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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445898/dramatic-changes-over-time-of-methamphetamine-intake-in-a-german-hiv-positive-sample-of-men-who-have-sex-with-men-msm
#1
Henrike Dirks, Stefan Esser, Norbert Brockmeyer, Udo Bonnet, Fabrizio Schifano, Norbert Scherbaum
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445881/absence-of-decline-of-kidney-function-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-patients-under-routine-clinical-management
#2
Julie Boucquemont, Sylvie Lawson-Ayayi, Claire Rigothier, Fabrice Bonnet, Cécile Proust-Lima, Didier Neau, Carine Greib, Ghada Miremont-Salamé, François Dabis, Michel Dupon, Frédéric-Antoine Dauchy
BACKGROUND: Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have a drastically improved prognosis but at the same time they are also more affected by non-HIV related complications, such as chronic kidney disease. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of proteinuria and tenofovir (TDF)-containing ART regimens on the temporal evolution of estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). METHODS: Between April 2008 and October 2012, we enrolled 395 patients with a complete renal evaluation among patients from the ANRS C03 Aquitaine cohort, a prospective hospital-based cohort of HIV-1-infected patients under routine clinical management in southwestern France...
April 26, 2017: Nephron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445724/quantification-of-the-impact-of-the-hiv-1-glycan-shield-on-antibody-elicitation
#3
Tongqing Zhou, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Cheng Cheng, Guillaume B E Stewart-Jones, Gwo-Yu Chuang, Michael Chambers, Aliaksandr Druz, Hui Geng, Krisha McKee, Young Do Kwon, Sijy O'Dell, Mallika Sastry, Stephen D Schmidt, Kai Xu, Lei Chen, Rita E Chen, Mark K Louder, Marie Pancera, Timothy G Wanninger, Baoshan Zhang, Anqi Zheng, S Katie Farney, Kathryn E Foulds, Ivelin S Georgiev, M Gordon Joyce, Thomas Lemmin, Sandeep Narpala, Reda Rawi, Cinque Soto, John-Paul Todd, Chen-Hsiang Shen, Yaroslav Tsybovsky, Yongping Yang, Peng Zhao, Barton F Haynes, Leonidas Stamatatos, Michael Tiemeyer, Lance Wells, Diana G Scorpio, Lawrence Shapiro, Adrian B McDermott, John R Mascola, Peter D Kwong
While the HIV-1-glycan shield is known to shelter Env from the humoral immune response, its quantitative impact on antibody elicitation has been unclear. Here, we use targeted deglycosylation to measure the impact of the glycan shield on elicitation of antibodies against the CD4 supersite. We engineered diverse Env trimers with select glycans removed proximal to the CD4 supersite, characterized their structures and glycosylation, and immunized guinea pigs and rhesus macaques. Immunizations yielded little neutralization against wild-type viruses but potent CD4-supersite neutralization (titers 1: >1,000,000 against four-glycan-deleted autologous viruses with over 90% breadth against four-glycan-deleted heterologous strains exhibiting tier 2 neutralization character)...
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445718/the-hiv-1-glycan-shield-strategically-placed-kinks-in-the-armor-improve-antigen-design
#4
Christina Beatrice Karsten, Galit Alter
Dense glycosylation on the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein hampers the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1. Zhou et al. remove key glycans to unmask sites of vulnerability and enable the induction of neutralizing antibodies.
