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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813079/diffusion-tensor-imaging-of-brain-white-matter-in-huntington-gene-mutation-individuals
#1
Roberta Arb Saba, James H Yared, Thomas M Doring, Med Phys, Vanderci Borges, Henrique Ballalai Ferraz
Objective: To evaluate the role of the involvement of white matter tracts in huntingtin gene mutation patients as a potential biomarker of the progression of the disease. Methods: We evaluated 34 participants (11 symptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, 12 presymptomatic huntingtin gene mutation, and 11 controls). We performed brain magnetic resonance imaging to assess white matter integrity using diffusion tensor imaging, with measurement of fractional anisotropy...
August 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806990/dvh-and-ntcp-based-dosimetric-comparison-of-different-longitudinal-margins-for-vmat-imrt-of-esophageal-cancer
#2
S Münch, M Oechsner, S E Combs, D Habermehl
PURPOSE: To cover the microscopic tumor spread in squamous cell carcinoma of the esophagus (SCC), longitudinal margins of 3-4 cm are used for radiotherapy (RT) protocols. However, smaller margins of 2-3 cm might be reasonable when advanced diagnostic imaging is integrated into target volume delineation. Purpose of this study was to compare the dose distribution and deposition to the organs at risk (OAR) for different longitudinal margins using a DVH- and NTCP-based approach. METHODS: Ten patients with SCC of the middle or lower third were retrospectively selected...
August 15, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804465/personality-traits-related-to-binge-drinking-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Ana Adan, Diego A Forero, José Francisco Navarro
The pattern of alcohol consumption in the form of binge drinking (BD) or heavy episodic drinking has increased notably worldwide in recent years, especially among adolescent and young people, being currently recognized as a global health problem. Although only a minority of binge drinkers will develop a substance use disorder, BD may have negative personal and social consequences in the short and medium term. The objective of this article is to review the findings on personality traits related to binge drinkers and to emphasize the aspects that should be examined in order to make progress in this area...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801477/type-2-diabetes-mellitus-and-impaired-renal-function-are-associated-with-brain-alterations-and-poststroke-cognitive-decline
#4
Einor Ben Assayag, Roy Eldor, Amos D Korczyn, Efrat Kliper, Shani Shenhar-Tsarfaty, Oren Tene, Jeremy Molad, Itzhak Shapira, Shlomo Berliner, Viki Volfson, Ludmila Shopin, Yehuda Strauss, Hen Hallevi, Natan M Bornstein, Eitan Auriel
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with diseases of the brain, kidney, and vasculature. However, the relationship between T2DM, chronic kidney disease, brain alterations, and cognitive function after stroke is unknown. We aimed to evaluate the inter-relationship between T2DM, impaired renal function, brain pathology on imaging, and cognitive decline in a longitudinal poststroke cohort. METHODS: The TABASCO (Tel Aviv brain acute stroke cohort) is a prospective cohort of stroke/transient ischemic attack survivors...
August 11, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800740/neurocognitive-sparing-of-desktop-microbeam-irradiation
#5
Soha Bazyar, Christina R Inscoe, Thad Benefield, Lei Zhang, Jianping Lu, Otto Zhou, Yueh Z Lee
BACKGROUND: Normal tissue toxicity is the dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy. Spatial fractionation irradiation techniques, like microbeam radiotherapy (MRT), have shown promising results in sparing the normal brain tissue. Most MRT studies have been conducted at synchrotron facilities. With the aim to make this promising treatment more available, we have built the first desktop image-guided MRT device based on carbon nanotube x-ray technology. In the current study, our purpose was to evaluate the effects of MRT on the rodent normal brain tissue using our device and compare it with the effect of the integrated equivalent homogenous dose...
