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Longitudinal integrated

Nan Shwe Nwe Htun, Peter Odermatt, Ivan Müller, Peiling Yap, Peter Steinmann, Christian Schindler, Markus Gerber, Rosa Du Randt, Cheryl Walter, Uwe Pühse, Jürg Utzinger, Nicole Probst-Hensch
BACKGROUND: Low- and middle-income countries are facing a dual disease burden with infectious diseases (e.g., gastrointestinal tract infections) and non-communicable diseases (e.g., diabetes) being common. For instance, chronic parasite infections lead to altered immune regulatory networks, anemia, malnutrition, and diarrhea with an associated shift in the gut microbiome. These can all be pathways of potential relevance for insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between common gastrointestinal tract infections and glycemia in children from non-fee paying schools in South Africa...
March 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Mohammed Saji Salahudeen, Prasad S Nishtala
OBJECTIVE: To summarize studies that used the international Resident Assessment home care instrument (interRAI HC) to examine study outcomes for older people. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed to identify relevant studies, using five databases from 1990 until October 2016. The Cochrane Risk-Bias assessment tool and Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess the quality of RCTs and non-RCTs, respectively. RESULTS: Based on the full-text analysis, 40 studies met the inclusion criteria out of 506 total records...
March 2, 2018: Clinical Gerontologist
Galina Gheihman, Tomi Jun, Grace J Young, Daniel Liebman, Krishan Sharma, Eileen Brandes, Barbara Ogur, David A Hirsh
BACKGROUND: Longitudinal clinical experiences are a common component of undergraduate medical curricula, yet these programs have not been systematically characterized in US medical schools. OBJECTIVE: Our study sought to identify and characterize longitudinal clinical programs (LCPs) in US medical schools and measure associations between programs' structures and goals. DESIGN: Using a mixed-methods approach, we conducted a secondary analysis of data from publicly available websites...
December 2018: Medical Education Online
Adriano Luís Soares De Souza, Stefan Rudin, Rui Chang, Keith Mitchell, Timothy Crandall, Shuning Huang, Ji-Kyung Choi, Shinji L Okitsu, Danielle L Graham, Blake Tomkinson, Tammy Dellovade
INTRODUCTION: Antigen-specific immunotherapy could provide a targeted approach for the treatment of multiple sclerosis that removes the need for broad-acting immunomodulatory drugs. ATX-MS-1467 is a mixture of four peptides identified as the main immune-dominant disease-associated T-cell epitopes in myelin basic protein (MBP), an autoimmune target for activated autoreactive T cells in multiple sclerosis. Previous animal studies have shown that ATX-MS-1467 treatment prevented the worsening of signs of disease in experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE) in the humanized (DR2 × Ob1)F1 mouse in a dose-dependent fashion...
March 14, 2018: Neurology and Therapy
Edith V Sullivan, Natalie M Zahr, Stephanie A Sassoon, Wesley K Thompson, Dongjin Kwon, Kilian M Pohl, Adolf Pfefferbaum
Importance: The prevalence of alcohol misuse increased substantially over a decade in adults, particularly in those aged 65 years or older. Ramifications for brain structural integrity are significant, especially in older adults. Objectives: To combine cross-sectional, longitudinal data to test age-alcoholism interactions and examine the association between prevalent comorbidities (drug dependence and hepatitis C virus [HCV] infection) and cortical volume deficits in alcohol dependence...
March 14, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Jie Zhang, Xuehu Wei, Sangma Xie, Zhen Zhou, Desheng Shang, Renjie Ji, Yamei Yu, Fangping He, Yue Du, Xiangming Ye, Benyan Luo
In the dual-route language model, the dorsal pathway is known for sound-to-motor mapping, but the role of the ventral stream is controversial. With the goal of enhancing our understanding of language models, this study investigated the diffusion characteristics of candidate tracts in aphasic patients. We evaluated 14 subacute aphasic patients post-stroke and 11 healthy controls with language assessment and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found multiple linguistic associations for the ventral stream, while automated fiber quantification (AFQ) showed, via reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity with increased radial diffusivity (all corrected p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Jenny M Cundiff, Karen A Matthews
In adults, greater social integration is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Social integration earlier in life may be similarly associated with cardiovascular risk. Using a longitudinal sample of 267 Black and White men, we examined whether greater social integration with peers during childhood and adolescence, assessed by parent report, prospectively predicts lower blood pressure and body mass index two decades later in adulthood and whether these effects differ by race, given well-documented racial disparities in hypertension...