April 25, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445686/when-a-relationship-is-imperative-will-young-women-knowingly-place-their-sexual-health-at-risk-a-sample-of-african-american-adolescent-girls-in-the-juvenile-justice-system
#5
Jerris L Raiford, Puja Seth, Amy M Fasula, Ralph J DiClemente
Background: HIV and other sexually transmissible infections (HIV/STIs) are significant contributors to adolescent girls' morbidity in the US. Risks for HIV/STIs are increased among adolescent girls involved in the juvenile justice system, and African American adolescent girls comprise nearly 50% of adolescent girls in detention centres. Although HIV prevention programs focus on HIV/STI knowledge, increased knowledge may not be sufficient to reduce sexual risk. The present study examined the interactive effects of HIV/STI knowledge and the importance of being in a relationship (a relationship imperative) on sexual risk behaviours in a sample of detained African American adolescent girls...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445685/outcomes-following-detection-of-low-level-plasma-hiv-rna-in-hiv-infected-patients-previously-virologically-suppressed-on-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-observational-study
#6
Annabelle M Warren, Allen C Cheng, Kerrie Watson, Sharon R Lewin, Jennifer F Hoy
Background: Progressively sensitive assays for plasma HIV RNA have led to increased detection of plasma HIV RNA between 20 and 200 copies/ml, known as low level viremia (LLV) when recurrent or persistent, in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to determine outcomes following initial detection of LLV in an Australian cohort. Methods: A retrospective study using the HIV Service Database (Alfred Hospital) included all patients on ART who recorded plasma HIV RNA 20-200 copies/mL following prior virological suppression (viral load (VL) HIV RNA <20 copies/mL) over 2 years (2010 to 2012), with follow-up to June 2013...
April 27, 2017: Sexual Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445608/sexual-and-gender-minority-adolescents-views-on-hiv-research-participation-and-parental-permission-a-mixed-methods-study
#7
Brian Mustanski, Ryan Coventry, Kathryn Macapagal, Miriam R Arbeit, Celia B Fisher
CONTEXT: Sexual and gender minority adolescents are underrepresented in HIV research, partly because institutional review boards (IRBs) are reluctant to waive parental permission requirements for these studies. Understanding teenagers' perspectives on parental permission and the risks and benefits of participating in HIV research is critical to informing evidence-based IRB decisions. METHODS: Data from 74 sexual and gender minority adolescents aged 14-17 who participated in an online focus group in 2015 were used to examine perspectives on the risks and benefits of participation in a hypothetical HIV surveillance study and the need for parental permission and adequate protections...
April 26, 2017: Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#8
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445512/proportions-of-circulating-follicular-helper-t-cells-are-reduced-and-correlate-with-memory-b-cells-in-hiv-infected-children
#9
Daniel M Muema, Gladys N Macharia, Babatunde A Olusola, Amin S Hassan, Greg W Fegan, James A Berkley, Britta C Urban, Eunice W Nduati
INTRODUCTION: HIV causes defects in memory B cells in children, but the mechanisms of those defects have not been fully elucidated. One possible mechanism is the lack of T-cell help to B cells during immune reactions. However, few studies have assessed the effect of HIV on follicular helper T cells (TFH cells) in children. METHODS: In this study, follicular-homing CD4 T cells and memory B cells were assessed in HIV-infected children and compared with children from the community...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445471/a-randomized-trial-comparing-concise-and-standard-consent-forms-in-the-start-trial
#10
Christine Grady, Giota Touloumi, A Sarah Walker, Mary Smolskis, Shweta Sharma, Abdel G Babiker, Nikos Pantazis, Jorge Tavel, Eric Florence, Adriana Sanchez, Fleur Hudson, Antonios Papadopoulos, Ezekiel Emanuel, Megan Clewett, David Munroe, Eileen Denning
BACKGROUND: Improving the effectiveness and efficiency of research informed consent is a high priority. Some express concern about longer, more complex, written consent forms creating barriers to participant understanding. A recent meta-analysis concluded that randomized comparisons were needed. METHODS: We conducted a cluster-randomized non-inferiority comparison of a standard versus concise consent form within a multinational trial studying the timing of starting antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ adults (START)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445303/lifetime-and-recent-alcohol-use-and-bone-mineral-density-in-adults-with-hiv-infection-and-substance-dependence
#11
Alicia S Ventura, Michael R Winter, Timothy C Heeren, Meg M Sullivan, Alexander Y Walley, Michael F Holick, Gregory J Patts, Seville M Meli, Jeffrey H Samet, Richard Saitz