August 11, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28799214/refill-adherence-and-persistence-to-lipid-lowering-medicines-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-nation-wide-register-based-study
#6
Sofia Axia Karlsson, Christel Hero, Björn Eliasson, Stefan Franzén, Ann-Marie Svensson, Mervete Miftaraj, Soffia Gudbjörnsdottir, Katarina Eeg-Olofsson, Karolina Andersson Sundell
PURPOSE: This study aimed to describe and compare refill adherence and persistence to lipid-lowering medicines in patients with type 2 diabetes by previous cardiovascular disease (CVD). METHODS: We followed 97 595 patients (58% men; 23% with previous CVD) who were 18 years of age or older when initiating lipid-lowering medicines in 2007-2010 until first fill of multi-dose dispensed medicines, death, or 3 years. Using personal identity numbers, we linked individuals' data from the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, the Swedish National Diabetes Register, the National Patient Register, the Cause of Death Register, and the Longitudinal Integration Database for Health Insurance and Labour Market Studies...
August 11, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796902/spatio-temporal-variation-in-lifelong-telomere-dynamics-in-a-long-term-ecological-study
#7
Lewis G Spurgin, Kat Bebbington, Eleanor A Fairfield, Martijn Hammers, Jan Komdeur, Terry Burke, Hannah L Dugdale, David S Richardson
Understanding individual-level variation in response to the environment is fundamental to understanding life-history evolution and population dynamics. Telomeres, the protective caps at the ends of chromosomes, shorten in response to oxidative stress, and telomere shortening is correlated with reduced survival and lifespan. Investigating telomere dynamics may help us quantify individual variation in the costs experienced from social and ecological factors, and enhance our understanding of the dynamics of natural populations...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796559/improvements-in-patient-and-health-system-outcomes-using-an-integrated-oncology-and-palliative-medicine-approach-on-a-solid-tumor-inpatient-service
#8
Richard F Riedel, Kim Slusser, Steve Power, Christopher A Jones, Thomas W LeBlanc, Arif H Kamal, Devi Desai, Deborah Allen, Yinxi Yu, Steven Wolf, Anthony N Galanos
PURPOSE: Early palliative care (PC) improves outcomes for outpatients with advanced cancer. Its effect on hospitalized patients with cancer is unknown. Herein, we report on the influence of a novel, fully integrated inpatient medical oncology and PC partnership at a tertiary medical center during its first year of implementation. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, longitudinal, pre- and postintervention cohort study at Duke University Hospital. Pre- and postintervention cohorts were defined as all patients admitted to the solid tumor inpatient service from September 1, 2009, to June 30, 2010, and September 1, 2011 to June 30, 2012, respectively...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Oncology Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792514/network-analysis-for-science-and-technology-management-evidence-from-tuberculosis-research-in-fiocruz-brazil
#9
Bruna de Paula Fonseca E Fonseca, Marcus Vinicius Pereira da Silva, Kizi Mendonça de Araújo, Ricardo Barros Sampaio, Milton Ozório Moraes
Collaborative networks are of great value for science and technology (S&T) institutions as a way of sharing, generating and disseminating new knowledge that could ultimately lead to innovations. Driven by the need to assess the contribution and effectiveness of these networks in informing S&T management, we explored the evolution and dynamics of tuberculosis scientific networks involving the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation (Fiocruz), the major public health S&T Institution in Brazil. Social network analysis (SNA) was used to produce a 10-year (2005-2009, 2010-2014) retrospective longitudinal mapping of Brazilian tuberculosis research networks within the country and internationally, highlighting Fiocruz collaborations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790439/polarization-invariant-plasmonic-nanostructures-for-sensing-applications
#10
Landobasa Y M Tobing, Geat-Yee Goh, Aaron D Mueller, Lin Ke, Yu Luo, Dao-Hua Zhang
Optics-based sensing platform working under unpolarized light illumination is of practical importance in the sensing applications. For this reason, sensing platforms based on localized surface plasmons are preferred to their integrated optics counterparts for their simple mode excitation and inexpensive implementation. However, their optical response under unpolarized light excitation is typically weak due to their strong polarization dependence. Herein, the role of rotational symmetry for realizing robust sensing platform exhibiting strong optical contrast and high sensitivity is explored...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790044/access-3-project-protocol-young-people-and-health-system-navigation-in-the-digital-age-a-multifaceted-mixed-methods-study
#11
Melissa Kang, Fiona Robards, Lena Sanci, Katharine Steinbeck, Stephen Jan, Catherine Hawke, Marlene Kong, Tim Usherwood
BACKGROUND: The integration of digital technology into everyday lives of young people has become widespread. It is not known whether and how technology influences barriers and facilitators to healthcare, and whether and how young people navigate between face-to-face and virtual healthcare. To provide new knowledge essential to policy and practice, we designed a study that would explore health system access and navigation in the digital age. The study objectives are to: (1) describe experiences of young people accessing and navigating the health system in New South Wales (NSW), Australia; (2) identify barriers and facilitators to healthcare for young people and how these vary between groups; (3) describe health system inefficiencies, particularly for young people who are marginalised; (4) provide policy-relevant knowledge translation of the research data...