March 1, 2018: Psychological Science
Cary Cuncic, Glenn Regehr, Heather Frost, Joanna Bates
INTRODUCTION: The relationship between preceptor and trainee is becoming recognized as a critical component of teaching, in particular in the negotiation of feedback and in the formation of professional identity. This paper elaborates on the nature of the relationships between preceptor and student that evolve in the context of rural longitudinal integrated clerkships (LICs). METHODS: We drew on constructivist grounded theory for the research approach. We interviewed nine LIC family practice preceptors from three sites at one educational institution...
March 12, 2018: Perspectives on Medical Education
Louis Sass, Juan P Borda, Luis Madeira, Elizabeth Pienkos, Barnaby Nelson
The self-disorder model offers a unifying way of conceptualizing schizophrenia's highly diverse symptoms (positive, negative, disorganized), of capturing their distinctive bizarreness, and of conceiving their longitudinal development. These symptoms are viewed as differing manifestations of an underlying disorder of ipseity or core-self: hyper-reflexivity/diminished-self-presence with accompanying disturbances of "grip" or "hold" on reality. Recent revision to this phenomenological theory, in particular distinguishing primary-vs-secondary factors, offers a bio-pheno-social model that is consistent with recent empirical findings and offers several advantages: (1) It helps account for the temporal variations of the symptoms or syndrome, including longitudinal progression, but also the shorter-term, situationally reactive, and sometimes defensive or quasi-intentional variability of symptom-expression that can occur in schizophrenia (consistent with understanding some aspects of ipseity-disturbance as dynamic and mutable, involving shifting attitudes or experiential orientations)...
February 5, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Andrea R Zammit, Annie Robitaille, Andrea Piccinin, Graciela Muniz-Terrera, Scott M Hofer
Objectives: Grip strength and cognitive function reflect upper body muscle strength and mental capacities. Cross-sectional research has suggested that in old age these two processes are moderately to highly associated, and that an underlying common cause drives this association. Our aim was to synthesize and evaluate longitudinal research addressing whether changes in grip strength are associated with changes in cognitive function in healthy older adults. Methods: We systematically reviewed English-language research investigating the longitudinal association between repeated measures of grip strength and of cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults to evaluate the extent to which the two indices decline concurrently...
March 8, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
F H Wang, K Bae, Z W Huang, J M Xue
For obtaining high-resolution macroscopical anatomical information and high sensitivity microscopical optical signals, it is highly desirable to develop dual-modality magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and fluorescent probes in medical imaging simultaneously. In this study, Gd2 O3 nanoparticles were modified with two-photon graphene quantum dots (GQD), integrating a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agent with two-photon imaging functionality into one nanoprobe. A photoluminescence study indicated that the GQD modification process integrated MRI properties with both one-photon and two-photon imaging properties...
March 12, 2018: Nanoscale
Yuval Barkan, Hedva Spitzer
The human visual system faces many challenges, among them the need to overcome the imperfections of its optics, which degrade the retinal image. One of the most dominant limitations is longitudinal chromatic aberration (LCA), which causes short wavelengths (blue light) to be focused in front of the retina with consequent blurring of the retinal chromatic image. The perceived visual appearance, however, does not display such chromatic distortions. The intriguing question, therefore, is how the perceived visual appearance of a sharp and clear chromatic image is achieved despite the imperfections of the ocular optics...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Shanshan Li, Kaitlin Hagan, Francine Grodstein, Tyler J VanderWeele
Background: Social integration has been related to risk of chronic diseases and mental health conditions. Purpose: We investigated the association between social integration in midlife with subsequent health and well-being in aging. Methods: We included women from the Nurses' Health Study in the United States, who had no major chronic diseases in 1996 when we assessed social integration, using the Berkman-Syme Social Network Index. We defined healthy aging after 16 years of follow-up, when women ranged from 66 to 91 years, on the basis of survival along with 4 health criteria, assessed in 2012: no history of major chronic disease diagnosis, no self-reported impairment in memory, and no major impairments in physical function or mental health...
