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Pravin M Rathi, Pinakin S Patel
We present the case of a young woman who presented to us with multiple episodes of vomiting, followed by hematemesis and abdominal pain after consuming bottle gourd juice. The patient was resuscitated and stabilized with fluids, proton pump inhibitors and antiemetics and discharged in stable condition. As a member of the Cucurbitaceae family, bottle gourd contains toxic tetracyclic triterpenoid compounds called cucurbitacins which are responsible for the bitter taste and toxicity. There is no known antidote for this toxicity, and clinicians treat such patients symptomatically only...
October 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Wenjing Chu, Haiyan Gao, Shifeng Cao, Xiangjun Fang, Hangjun Chen, Shangyue Xiao
The chemical composition and morphology of cuticular wax in mature fruit of nine blueberry cultivars were investigated using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Triterpenoids and β-diketones were the most prominent compounds, accounting for on average 64.2% and 16.4% of the total wax, respectively. Ursolic or oleanolic acid was identified as the most abundant triterpenoids differing in cultivars. Two β-diketones, hentriacontan-10,12-dione and tritriacontan-12,14-dione, were detected in cuticular wax of blueberry fruits for the first time...
March 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jun Li, Wei Zhen, Dengkai Long, Ling Ding, Anhui Gong, Chenghong Xiao, Weike Jiang, Xiaoqing Liu, Tao Zhou, Luqi Huang
Pseudostellaria heterophylla (Miq.) Pax is a mild tonic herb widely cultivated in the Southern part of China. The tuberous roots of P. heterophylla accumulate high levels of secondary metabolism products of medicinal value such as saponins, flavonoids, and isoquinoline alkaloids. Despite numerous studies on the pharmacological importance and purification of these compounds in P. heterophylla, their biosynthesis is not well understood. In the present study, we used Illumina HiSeq 4000 sequencing platform to sequence the RNA from flowers, leaves, stem, root cortex and xylem tissues of P...
2016: PloS One
Qian-Qian Meng, Xing-Rong Peng, Shuang-Yang Lu, Luo-Sheng Wan, Xia Wang, Jin-Run Dong, Rui Chu, Lin Zhou, Xiao-Nian Li, Ming-Hua Qiu
Three new limonoid-type triterpenoids, namely toonasins A-C (1-3) with a rare lactam E ring, along with six known compounds (4-9) were isolated from the barks of Toona sinensis. The structures of new compounds were elucidated by interpretation of spectroscopic data, and the relative configuration of compound 1 was further characterized by X-ray crystallographic analyses. The isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activities against five human tumor cell lines (HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW480), and compounds 3 and 5 showed weak cytotoxicities...
October 18, 2016: Natural Products and Bioprospecting
Dharmaprakash Viszwapriya, Ganapathy Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Solai Radhika, Shunmugiah Karutha Pandian
Streptococcus mutans, a multivirulent pathogen is considered the primary etiological agent in dental caries. Development of antibiotic resistance in the pathogen has created a need for novel antagonistic agents which can control the virulence of the organism and reduce resistance development. The present study demonstrates the in vitro anti-virulence potential of betulin (lup-20(29)-ene-3β,28-diol), an abundantly available plant triterpenoid against S. mutans UA159. Betulin exhibited significant dose dependent antibiofilm activity without affecting bacterial viability...
October 18, 2016: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
Andrea Villar-Lorenzo, Alejandro E Ardiles, Ana I Arroba, Enrique Hernández-Jiménez, Virginia Pardo, Eduardo López-Collazo, Ignacio A Jiménez, Isabel L Bazzochi, Águeda González-Rodríguez, Ángela M Valverde
A series of 31 pentacyclic triterpenoids isolated from the root barks of Celastrus vulcanicola and Maytenus jelskii were tested for cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity against lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Compounds 18 (C18) and 25 (C25) exhibited significant inhibition of LPS-induced NO release at 50 and 25μM concentrations, respectively, and decreased mRNAs of pro-inflammatory cytokines. At the molecular level, C18 neither inhibited LPS-mediated phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) nor nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa beta (NFκB)...
October 14, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Yongzhi Chang, Shuxi Zhou, Enqin Li, Wenfeng Zhao, Yanpeng Ji, Xiaoan Wen, Hongbin Sun, Haoliang Yuan
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein (CETP) is an important therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Our molecular modeling study revealed that pentacyclic triterpenoid compounds could mimic the protein-ligand interactions of the endogenous ligand cholesteryl ester (CE) by occupying its binding site. Alignment of the docking conformations of oleanolic acid (OA), ursolic acid (UA) and the crystal conformations of known CETP inhibitor Torcetrapib in the active site proposed the applicability of fragment-based drug design (FBDD) approaches in this study...