August 7, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782447/global-loss-of-myelin-water-over-5-years-in-multiple-sclerosis-normal-appearing-white-matter
#12
Irene M Vavasour, Sophie C Huijskens, David Kb Li, Anthony L Traboulsee, Burkhard Mädler, Shannon H Kolind, Alexander Rauscher, Gr Wayne Moore, Alex L MacKay, Cornelia Laule
BACKGROUND: Reduced myelin water fraction (MWF, a marker for myelin), increased geometric mean T2 (ieGMT2, reflecting intra/extracellular water properties), and increased T1 (related to total water content) have been observed in cross-sectional studies of multiple sclerosis (MS) normal-appearing white matter (NAWM). OBJECTIVE: To assess longitudinal changes of magnetic resonance (MR) measures in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) brain NAWM. METHODS: A total of 11 subjects with RRMS and 4 controls were scanned on a 3T MRI at baseline and long-term follow-up (LTFU; 3...
August 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782271/comparison-of-nitrergic-signaling-in-circular-and-longitudinal-smooth-muscle-of-murine-ileum
#13
B Voussen, K Beck, N Mauro, J Keppler, A Friebe
BACKGROUND: Gastrointestinal (GI) motility originates from coordinated movements of circular (CM) and longitudinal (LM) smooth muscle. How the two muscle layers react individually to nitrergic input and how they integrate nitrergic signaling is not thoroughly understood. METHODS: We used immunohistochemistry to unveil expression of NO-sensitive guanylyl cyclase (NO-GC) in the ileum. For functional analyses, we measured tone of ileal CM and spontaneous contractions in both ileal muscle layers from mice lacking NO-GC globally (GCKO) and specifically in smooth muscle cells (SMC-GCKO)...
August 7, 2017: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28781117/increased-coronary-tortuosity-is-associated-with-increased-left-ventricular-longitudinal-myocardial-shortening
#14
Andrew C Oehler, Jessica Minnier, Jonathan R Lindner
BACKGROUND: The mechanistic basis for tortuosity of the coronary arteries (TCA) is unclear. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the relative degree of systolic longitudinal shortening of the left ventricle that deforms coaxially oriented coronary arteries is associated with TCA. METHODS: Adult subjects undergoing coronary angiography and comprehensive echocardiography within 3 months were classified dichotomously as with (n = 32) or without (n = 42) TCA defined on the basis of number and severity of coronary angles...
August 3, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780556/evaluation-of-dementianet-a-network-based-primary-care-innovation-for-community-dwelling-patients-with-dementia-protocol-for-a-longitudinal-mixed-methods-multiple-case-study
#15
Anke Richters, Minke S Nieuwboer, Marieke Perry, Marcel G M Olde Rikkert, Rene J F Melis, Marjolein A van der Marck
INTRODUCTION: Primary healthcare professionals will increasingly be required to manage and optimise their treatment for patients with dementia. With DementiaNet, we aim to reduce the burden of dementia on healthcare services and society through implementation and facilitation of integrated network-based care with increased dementia expertise. DementiaNet is designed as a stepwise approach including clinical leadership, quality improvement cycles and interprofessional training, which are tailor-made to the local context...
