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Feeding protocol

Emma A Amissah, Julie Brown, Jane E Harding
BACKGROUND: As preterm infants do not experience the nutrient accretion and rapid growth phase of the third trimester of pregnancy, they are vulnerable to postnatal nutritional deficits, including of fat. Consequently, they require higher fat intakes compared to their full term counterparts to achieve adequate growth and development. Human milk fat provides the major energy needs of the preterm infant and also contributes to several metabolic and physiological functions. Although human milk has many benefits for this population, its fat content is highly variable and may be inadequate for their optimum growth and development...
June 19, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Sheng-Feng Tsai, Hung-Tsung Wu, Po See Chen, Pei-Chun Chen, Yun-Wen Chen, Megan Yu, Shun-Fen Tzeng, Pei-Hsuan Wu, Yu-Min Kuo
<br>Background: The notion that exposure to chronic stress predisposes individuals to develop Type 2 diabetes (T2D) has gained much attention in recent decades. Long-term stress induces neuroadaptation in the amygdala and increases corticosterone levels. Corticosterone, the major stress hormone in rodents, induces insulin resistance and obesity in mice. However, little is known whether the stress-induced amygdalar neuroadaptation could promote the risk of T2D. METHODS: We used an 11-week high-fat-diet (HFD) feeding paradigm to induce insulin dysfunction in mice, followed by implementing a 10-day social defeat (SD) stress protocol...
June 19, 2018: Neuroendocrinology
Norito Shibata, Kiyokazu Agata
RNA interference (RNAi) is one of the simplest and easiest methods for specifically perturbing gene function in an organism. In planarian research, RNAi is one of the essential methods for defining gene functions not only during regeneration, but also during other life history stages. Since the first report of the efficacy of RNAi in planarians in 1999, several RNAi protocols have been reported. Here, we describe protocols to synthesize and deliver synthetic double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) to planarians, either by injection or by feeding...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Carolyn E Adler, Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado
RNA interference (RNAi) is currently the only method available in planaria for assessing the function of particular genes. We describe here a method for performing body-wide gene knockdown, relying on dsRNA production in bacteria and subsequent delivery to planaria by feeding a liver-bacteria mixture. This method is ideal for screening many genes in parallel, in a cost-effective and reliable manner. We also describe a ligation-independent cloning strategy, which is used to rapidly transfer single genes into an RNAi vector that is also appropriate for downstream applications such as in situ hybridizations...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Laura K Milton, Brian J Oldfield, Claire J Foldi
Patients suffering anorexia nervosa (AN) become anhedonic, in other words, unable or unwilling to derive normal pleasures and avoid rewarding outcomes, most profoundly in food intake. The neurobiological underpinnings of anhedonia are likely to involve mesolimbic reward circuitry. We propose here that this circuitry and its involvement in AN can be investigated using the activity-based anorexia (ABA) rodent model that recapitulates many of the characteristics of the human condition, most notably rapid weight loss...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Ziba Ghasemi, Abdol-Reza Varasteh, Malihe Moghadam, Seyed-Amir Jalali, Ali Anissian, Mojtaba Sankian
Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has been introduced as a noninvasive and safer approach for allergen-specific immunotherapies. In this study we investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with recombinant Salsola kali 1 protein (Sal k 1) on Th1/Th2 balance in a mouse model of allergy. Female Balb/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with rSal k1, followed by a respiratory challenge with 1% (w/v) rSal k1. The sensitized mice were subjected to SLIT using rSal K1 expressing Lactobacillus lactis strain for three weeks...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
Jitendra Kumar Singh, Rajendra Kadel, Dilaram Acharya, Daniel Lombard, Saval Khanal, Shri Prakash Singh
BACKGROUND: Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation. METHOD/DESIGN: MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Harry E Routledge, Jill J Leckey, Matt J Lee, Andrew Garnham, Stuart Graham, Darren Burgess, Louise M Burke, Robert M Erskine, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
PURPOSE: To better understand the carbohydrate (CHO) requirement of Australian Football (AF) match play by quantifying muscle glycogen utilisation during an in-season AF match. METHODS: After a 24 h CHO loading protocol of 8 g/kg and 2 g/kg in the pre-match meal, two elite male forward players had biopsies sampled from m. vastus lateralis before and after participation in a South Australian Football League game. Player A (87.2kg) consumed water only during match play whereas player B (87...
