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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691760/incidence-of-symptomatic-csf-viral-escape-in-hiv-infected-patients-receiving-atazanavir-ritonavir-atv-r-containing-art-a-tertiary-care-cohort-in-western-india
#1
Atul K Patel, Ketan K Patel, Swati Gohel, Ambuj Kumar, Scott Letendre
This single-center study attempts to quantify the incidence of symptomatic CSF viral escape (CSFVE) in patients receiving atazanavir/r (ATV/r)-containing regimen. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART who were diagnosed with symptomatic CSFVE from August 2012 to January 2017. Primary objective was to assess the incidence of symptomatic CSFVE in patients receiving ATV/r-containing ART in clinical practice. Incidence rates were calculated by dividing the number of patients who experienced CSFVE by the number of person-months at risk and summarized as per 10,000 (ten thousand) person-months at risk...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691681/the-impact-of-the-ryan-white-hiv-aids-medical-case-management-program-on-hiv-clinical-outcomes-a-longitudinal-study
#2
Julia D López, Enbal Shacham, Tawnya Brown
Medical case management (MCM) is a core medical service in The Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program and aims to provide treatment and care for people living with HIV/AIDS by engaging, identifying and eliminating barriers to HIV care. Little research has examined the impact of this intervention; therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the how MCM affects HIV clinical outcomes. The study took place at a midwestern, outpatient infectious diseases clinic. This study utilized a longitudinal, retrospective study design to analyze to the impact of MCM engagement on HIV clinical outcomes (viral loads, CD4 counts) from 2009 to 2015 as a time-varying predictor...
April 24, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691441/author-correction-dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-clonal-expansion-of-hiv-1-infected-cells-in-a-humanized-mouse-model
#3
Yorifumi Satou, Hiroo Katsuya, Asami Fukuda, Naoko Misawa, Jumpei Ito, Yoshikazu Uchiyama, Paola Miyazato, Saiful Islam, Ariberto Fassati, Anat Melamed, Charles R M Bangham, Yoshio Koyanagi, Kei Sato
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has not been fixed in the paper.
April 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691363/detection-of-circulating-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-specific-dna-by-droplet-digital-pcr-for-vaccine-evaluation-in-challenged-monkeys-and-tb-diagnosis
#4
Neng Song, Yang Tan, Lingyun Zhang, Wei Luo, Qing Guan, Ming-Zhe Yan, Ruiqi Zuo, Weixiang Liu, Feng-Ling Luo, Xiao-Lian Zhang
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) is emerging as a more serious pathogen due to the increased multidrug-resistant TB and co-infection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The development of an effective and sensitive detection method is urgently needed for bacterial load evaluation in vaccine development, early TB diagnosis, and TB treatment. Droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is a newly developed sensitive PCR method for the absolute quantification of nucleic acid concentrations. Here, we used ddPCR to quantify the circulating virulent M...
April 24, 2018: Emerging Microbes & Infections
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691244/cross-sectional-study-on-the-prevalence-and-predictors-of-pregnancy-among-women-living-in-hiv-discordant-relationships-in-a-rural-rakai-cohort-uganda
#5
Lydia Jacenta Nakiganda, Anette Agardh, Benedict Oppong Asamoah
OBJECTIVES: This study examines the prevalence of pregnancy in serodiscordant couples and identifies predictors associated with pregnancy in rural Rakai, Uganda. STUDY DESIGN: A population-based cross-sectional study that used data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study (RCCS). SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: We used data from the RCCS survey round 17 (2015-2016), which included 488 women in serodiscordant relationships. This study was conducted in Rakai district, located in south-western Uganda...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691241/modern-contraceptive-use-among-hiv-infected-women-attending-hiv-care-centres-in-togo-a-cross-sectional-study
#6
Issifou Yaya, Akouda Akessiwè Patassi, Dadja Essoya Landoh, Essodjèlouna Manani Bignandi, Kanfitine Kolani, Abdel-Daim Daou Namoro, P'Niwè Massoubayo Patchali, Lihanimpo Djalogue, Didier Koumavi Ekouevi, Bayaki Saka
INTRODUCTION: Contraceptive use among HIV-infected women in Togo is poorly documented. We aim at assessing the prevalence of modern contraceptive use and associated factors among HIV-infected women in Togo. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: The study was conducted in five HIV care centres in the Centrale and Kara regions in Togo. PARTICIPANTS: We included 461 HIV-positive women aged between 15 and 49 years and who were sexually active...