September 30, 2016: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Xia Zhang, Jingyu Hu, Yan Chen
Betulinic acid (BA), a lupane-type pentacyclic triterpenoid saponin from tree bark, has the potential to induce the apoptosis of cancer cells without toxicity towards normal cells in vitro and in vivo. The antitumor pharmacological effects of BA consist of triggering apoptosis via the mitochondrial pathway, regulating the cell cycle and the angiogenic pathway via factors, including specificity protein transcription factors, cyclin D1 and epidermal growth factor receptor, inhibiting the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and nuclear factor‑κB signaling pathways, preventing the invasion and metastasis of tumor cells, and affecting the expression of topoisomerase I, p53 and lamin B1...
October 4, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Bowen Jiang, Mingli Ji, Wei Liu, Lili Chen, Zhiyu Cai, Yuqing Zhao, Xiuli Bi
Momordica charantia has been used to treat a variety of diseases, including inflammation, diabetes and cancer. A cucurbitane‑type triterpenoid [(19R,23E)‑5β, 19‑epoxy‑19‑methoxy‑cucurbita‑6,23,25‑trien‑3 β‑o‑l] previously isolated from M. charantia was demonstrated to possess significant cytotoxicity against cancer cells. The current study investigated the effects of this compound (referred to as compound K16) on diabetes using an alloxan‑induced diabetic mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were intraperitoneally injected with alloxan (10 mg/kg body weight), and those with blood glucose concentration higher than 10 mM were selected for further experiments...
October 5, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Patcharanee Tawasri, Chadarat Ampasavate, Somsak Tharatha, Natthakarn Chiranthanut, Supanimit Teekachunhatean
The objective of this randomized, open-label, single-dose, two-phase crossover study was to determine the effect of ascorbic acid on pharmacokinetics of ganoderic acid A, an important biologically active triterpenoid compound with anticancer activities, following oral administration of water extract of fruiting bodies of Ling Zhi in 12 healthy male subjects. Each subject was randomized to receive either one of the two regimens: (1) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation or (2) a single dose of 3,000 mg of the Ling Zhi preparation in combination with 2,500 mg of ascorbic acid...
2016: BioMed Research International
Alamgir A Dar, Nisar A Dangroo, Arun Raina, Arem Qayum, Shashank Singh, Anil Kumar, Payare L Sangwan
Five new xanthones, named coxanthones A-E (1-5), together with 21 known secondary metabolites (6-26) that include seven xanthones, five flavonoids, two steroids and seven triterpenoids were isolated from the chemically unexplored whole plant Codonopsis ovata. The structures of new metabolites were elucidated by HRMS, interpretation of NMR spectra and other spectroscopic techniques. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic centre of coxanthone B (2) was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectroscopy...
October 10, 2016: Phytochemistry
Huihong Guo, Rufang Li, Shibiao Liu, Na Zhao, Shuo Han, Mengmeng Lu, Xiaomin Liu, Xinli Xia
Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino is a perennial medicinal herb widely distributed in China. This herb contains important medicinal components called gypenosides, which belong to dammarane-type triterpenoid saponins. Squalene epoxidase (SE, EC catalyzes the epoxidation of squalene to form oxidosqualene and is a key regulatory enzyme in triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis. In this study, a SE gene designated as GpSE1 was isolated from G. pentaphyllum leaves. The deduced protein sequence of GpSE1 contained two conserved domains involved in the catalytic function of SE...
October 6, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Jae Ho Choi, Younho Han, Yong An Kim, Sun Woo Jin, Gi Ho Lee, Hyung Min Jeong, Hyun Sun Lee, Young Chul Chung, Young Chun Lee, Eun Ju Kim, Kwang Youl Lee, Hye Gwang Jeong
Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponins (Changkil saponins, CKS) are reported to have many pharmacological activities. In our latest research, CKS was proven to have a significant osteogenic effect. However, the detail molecular mechanism of CKS on osteoclastic differentiation has not been fully investigated. Administration of CKS considerably reduced OVX-induced bone loss, and ameliorated the reduction in plasma levels of alkaline phosphatase, calcium, and phosphorus observed in OVX mice. CKS also repressed the deterioration of bone trabecular microarchitecture...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Qiang Ren, Lin Ding, Shan-Shan Sun, Hui-Yun Wang, Liang Qu
Lycopus lucidus Turcz has been used as a traditional phytomedicine for menstrual disorder, amenorrhea, menstrual cramps, inflammation, and cardiovascular diseases. However, there is not enough information about identification and quantification for the chemical constituents of L. lucidus Turcz. In this work, a simple, rapid, and sensitive UHPLC - Q-TOF-MS method was developed for characterization and identification of the phytochemical compositions in L. lucidus Turcz in negative ion mode. A total of 37 compounds, including 15 phenolic acids, 12 flavonoids, 3 triterpenoids, and 7 organic acids were tentatively characterized and identified by means of the retention time, accurate mass and characteristic fragment ions...