June 12, 2018: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
Bilal B Mughal, Barbara A Demeneix, Jean-Baptiste Fini
Using in vivo animal model systems for chemical screening can permit evaluation of the signaling pathways implicated. Xenopus laevis is an ideal model organism to test thyroid axis disruption as thyroid hormones are highly conserved across vertebrates. Here, we describe a high-throughput assay using non-feeding embryonic stage transgenic X. laevis (TH/bZip) to screen for thyroid disrupting chemicals using a 3 day exposure protocol. We further describe a protocol to detect endocrine disruption of thyroid axis by the analysis of gene expression using wild-type X...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Karine Gauthier
The ability of thyroid hormone T3 to stimulate energy expenditure and regulate different aspects of whole body metabolism has been recognized for over a 100 years. Indeed in 1895 Adolf Magnus Levy was already describing the influence of the thyroid on setting the basal metabolic rate. Now it has been well characterized that the level of circulating T3 is correlated with energy expenditure both in humans and in rodent models (Mullur et al., Physiol Rev 94:355-382, 2014; Silva, Thyroid 5:481-492, 1995). Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism are respectively associated with low and high energy expenditure leading to high and low body mass index...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Li Bian, Changlin Liu, Siqing Chen, Fazhen Zhao, Jianlong Ge, Jie Tan
Golden cuttlefish (Sepia esculenta) is an important economic species in China. Because of the rapid decline of its natural resource, researchers are exploring breeding technique for this species. The major obstacle that hinders artificial breeding of S. esculenta is the low larvae survival rate. Mortality is especially high during the mouth-opening stage. Investigating the embryogenesis before the first feed could provide theoretical guidance for reproduction control and breeding of S. esculenta and other Sepia species...
March 2018: Genes & Genomics
A F Saltzman, J C Warncke, A N Colvin, A Carrasco, J P Roach, J L Bruny, N G Cost
PURPOSE: To identify the factors associated with a shorter postoperative stay, as an initial step to develop a care pathway for children undergoing extirpative kidney surgery. STUDY DESIGN: This study retrospectively reviewed patients managed with upfront open radical nephrectomy for renal tumors between 2005 and 2016 at a pediatric tertiary care facility. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression were performed to identify factors associated with early discharge (by postoperative day 4)...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Catherine R Braunstein, Jarvis C Noronha, Andrea J Glenn, Effie Viguiliouk, Rebecca Noseworthy, Tauseef A Khan, Fei Au-Yeung, Sonia Blanco Mejia, Thomas M S Wolever, Robert G Josse, Cyril W C Kendall, John L Sievenpiper
Recent literature suggests that catalytic doses (&le;10 g/meal or 36 g/day) of D-fructose and D-allulose may reduce postprandial blood glucose responses to carbohydrate loads in people with and without type 2 diabetes by inducing glycogen synthesis. To assess the effect of small single doses of fructose and allulose on postprandial blood glucose regulation in response to a 75 g-oral glucose tolerance test (75 g-OGTT) in healthy individuals, we conducted an acute randomized, crossover, equivalence trial in healthy adults...
June 9, 2018: Nutrients
Manuella da L D Barros, Raul Manhães-de-Castro, Daniele T Alves, Omar Guzmán Quevedo, Ana Elisa Toscano, Alexandre Bonnin, Ligia Galindo
Serotonin exerts a modulating function on the development of the central nervous system, including hypothalamic circuits controlling feeding behavior and energy expenditure. Based on the developmental plasticity theory, early disturbances of synaptic availability of serotonin may promote phenotypic adaptations and late disorders of energy balance regulation leading to obesity and associated diseases. The aim of this systematic review is to determine the effects of pharmacological neonatal inhibition of serotonin reuptake by fluoxetine, on parameters related to feeding behavior and energy balance...