August 4, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774291/health-service-changes-to-address-diabetes-in-pregnancy-in-a-complex-setting-perspectives-of-health-professionals
#16
R Kirkham, J A Boyle, C Whitbread, M Dowden, C Connors, S Corpus, L McCarthy, J Oats, H D McIntyre, E Moore, K O'Dea, A Brown, L Maple-Brown
BACKGROUND: Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander women have high rates of gestational and pre-existing type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. The Northern Territory (NT) Diabetes in Pregnancy Partnership was established to enhance systems and services to improve health outcomes. It has three arms: a clinical register, developing models of care and a longitudinal birth cohort. This study used a process evaluation to report on health professional's perceptions of models of care and related quality improvement activities since the implementation of the Partnership...
August 3, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774277/novel-approaches-to-the-prediction-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-cardiac-late-effects-in-survivors-of-childhood-cancer-a-multi-centre-observational-study
#17
Amy Skitch, Seema Mital, Luc Mertens, Peter Liu, Paul Kantor, Lars Grosse-Wortmann, Cedric Manlhiot, Mark Greenberg, Paul C Nathan
BACKGROUND: Anthracycline-induced cardiac toxicity is a cause of significant morbidity and early mortality in survivors of childhood cancer. Current strategies for predicting which children are at greatest risk for toxicity are imperfect and diagnosis of cardiac injury is usually made relatively late in the natural history of the disease. This study aims to identify genomic, biomarker and imaging parameters that can be used as predictors of risk or aid in the early diagnosis of cardiotoxicity...
August 3, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771940/reduced-cerebral-white-matter-integrity-assessed-by-dti-in-cognitively-normal-h63d-hfe-polymorphism-carriers
#18
Mark D Meadowcroft, Jianli Wang, Carson J Purnell, Paul J Eslinger, Elizabeth B Neely, Qing X Yang, James R Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The H63D-HFE single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) has been associated with brain iron dysregulation; however, the emergent role of this missense variant in brain structure and function has yet to be determined. Previous work has demonstrated that HFE SNP carriers have reduced white matter magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) proton relaxation rates. The mechanism by which white matter alterations perturb MRI relaxation is unknown as is how these metrics are related to myelin integrity...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771043/longitudinal-dynamics-of-3-dimensional-components-of-selfhood-after-severe-traumatic-brain-injury-a-qeeg-case-study
#19
Andrew A Fingelkurts, Alexander A Fingelkurts
In this report, we describe the case of a patient who sustained extremely severe traumatic brain damage with diffuse axonal injury in a traffic accident and whose recovery was monitored during 6 years. Specifically, we were interested in the recovery dynamics of 3-dimensional components of selfhood (a 3-dimensional construct model for the complex experiential selfhood has been recently proposed based on the empirical findings on the functional-topographical specialization of 3 operational modules of brain functional network responsible for the self-consciousness processing) derived from the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal...
September 2017: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770323/understanding-and-preventing-type-1-diabetes-through-the-unique-working-model-of-trialnet
#20
REVIEW
Manuela Battaglia, Mark S Anderson, Jane H Buckner, Susan M Geyer, Peter A Gottlieb, Thomas W H Kay, Åke Lernmark, Sarah Muller, Alberto Pugliese, Bart O Roep, Carla J Greenbaum, Mark Peakman
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease arising from the destruction of pancreatic insulin-producing beta cells. The disease represents a continuum, progressing sequentially at variable rates through identifiable stages prior to the onset of symptoms, through diagnosis and into the critical periods that follow, culminating in a variable depth of beta cell depletion. The ability to identify the very earliest of these presymptomatic stages has provided a setting in which prevention strategies can be trialled, as well as furnishing an unprecedented opportunity to study disease evolution, including intrinsic and extrinsic initiators and drivers...
August 2, 2017: Diabetologia
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