Low bone mineral density (BMD) is common in people living with HIV infection (PLWH), increasing fracture risk. Alcohol use is also common in PLWH and is a modifiable risk factor for both HIV disease progression and low BMD. In PLWH, alcohol's effect on BMD is not well understood.We studied adult PLWH with substance dependence. We measured lifetime alcohol use (kg) and recent (i.e., past 30-day) alcohol use (categorized as: abstinent, low risk, or high risk). In adjusted multivariable regression analyses, we tested associations between lifetime and recent alcohol use and (i) mean BMD (g/cm) at the femoral neck, total hip, and lumbar spine and (ii) low BMD diagnosis (i...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445222/development-of-an-hiv-postexposure-prophylaxis-pep-protocol-for-trainees-engaging-in-academic-global-health-experiences
#12
Gitanjli Arora, Risa M Hoffman
PROBLEM: Global health (GH) education programs have become increasingly common in U.S. medical schools and graduate medical education programs, with growing numbers of medical students, residents, and fellows participating in clinical experiences in settings with high HIV prevalence and limited resources. However, there are no guidelines for provision of HIV postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) to trainees engaging in these academic GH experiences. APPROACH: Faculty of the Global Health Education Programs (GHEP) at the David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA and GH partner institutions recognized the need for PEP access for trainees engaged in GH experiences...
April 25, 2017: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445088/predicting-the-need-for-third-line-antiretroviral-therapy-by-identifying-patients-at-high-risk-for-failing-second-line-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#13
Dorina Onoya, Cornelius Nattey, Eric Budgell, Liudmyla van den Berg, Mhairi Maskew, Denise Evans, Kamban Hirasen, Lawrence C Long, Matthew P Fox
Although third-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) is available in South Africa's public sector, its cost is substantially higher than first and second line. Identifying risk factors for failure on second-line treatment remains crucial to reduce the need for third-line drugs. We conducted a case-control study including 194 adult patients (≥18 years; 70 cases and 124 controls) who initiated second-line ART in Johannesburg, South Africa. Unconditional logistic regression was used to assess predictors of virologic failure (defined as 2 consecutive viral load measures ≥1000 copies/mL, ≥3 months after switching to second line)...
April 26, 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444867/urine-assay-for-tenofovir-to-monitor-adherence-in-real-time-to-tenofovir-disoproxil-fumarate-emtricitabine-as-pre-exposure-prophylaxis
#14
H C Koenig, K Mounzer, G W Daughtridge, C E Sloan, L Lalley-Chareczko, G S Moorthy, S C Conyngham, A F Zuppa, L J Montaner, P Tebas
OBJECTIVES: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine (TDF/FTC) is approved for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) against HIV infection. Adherence is critical for the success of PrEP, but current adherence measurements are inadequate for real-time adherence monitoring. We developed and validated a urine assay to measure tenofovir (TFV) to objectively monitor adherence to PrEP. METHODS: We developed a urine assay using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with high sensitivity/specificity for TFV that allowed us to determine TFV concentrations in log10 categories between 0 and 10 000 ng/mL...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444865/a-high-rate-of-hiv-1-acquisition-post-immigration-among-migrants-in-sweden-determined-by-a-cd4-t-cell-decline-trajectory-model
#15
J Brännström, A Sönnerborg, V Svedhem, U Neogi, G Marrone
OBJECTIVES: There is a lack of knowledge about the extent to which migrants become HIV-1 infected after arrival in European countries. The objective of this study was to assess the extent to which migrants to Sweden become HIV-1 infected post immigration using a CD4 T-cell decline trajectory model. METHODS: All migrants (n = 2268) who were ≥ 15 years old, were diagnosed with HIV-1 infection in the period 1983-2013, had a known year of arrival in Sweden, did not have primary HIV infection and were not infected via mother-to-child transmission were included in the study...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444859/roles-of-samhd1-in-antiviral-defense-autoimmunity-and-cancer
#16
REVIEW
Miaomiao Li, Dong Zhang, Mengying Zhu, Yuxian Shen, Wei Wei, Songcheng Ying, Heinrich Korner, Jun Li
The enzyme, sterile α motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) diminishes infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) by hydrolyzing intracellular deoxynucleotide triphosphates (dNTPs) in myeloid cells and resting CD4+ T cells. This dNTP degradation reduces the dNTP concentration to a level insufficient for viral cDNA synthesis, thereby inhibiting retroviral replication. This antiviral enzymatic activity can be inhibited by viral protein X (Vpx). The HIV-2/SIV Vpx causes degradation of SAMHD1, thus interfering with the SAMHD1-mediated restriction of retroviral replication...