October 14, 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Kenn Foubert, Taposh Gorella, Ahmad Faizal, Paul Cos, Louis Maes, Sandra Apers, Danny Geelen, Luc Pieters
Within an ongoing research program on saponins with potential antileishmanial activity, four previously undescribed saponins were isolated from Maesa argentea leaves and identified by LC-MS/MS, GC-MS, and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy as 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-butanoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (1), 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β,22α-angeloyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (2), 3β-O-{([β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-(E)-cinnamoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (3), and 3β-O-{([α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 3)]-[β-D-galactopyranosyl-(1 → 2)]-β-D-glucuronopyranosyl)}-21β-angeloyloxy-22α-(E)-cinnamoyloxy-13β,28-oxidoolean-16α,28α-diol (4)...
October 13, 2016: Planta Medica
Ilhem Zebiri, Mohamed Haddad, Laurent Duca, Michel Sauvain, Lucie Paloque, Billy Cabanillas, Elsa Rengifo, Jean-Bernard Behr, Laurence Voutquenne-Nazabadioko
Eleven compounds were isolated from Poraqueiba sericea stems and identified as niga-ichigoside-F1 (1), trachelosperoside B1 (2), 4-epi-niga-ichigoside (7), 19α-hydroxyasiatic acid (3), myrianthic acid (4), hyptatic acid (5), trachelosperogenin B (6), arjunolic acid (8), and trachelosperogenin E (9), secologanoside (10) and secoxyloganin (11). Compounds 1-11 were tested for their antileishmanial activities against Leishmania infantum promastigotes, 1-6 and 8-11 were tested for their cytotoxic activities on fibroblasts, 1-3, 5-6, 8-11 were evaluated for their anti-elastase and anti-acetylcholinesterase assays activities by a spectrophotometric method and 1-2, 5 and 7-10 were tested using bioautography for their β-glucosidase...
October 13, 2016: Natural Product Research
Efficient N Ncube, Paul A Steenkamp, Ntakadzeni E Madala, Ian A Dubery
Centella asiatica is a perrenial herb that grows in tropical regions with numerous medicinal properties mostly attributed to the presence of pentacyclic triterpenoids. Interestingly, this plant also possess a significant amount of phenylpropanoid-derived chlorogenic acids (CGAs) that have recently been reported to confer neuroprotective properties. In a biotechnological attempt to increase the biosynthesis of CGA-derivatives in cultured Centella cells, acibenzolar-S-methyl was applied as a xenobiotic inducer in combination with quinic acid and shikimic acid as precursor molecules...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yayu Huo, Yang Gao, Jie Mi, Xinrui Wang, Huimin Jiang, Hailong Zhang
Rosa davurica Pall. has been used as a traditional Oroqen medicine to treat dyspepsia, gastroenterologia, menoxenia and other diseases. In this study, the chemical constituents research on the fruit pulp of R. davurica led to the isolation and identification of nine bioactive pentacyclic triterpenoids and five of them were isolated from the plant for the first time. Subsequently a simple and rapid high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was established for the simultaneous quantification of the nine triterpenoids...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Chromatographic Science
Rachel S Leisso, Nigel E Gapper, James P Mattheis, Nathanael L Sullivan, Christopher B Watkins, James J Giovannoni, Robert J Schaffer, Jason W Johnston, Ines Hanrahan, Maarten L A T M Hertog, Bart M Nicolaï, David R Rudell
BACKGROUND: 'Honeycrisp' is an apple cultivar that is susceptible to soft scald, a chilling injury expressed as necrotic patches on the peel. Improved understanding of metabolism associated with the disorder would improve our understanding of soft scald and contribute to developing more effective management strategies for apple storage. It was expected that specific gene expression and specific metabolite levels in the peel would be linked with soft scald risk at harvest and/or specific time points during cold storage...
October 12, 2016: BMC Genomics
Mahdi Moridi Farimani, Emad Nazarianpoor, Arezoo Rustaie, Maryam Akhbari
Phytochemical investigation of Cleome iberica DC. aerial parts led to the isolation and characterisation of six triterpenoid including glutinol (1), lupeol (2), β-sitosterol (3), cabraleadiol monoacetate (4), cabraleadiol (6) and daucosterol (8), one flavonoid, calycopterin (5) along with a fatty acid, tricosanoic acid (7). While studied samples showed weak potency in antimicrobial assessment, the acetone extract and some isolated compounds exhibited considerable cytotoxicity against cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) in MTT assay, among them calycopterin with IC50 equals to 5...
October 12, 2016: Natural Product Research
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