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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782908/deficits-in-temporal-order-memory-induced-by-interferon-alpha-ifn-%C3%AE-treatment-are-rescued-by-aerobic-exercise
#1
Sally Barlow, Briana Fahey, Kimberley J Smith, Johannes Passecker, Andrea Della-Chiesa, Vincent Hok, Jennifer S Day, Charlotte K Callaghan, Shane M O'Mara
Patients receiving cytokine immunotherapy with IFN-α frequently present with neuropsychiatric consequences and cognitive impairments, including a profound depressive-like symptomatology. While the neurobiological substrates of the dysfunction that leads to adverse events in IFN-α-treated patients remains ill-defined, dysfunctions of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) are strong possibilities. To date, hippocampal deficits have been well-characterised; there does however remain a lack of insight into the nature of prefrontal participation...
May 18, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780864/change-in-retinal-structural-anatomy-during-the-preclinical-stage-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Cláudia Y Santos, Lenworth N Johnson, Stuart E Sinoff, Elena K Festa, William C Heindel, Peter J Snyder
Introduction: We conducted a 27-month longitudinal study of mid-life adults with preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), using spectral domain optical coherence tomography to compare changes in volume and thickness in all retinal neuronal layers to those of age-matched healthy control subjects. Methods: Fifty-six older adults (mean age = 65.36 years) with multiple risk factors for AD completed spectral domain optical coherence tomography retinal imaging and cognitive testing at baseline...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780263/a-pooled-analysis-of-two-multicenter-randomized-controlled-trials-of-a-single-intra-articular-injection-of-gel-200-for-treatment-of-osteoarthritis-of-the-knee
#3
Junko Takamura, Takayuki Seo, Vibeke Strand
Background and Objective: To perform an integrated analysis of 2 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to assess the efficacy and safety of a single intra-articular injection of Gel-200 compared with phosphate buffered saline (PBS) for treatment of osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods: Data from the intention-to-treat (ITT) populations of both RCTs were pooled for this integrated analysis. Mean changes from baseline in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) pain subscores were assessed using a longitudinal model; treatment differences were compared between intra-articular Gel-200 and PBS injections...
2018: Clinical Medicine Insights. Arthritis and Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779563/association-of-polygenic-risk-scores-for-multiple-cancers-in-a-phenome-wide-study-results-from-the-michigan-genomics-initiative
#4
Lars G Fritsche, Stephen B Gruber, Zhenke Wu, Ellen M Schmidt, Matthew Zawistowski, Stephanie E Moser, Victoria M Blanc, Chad M Brummett, Sachin Kheterpal, Gonçalo R Abecasis, Bhramar Mukherjee
Health systems are stewards of patient electronic health record (EHR) data with extraordinarily rich depth and breadth, reflecting thousands of diagnoses and exposures. Measures of genomic variation integrated with EHRs offer a potential strategy to accurately stratify patients for risk profiling and discover new relationships between diagnoses and genomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether polygenic risk scores (PRS) for common cancers are associated with multiple phenotypes in a phenome-wide association study (PheWAS) conducted in 28,260 unrelated, genotyped patients of recent European ancestry who consented to participate in the Michigan Genomics Initiative, a longitudinal biorepository effort within Michigan Medicine...
May 17, 2018: American Journal of Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777827/is-reward-prediction-error-encoding-reliable-during-development
#5
Hanna Keren, Gang Chen, Brenda Benson, Monique Ernst, Ellen Leibenluft, Nathan A Fox, Daniel S Pine, Argyris Stringaris
Reward Prediction Errors (RPEs), defined as the difference between the expected and received outcomes, are integral to reinforcement learning models and play an important role in development and psychopathology. In humans, RPE encoding can be estimated using fMRI recordings, however, a basic measurement property of RPE signals, their test-retest reliability across different time scales, remains an open question. In this paper, we examine the 3-month and 3-year reliability of RPE encoding in youth (mean age at baseline = 10...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773923/brain-activity-low-self-control-and-delinquency-an-fmri-study-of-at-risk-adolescents
#6
Ryan Charles Meldrum, Elisa M Trucco, Lora M Cope, Robert A Zucker, Mary M Heitzeg
Purpose: A vast literature finds that low self-control is associated with a myriad of antisocial behaviors. Consequently, increasing attention has focused on the causes of low self-control. While criminologists have directed significant attention to studying its social causes, fewer studies have considered its neural bases. Methods: We add to this nascent body of research by using data collected on an at-risk sample of adolescents participating in the ongoing Michigan Longitudinal Study...