June 8, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Leslie A Parker, Jessica H Withers, Elizabeth Talaga
BACKGROUND: Oral-nasogastric feeding tubes (FTs) are often malpositioned, placing infants at risk for complications. Confusion exists regarding the accuracy of methods to determine FT insertion length and verify gastric FT placement, and it is unknown whether evidence-based methods are used by neonatal nurses. PURPOSE: To compare individual and unit-based neonatal nursing practices regarding methods used to determine FT insertion length and verify gastric FT placement...
June 8, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Peter T Clough, Matthew E Boot-Handford, Liya Zheng, Zili Zhang, Paul S Fennell
The performance of combined CO₂-sorbent/catalyst particles for sorption enhanced steam reforming (SESR), prepared via a simple mechanical mixing protocol, was studied using a spout-fluidised bed reactor capable of continuous solid fuel (biomass) feeding. The influence of particle size (300⁻500 and 710⁻1000 µm), CaO loading (60⁻100 wt %), Ni-loading (10⁻40 wt %) and presence of dicalcium silicate support (22.6 wt %) on SESR process performance were investigated. The combined particles were characterised by their density, porosity and CO₂ carrying capacity with the analysis by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), Barrett-Joyner-Halenda (BJH) and mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP)...
May 21, 2018: Materials
Andrea S Anater, Diane J Catellier, Burton A Levine, Karol P Krotki, Emma F Jacquier, Alison L Eldridge, Katherine E Bronstein, Lisa J Harnack, Julia M Lorenzana Peasley, Anne C Lutes
Background: Diet and feeding patterns during the infant, toddler, and preschool years affect nutrient adequacy or excess during critical developmental periods. Understanding food consumption, feeding practices, and nutrient adequacy or excess during these periods is essential to establishing appropriate recommendations aimed at instilling healthy eating behaviors in children. Objective: The objective of the 2016 Feeding Infants and Toddlers Study (FITS 2016) was to update our knowledge on the diets and feeding patterns of young children and to provide new data in related areas such as feeding behaviors, sleep, physical activity, and screen use...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Amy B Hair, David J Rechtman, Martin L Lee, Victoria Niklas
OBJECTIVE: Articles previously published by Sullivan et al. and Cristofalo et al. were reanalyzed using the proportion of cow milk-based nutrition received to determine whether that affected clinical outcomes during hospitalization for infants birth weight 500-1250 g. Abrams et al. showed in the same cohort incidences of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), NEC requiring surgery and sepsis increased proportionally to the amount of dietary cow milk. METHODS: The data from the two studies conducted under essentially the same protocol were combined yielding a cohort of 260 infants receiving a diet ranging from 0% to 100% cow milk...
June 7, 2018: Breastfeeding Medicine: the Official Journal of the Academy of Breastfeeding Medicine
Giovanna Mangili, Elena Garzoli, Youcef Sadou
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the most common neonatal congenital malformation. The variety and severity of clinical presentation depend on the cardiac structures involved and their functional impact. The management of newborns with CHD requires a multidisciplinary approach, in which the nutritional aspect plays an important role. An adequate caloric intake during either preand post-surgical period, in fact, improves the outcome of these patients. In addition, the failure to thrive of these children in childhood has been related to long-term cognitive delay (attention deficit disorders, aggressive behaviour and poor social and emotional development)...
May 23, 2018: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
Tucker B Daley, Erik J Wenninger
The sugarbeet root maggot, Tetanops myopaeformis (von Röder) (Diptera: Ulidiidae), is a major pest of sugar beet Beta vulgaris L. (Carophyllales: Amaranthaceae)in the United States and Canada. Larval feeding on roots can reduce both stand and yield. Current management practices are heavily reliant on chemical control. However, the carbamate and organophosphate insecticides that are commonly used against T. myopaeformis are being phased out of use. Host plant resistance against this pest shows promise, but difficulties with maintaining T...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Insect Science
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