April 24, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691205/developing-sustainable-and-impactful-mobile-phone-hiv-testing-interventions-for-spanish-speaking-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-the-united-states-lessons-learned-from-informative-interviews
#7
Jason Mitchell, Maria Beatriz Torres, Lucy Asmar, Thu Danh, Keith J Horvath
BACKGROUND: Although many men who have sex with men (MSM) test for HIV at least once in their lifetime, opportunities to improve regular HIV testing, particularly among Hispanic or Latino MSM, is needed. Many mHealth interventions in development, including the ones on HIV testing, have primarily focused on English-speaking white, black, and MSM of other races. To date, no studies have assessed app use, attitudes, and motivations for downloading and sustaining use of mobile apps and preferences with respect to HIV prevention among Spanish-speaking, Hispanic MSM in the United States...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691202/sustainable-monitoring-and-surveillance-systems-to-improve-hiv-programs-review
#8
Daniel Low-Beer, Mary Mahy, Francoise Renaud, Txema Calleja
HIV programs have provided a major impetus for investments in surveillance data, with 5-10% of HIV program budgets recommended to support data. However there are questions concerning the sustainability of these investments. The Sustainable Development Goals have consolidated health into one goal and communicable diseases into one target (Target 3.3). Sustainable Development Goals now introduce targets focused specifically on data (Targets 17.18 and 17.19). Data are seen as one of the three systemic issues (in Goal 17) for implementing Sustainable Development Goals, alongside policies and partnerships...
April 24, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691128/ice-parties-among-young-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-thailand-pleasures-secrecy-and-risks
#9
Thomas E Guadamuz, Pimpawun Boonmongkon
BACKGROUND: Crystal methamphetamine (ice) has become the substance of choice among young men who have sex with men (YMSM) in urban Thailand. Yet, there is scarce data on this phenomenon, partly due to the difficulty in accessing men who will disclose and openly discuss the social contexts, meanings and risks surrounding ice practice. We present an ethnography of ice parties, critically discussing the in-depth social meanings of ice; the sexual socialities and the secrecy surrounding its use; the transactions between older and younger men; and the role of the Internet and mobile technology...
April 21, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690932/a-retrospective-cohort-study-of-body-mass-index-and-survival-in-hiv-infected-patients-with-and-without-tb-co-infection
#10
Kogieleum Naidoo, Nonhlanhla Yende-Zuma, Stanton Augustine
BACKGROUND: High early morbidity and mortality following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation has been a distinguishing feature of ART programmes in resource limited settings (RLS) compared to high-income countries. This study assessed how well body mass index (BMI: kg/m2 ) correlated with survival among HIV infected patients with and without TB co-infection. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated clinical data from 1000 HIV infected patients, among whom 389 were also co-infected with TB, between January 2008 and December 2010, in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa...
April 25, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690829/psychosocial-characteristics-of-primary-care-seeking-long-distance-truck-drivers-in-kenya-and-associations-with-hiv-testing
#11
Matthew L Romo, Gavin George, Joanne E Mantell, Eva Mwai, Eston Nyaga, Jacob O Odhiambo, Kaymarlin Govender, Elizabeth A Kelvin
The 90-90-90 strategy from the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) to end the AIDS epidemic by 2020 includes, as its first goal, to have 90% of all people living with HIV to know their status. Achieving this goal will depend on effectively reaching high risk populations, which include mobile populations such as truck drivers. This study aimed to characterise a sample of 305 truck drivers recruited from 2 roadside wellness clinics in Kenya in terms of anticipated HIV stigma, self-efficacy, fatalism, gender equity, sensation seeking, and self-esteem, and then determine the association of these psychosocial characteristics with HIV testing behaviour...
April 24, 2018: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690789/protective-effects-of-ginsenoside-rb1-against-blood-brain-barrier-damage-induced-by-human-immunodeficiency-virus-1-tat-protein-and-methamphetamine-in-sprague-dawley-rats
#12
Juan Li, Bairui Zeng, Xiao Hu, Zhen Li, Dongxian Zhang, Genmeng Yang, Jiejie Dai, Xiaofeng Zeng
Although antiretroviral therapy has helped to improve the lives of individuals infected with human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1), these patients are often still afflicted with HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders, which can lead to neurocognitive impairment and even dementia, and continue to hamper their quality of life. Methamphetamine abuse in HIV-1 patients poses a potential risk for HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, because methamphetamine and HIV-1 proteins such as transactivator of transcription can synergistically damage the blood-brain barrier (BBB)...