May 2018: Journal of Criminal Justice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773510/implications-of-the-abcd-study-for-developmental-neuroscience
#7
Sarah W Feldstein Ewing, James M Bjork, Monica Luciana
The Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (ABCD) will capture a breadth of multi-faceted biobehavioral, environmental, familial, and genetic longitudinal developmental open-access data from over 11,000 9-10 year olds throughout the United States of America (USA) for an envisioned ten-year span. This will subsequently represent the largest study ever attempted with this level of brain phenotypic detail. This study holds the opportunity for exciting advances in the understanding of typical adolescent neurodevelopment, discovery of neurodevelopmental underpinnings of mental illness, as well as the neurodevelopmental influences of (and on) social factors, substance use, and critically - their interaction...
May 14, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769793/a-marker-of-biological-ageing-predicts-adult-risk-preference-in-european-starlings-sturnus-vulgaris
#8
Clare Andrews, Daniel Nettle, Sophie Reichert, Tom Bedford, Pat Monaghan, Melissa Bateson
Why are some individuals more prone to gamble than others? Animals often show preferences between 2 foraging options with the same mean reward but different degrees of variability in the reward, and such risk preferences vary between individuals. Previous attempts to explain variation in risk preference have focused on energy budgets, but with limited empirical support. Here, we consider whether biological ageing, which affects mortality and residual reproductive value, predicts risk preference. We studied a cohort of European starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) in which we had previously measured developmental erythrocyte telomere attrition, an established integrative biomarker of biological ageing...
May 2018: Behavioral Ecology: Official Journal of the International Society for Behavioral Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768072/an-integrated-developmental-four-year-medical-school-curriculum-in-palliative-care-a-longitudinal-content-evaluation-based-on-national-competency-standards
#9
Erin M Denney-Koelsch, Robert Horowitz, Timothy Quill, Constance D Baldwin
BACKGROUND: While palliative care (PC) competencies for medical school graduates have been defined, the lack of established curriculum models and assessment tools hampers curricular evaluation. OBJECTIVE: To describe the scope and content of the University of Rochester's longitudinal, integrated four-year PC curriculum after 17 years of implementation, review student evaluative responses, and compare the curriculum to national competency standards. DESIGN AND SETTING: Combining and reorganizing a published PC curriculum assessment tool and a list of medical school PC competencies, we created a novel nine-topic framework to assess the content coverage of our curriculum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Palliative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767815/the-effect-of-glatiramer-acetate-on-retinal-nerve-fiber-layer-thickness-in-patients-with-relapsing-remitting-multiple-sclerosis-a-longitudinal-optical-coherence-tomography-study
#10
Robert Zivadinov, Eleonora Tavazzi, Jesper Hagemeier, Ellen Carl, David Hojnacki, Channa Kolb, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman
BACKGROUND: Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a technique that allows for the assessment of retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) and total macular volume (TMV), which reflect neuroaxonal integrity within the retina. As such it has been used in multiple sclerosis (MS) to study neurodegeneration. Glatiramer acetate (GA) is a widely used treatment for MS, which is suggested to have a possible neuroprotective role. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess RFNLT and TMV changes in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients who started treatment with GA and were followed for a 24-month period...