April 25, 2017: Reviews in Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444829/disparities-in-hiv-1-transmitted-drug-resistance-detected-by-ultradeep-sequencing-between-men-who-have-sex-with-men-and-heterosexual-populations
#17
E Todesco, C Charpentier, M Bertine, M Wirden, A Storto, N Desire, M Grude, T Nguyen, S Sayon, Y Yazdanpanah, C Katlama, D Descamps, V Calvez, A G Marcelin
OBJECTIVES: Transmitted drug resistance (TDR) can impair the response to first-line antiretroviral therapy. In treatment-naïve patients chronically infected with HIV type 1 (HIV-1), it was previously shown through Sanger sequencing that TDR was more common in men who have sex with men (MSM) than in other transmission risk groups. We aimed to compare two HIV-1 transmission groups in terms of the presence of TDR mutations. METHODS: We investigated, through Sanger sequencing and ultradeep sequencing (UDS), the presence of resistance mutations, both in majority (> 20%) and in minority (1-20%) proportions, in 70 treatment-naïve MSM and 70 treatment-naïve heterosexual patients who recently screened positive for HIV-1...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444818/reduced-community-viral-load-does-not-coincide-with-a-reduction-in-the-rate-of-new-hiv-diagnoses-and-recent-infections-data-from-a-region-of-southern-italy
#18
L Monno, A Saracino, L Scudeller, C Santoro, G Brindicci, G Punzi, A Lagioia, S Lo Caputo, G Angarano
OBJECTIVES: We assessed whether changes in community viral load (CVL) over time were associated with the rate of new HIV diagnoses (NDs). METHODS: HIV-1-positive individuals referred to our institute and permanently residing in our province were considered for inclusion in the study. A total of 861 HIV-infected adults with at least one HIV RNA measurement (12 530 measurements in total) between 2008 and 2014 were included. Viraemia copy-years were calculated from all HIV RNA values for each patient using the trapezoidal rule; multiple CVL indicators were considered...
April 26, 2017: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444628/moving-beyond-age-an-exploratory-qualitative-study-on-the-context-of-young-african-american-men-and-women-s-sexual-debut
#19
Yzette Lanier, Jennifer M Stewart, Jean J Schensul, Barbara J Guthrie
African American youth continue to be disproportionately affected by HIV. Early sexual debut has been identified as a major determinant of HIV risk. However, emerging research suggests that the overarching context in which first sex occurs may have greater implications for sexual health than simply age alone. The purpose of this exploratory, qualitative study was to better understand the broader context of African Americans' sexual debut. In-depth, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 10 African American men and women aged 18-24 years...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444529/-we-deserve-better-perceptions-of-hiv-testing-campaigns-among-black-and-latino-msm-in-new-york-city
#20
Kathryn Drumhiller, Ashley Murray, Zaneta Gaul, Tiffiany M Aholou, Madeline Y Sutton, Jose Nanin
In 2014, Black/African-American and Hispanic/Latino men who have sex with men (BLMSM) comprised 64.1% of HIV diagnoses among MSM in the U.S. Routine HIV testing allows earlier diagnosis, linkage to care, and improved health outcomes. HIV testing campaigns may increase HIV awareness and testing behaviors, but perceptions of these campaigns by BLMSM have been understudied. We explored perceptions of HIV testing campaigns with BLMSM in New York City (NYC) to inform campaign strategies that target BLMSM for HIV testing...
April 25, 2017: Archives of Sexual Behavior
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