March 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Thijs Devriendt, Davit Chokoshvili, Maddalena Favaretto, Pascal Borry
The Athlete's Biological Passport (ABP) refers to the collection of data related to an individual athlete. The ABP contains the Haematological Module and the Steroidal Module, which are used for the longitudinal monitoring of variables in blood and urine respectively. Based on changes in these variables, a statistical model detects outliers which indicate doping use and guide further targeted testing of the athlete. Presently, athletes can access their data of the Haematological Module in ADAMS. However, granting athletes access to this data has been a matter of debate within the anti-doping community...
March 10, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
R Jansen, A M Wind, M J Cramer, F Nijhoff, P Agostoni, F Z Ramjankhan, W J Suyker, P R Stella, S A J Chamuleau
The purpose of this study was to evaluate mitral regurgitation (MR) severity in patients undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) by standardized assessment of two-dimensional (2D) transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and 1-year echocardiographic and clinical outcomes. Pre- and post-procedural TTE's of patients undergoing TAVR between 2008 and 2014 were analyzed. MR was graded according to current guidelines with a systematic and integrated approach. Longitudinal echocardiographic and clinical results were analyzed...
March 10, 2018: International Journal of Cardiovascular Imaging
Brigid M Gillespie, Emma Harbeck, Joanne Lavin, Therese Gardiner, Teresa K Withers, Andrea P Marshall
BACKGROUND: The surgical Safety Checklist (SSC) was introduced in 2008 to improve teamwork and reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with surgery. Although mandated in many health care institutions around the world, challenges in implementation of the SSC continue. To use Normalisation Process Theory (NPT) to help understand how/why implementation of a complex intervention coined Pass The Baton (PTB) could help explain what facets of the Surgical Safety Checklist use led to its' integration in practice, while others were not...
March 9, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Margaret R Bauer, Emma E Bright, James J MacDonald, Elizabeth H Cleary, O Joe Hines, Annette L Stanton
Little is known about quality of life (QOL) of patients with pancreatic cancer and their caregivers compared with adults with other cancers. This systematic review summarizes the available evidence base, identifies its limitations, and recommends directions for research and clinical application. A systematic review was conducted of research on QOL in adults with pancreatic cancer and their caregivers. Quality of life was examined in the following specific domains: psychological, physical, social, sexual, spiritual, and general...
April 2018: Pancreas
Jong Min Park, So-Yeon Park, Hong-Gyun Wu, Jung-In Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the changes in quality of the volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) plans with couch-shift between arcs by half of a multi-leaf collimator (MLC) leaf width. METHODS: A total of 22 patients with head-and-neck cancer were retrospectively selected. Since the smallest MLC leaf width was 5 mm in this study, the couch was shifted by 2.5 mm in the longitudinal-direction between arcs to increase the resolution of fluence map. A total of three types of VMAT plans were generated for each patient; the three types of plans were a two-full-arc plan without couch-shift (NS plan), a two-half-arc-pair plan with couch-shift (HAS plan), and a two-full-arc pair plan with couch-shift (FAS plan)...
February 2018: Physica Medica: PM
W J van den Brink, T Hankemeier, P H van der Graaf, E C M de Lange
Diseases of the Central Nervous System (CNS) affect millions of people worldwide, with the number of people affected quickly growing. Unfortunately, the successful development of CNS-acting drugs is less than 10%, and this is attributed to the complexity of the CNS, unexpected side effects, difficulties in penetrating the blood-brain barrier and lack of biomarkers. Areas covered: Herein, the authors first review how pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) models are designed to predict the dose-dependent time course of effect, and how they are used to translate drug effects from animal to man...
March 8, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Ahmed M Mehdi, Emma E Hamilton-Williams, Alexandre Cristino, Anette Ziegler, Ezio Bonifacio, Kim-Anh Le Cao, Mark Harris, Ranjeny Thomas
Autoimmune-mediated destruction of pancreatic islet β cells results in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Serum islet autoantibodies usually develop in genetically susceptible individuals in early childhood before T1D onset, with multiple islet autoantibodies predicting diabetes development. However, most at-risk children remain islet-antibody negative, and no test currently identifies those likely to seroconvert. We sought a genomic signature predicting seroconversion risk by integrating longitudinal peripheral blood gene expression profiles collected in high-risk children included in the BABYDIET and DIPP cohorts, of whom 50 seroconverted...
March 8, 2018: JCI Insight
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