May 16, 2018: CNS Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767571/student-perceptions-of-veterinary-anatomy-practical-classes-a-longitudinal-study
#11
Erica Gummery, Kate A Cobb, Liz H Mossop, Malcolm A Cobb
Using cadaveric material to teach veterinary students poses many challenges. However, little research exists on the contribution of this traditional approach to student learning. This longitudinal study aimed to investigate student perceptions of cadaver-based anatomy classes in a vertically integrated veterinary curriculum at the University of Nottingham's School of Veterinary Medicine and Science. Likert-scale statements and free-text boxes were used in a questionnaire distributed to second-year veterinary students (response rate 59%, 61/103)...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766539/block-versus-longitudinal-integrated-clerkships-students-views-of-rural-clinical-supervision
#12
Martin Witney, Vivian Isaac, Denese Playford, Leesa Walker, David Garne, Lucie Walters
CONTEXT: Medical students undertaking longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs) train in multiple disciplines concurrently, compared with students in block rotations who typically address one medical discipline at a time. Current research suggests that LICs afford students increased access to patients and continuity of clinical supervision. However, these factors are less of an issue in rural placements where there are fewer learners. The aim of this study was to compare rural LIC and rural block rotation students' reported experiences of clinical supervision...
May 15, 2018: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766322/microdaimon-study-microcirculatory-daily-monitoring-in-critically-ill-patients-a-prospective-observational-study
#13
Claudia Scorcella, Elisa Damiani, Roberta Domizi, Silvia Pierantozzi, Stefania Tondi, Andrea Carsetti, Silvia Ciucani, Valentina Monaldi, Mara Rogani, Benedetto Marini, Erica Adrario, Rocco Romano, Can Ince, E Christiaan Boerma, Abele Donati
BACKGROUND: Until now, the prognostic value of microcirculatory alterations in critically ill patients has been mainly evaluated in highly selected subgroups. Aim of this study is to monitor the microcirculation daily in mixed group of Intensive Care Unit (ICU)-patients and to establish the association between (the evolution of) microcirculatory alterations and outcome. METHODS: This is a prospective longitudinal observational single-centre study in adult patients admitted to a 12-bed ICU in an Italian teaching hospital...
May 15, 2018: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765059/postnatal-microstructural-developmental-trajectory-of-corpus-callosum-subregions-and-relationship-to-clinical-factors-in-very-preterm-infants
#14
Radhika Teli, Margaret Hay, Alexa Hershey, Manoj Kumar, Han Yin, Nehal A Parikh
Our objectives were to define the microstructural developmental trajectory of six corpus callosum subregions and identify perinatal clinical factors that influence early development of these subregions in very preterm infants. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of very preterm infants (32 weeks gestational age or younger) (N = 36) who underwent structural MRI and diffusion tensor imaging serially at four time points - before 32, 32, 38, and 52 weeks postmenstrual age. We divided the corpus callosum into six subregions, performed probabilistic tractography, and used linear mixed effects models to evaluate the influence of antecedent clinical factors on its microstructural growth trajectory...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29762678/using-statistical-anomaly-detection-models-to-find-clinical-decision-support-malfunctions
#15
Soumi Ray, Dustin S McEvoy, Skye Aaron, Thu-Trang Hickman, Adam Wright
Objective: Malfunctions in Clinical Decision Support (CDS) systems occur due to a multitude of reasons, and often go unnoticed, leading to potentially poor outcomes. Our goal was to identify malfunctions within CDS systems. Methods: We evaluated 6 anomaly detection models: (1) Poisson Changepoint Model, (2) Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Model, (3) Hierarchical Divisive Changepoint (HDC) Model, (4) Bayesian Changepoint Model, (5) Seasonal Hybrid Extreme Studentized Deviate (SHESD) Model, and (6) E-Divisive with Median (EDM) Model and characterized their ability to find known anomalies...
