome of consecutive therapy using entecavir (ETV) followed by telbivudine (LdT) in subjects with undetectable hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA level and normal alanine aminotransferase level after the initial 6 months of ETV treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty subjects were randomized to continue with ETV or switch to LdT. Significant difference in baseline characteristics was not found between the two groups. Persistent HBV DNA level of 20-60 IU/mL in three consecutive samples collected three months apart or singly measured HBV DNA level of >60 IU/mL was defined as virological rebound...
May 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332314/the-mitochondrial-hinge-protein-uqcrh-is-a-novel-prognostic-factor-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#19
Eun-Ran Park, Sang-Bum Kim, Jee-San Lee, Yang-Hyun Kim, Dong-Hyoung Lee, Eung-Ho Cho, Sun-Hoo Park, Chul Ju Han, Bu-Yeo Kim, Dong Wook Choi, Young Do Yoo, Ami Yu, Jae Won Lee, Ja June Jang, Young Nyun Park, Kyung-Suk Suh, Kee-Ho Lee
Alterations in mitochondrial respiration contribute to the development and progression of cancer via abnormal biogenesis, including generation of reactive oxygen species. Ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein (UQCRH) consists of the cytochrome bc1 complex serving respiration in mitochondria. In the present study, we analyzed UQCRH abnormalities in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and its association with clinical outcomes of patients. UQCRH expression in HCC was determined via semiquantitative and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction of 96 surgically resected HCC tissues positive for hepatitis B virus surface antigen...
March 23, 2017: Cancer Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331981/vaccination-in-oncology-practice-and-predictors
#20
Ali Alkan, Ebru Karcı, Arzu Yaşar, Gülseren Tuncay, Elif Berna Köksoy, Muslih Ürün, Filiz Çay Şenler, Ahmet Demirkazık, Güngör Utkan, Hakan Akbulut, Yüksel Ürün
PURPOSE: Despite, vaccination is a highly effective and widely recommended for prevention of certain infections, vaccination coverage is very low. The purposes of this study were to evaluate the attitudes of medical oncologists towards vaccination and to identify predictors of intention to recommend vaccination in patients with cancer. METHODS: A structured questionnaire is formed to evaluate the daily practice of vaccination. Turkish medical oncologists were invited to this study via email, SMS, or phone call...
March 22, 2017: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
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