May 11, 2018: Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association: JAMIA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29759057/comparing-costs-of-traditional-and-specialty-probation-for-people-with-serious-mental-illness
#16
Jennifer L Skeem, Lina Montoya, Sarah M Manchak
OBJECTIVE: Specialty mental health probation reduces the likelihood of rearrest for people with mental illness, who are overrepresented in the justice system. This study tested whether specialty probation was associated with lower costs than traditional probation during the two years after placement in probation. METHODS: A longitudinal, matched study compared costs of behavioral health care and criminal justice contacts among 359 probationers with mental illness at prototypic specialty or traditional agencies...
May 15, 2018: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757368/the-long-noncoding-rna-landscape-of-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer-and-its-clinical-implications
#17
Varune Rohan Ramnarine, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Fan Mo, Noushin Nabavi, Nicholas Erho, Mandeep Takhar, Robert Shukin, Sonal Brahmbhatt, Alexander Gawronski, Maxim Kobelev, Mannan Nouri, Dong Lin, Harrison Tsai, Tamara L Lotan, R Jefferey Karnes, Mark A Rubin, Amina Zoubeidi, Martin E Gleave, Cenk Sahinalp, Alexander W Wyatt, Stanislav V Volik, Himisha Beltran, Elai Davicioni, Yuzhuo Wang, Colin C Collins
Background: Treatment induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (tNEPC) is an aggressive variant of late-stage metastatic castrate resistant (mCRPC) prostate cancer that commonly arises through neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD). Treatment options are limited, ineffective, and for most patients, results in death in less than a year. We previously developed a first-in-field patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of NEtD. Longitudinal deep transcriptome profiling of this model enabled monitoring of dynamic transcriptional changes during NEtD and in the context of androgen deprivation...
May 10, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754715/assembly-kinetics-of-vimentin-tetramers-to-unit-length-filaments-a-stopped-flow-study
#18
Norbert Mücke, Lara Kämmerer, Stefan Winheim, Robert Kirmse, Jan Krieger, Maria Mildenberger, Jochen Baßler, Ed Hurt, Wolfgang H Goldmann, Ueli Aebi, Katalin Toth, Jörg Langowski, Harald Herrmann
Intermediate filaments (IFs) are principal components of the cytoskeleton, a dynamic integrated system of structural proteins that provides the functional architecture of metazoan cells. They are major contributors to the elasticity of cells and tissues due to their high mechanical stability and intrinsic flexibility. The basic building block for the assembly of IFs is a rod-like, 60-nm-long tetrameric complex made from two antiparallel, half-staggered coiled coils. In low ionic strength, tetramers form stable complexes that rapidly assemble into filaments upon raising the ionic strength...
May 10, 2018: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751858/precision-radiology-residency-training-special-distinction-tracks-for-noninterpretative-professional-development
#19
Elizabeth Snyder, Lilja Solnes, Karen M Horton, Pamela T Johnson
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: The role of a radiologist has expanded beyond the tripartite mission of patient care, education, and research to include cross-specialty consultation for patient management, innovative solutions to improve health-care quality and safety, device design, and policy advocacy. As such, radiology residency programs should incorporate formalized training to prepare residents for these various professional roles. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Since the 2015-2016 academic year, five training tracks focused on noninterpretative skills have been integrated into our residency training program: Clinician Educator, Quality Improvement, Entrepreneurship/Innovation, Health Policy Advocacy, and High-Value Care...
June 2018: Academic Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29751275/computational-approach-to-integrate-3d-x-ray-microtomography-and-nmr-data
#20
Everton Lucas-Oliveira, Arthur G Araujo-Ferreira, Willian A Trevizan, Carlos A Fortulan, Tito J Bonagamba
Nowadays, most of the efforts in NMR applied to porous media are dedicated to studying the molecular fluid dynamics within and among the pores. These analyses have a higher complexity due to morphology and chemical composition of rocks, besides dynamic effects as restricted diffusion, diffusional coupling, and exchange processes. Since the translational nuclear spin diffusion in a confined geometry (e.g. pores and fractures) requires specific boundary conditions, the theoretical solutions are restricted to some special problems and, in many cases, computational methods are required...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
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