2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690783/prevalence-of-depressive-syndrome-and-their-association-with-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-in-chinese-hiv-patients
#13
Yuan-Yuan Wang, Jin Zhao, Qinge Zhang, Yan Zhang, Baolian Bai, Chee H Ng, Gabor S Ungvari, Fu-Jun Jia, Yu-Tao Xiang
To investigate the prevalence of depressive syndrome and their association with demographic and clinical characteristics in Chinese patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). A total of 416 patients with HIV infection were consecutively screened and enrolled in the study. Depressive syndrome was assessed with the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D). The proportion of depressive syndrome was 36.3%. Patients with depressive syndrome were younger, and were more likely to have severe anxiety symptoms, religious beliefs and psychological treatment...
April 24, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690575/natural-immunity-to-hiv-a-template-for-vaccine-strategies
#14
REVIEW
Lyvia Fourcade, Johanne Poudrier, Michel Roger
Africa accounts for the majority of global human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, most of which affect women through heterosexual intercourse. Currently, there is no cure for HIV and the development of vaccines and microbicides remains the best solution to eradicate the pandemic. We and others have identified HIV highly-exposed seronegative (HESN) individuals among African female commercial sex workers (CSWs). Analyses of genital samples from HESNs have demonstrated potent innate and anti-inflammatory conditions, HIV-specific CD4⁺ and CD8⁺ T-cells as well as immunoglobulins (Igs), and increased regulatory cell populations, all of which support a delicate balance between strength and control against HIV intrusion...
April 23, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689541/management-of-long-term-complications-of-hiv-disease-focus-on-cardiovascular-disease
#15
Judith S Currier
HIV-infected individuals on effective antiretroviral therapy experience a number of non-AIDS noncommunicable diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, more frequently than uninfected individuals. Common pathways for such diseases are chronic immune activation and inflammation, including the prolonged inflammation associated with lower nadir CD4+ cell count. Prevention and treatment of non-AIDS conditions include treatment of traditional risk factors, lifestyle interventions, earlier initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and potentially therapies specifically targeting inflammation and immune activation (eg, statins)...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689540/investigational-antiretroviral-drugs-what-is-coming-down-the-pipeline
#16
Roy M Gulick
Over the past 30 years, antiretroviral drug regimens for treating HIV infection have become more effective, safer, and more convenient. Despite 31 currently approved drugs, the pipeline of investigational HIV drugs remains full. Investigational antiretroviral drugs include the nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase translocation inhibitor (NRTTI) MK-8591, a long-acting compound that could be dosed once weekly. Investigational nonnucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) include doravirine, which is active in vitro against NNRTI-resistant HIV and was potent and well-tolerated when used in combination with a dual-nucleoside analogue RTI (nRTI) backbone in treatment-naive individuals...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689539/maximizing-the-benefits-of-hiv-preexposure-prophylaxis
#17
Susan P Buchbinder
Preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir/emtricitabine (slash indicates coformulation) is highly effective in preventing new HIV infections. PrEP efficacy is strongly associated with adherence. In clinical trials, PrEP has been more effective in men who have sex with men and HIV-serodiscordant heterosexual couples than in women, likely reflecting pharmacokinetic differences between levels of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in vaginal and rectal tissues, and poorer adherence in studies in women. Current guidelines recommend daily PrEP for men and women; however, PrEP taken at least 4 days per week for men may be as effective as daily PrEP, and women must take PrEP 6 to 7 days per week to maximize efficacy...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689538/opioids-and-hiv-infection-from-pain-management-to-addiction-treatment
#18
Chinazo O Cunningham
HIV-infected persons are more likely to have chronic pain, receive opioid analgesic treatment, receive higher doses of opioids, and to have substance use disorders and mental illness compared with the general population, putting them at increased risk for opioid use disorder. Management of opioid use in HIV-infected individuals can be complex, and the limited data on opioid treatment in this population are conflicting with regard to its effect on HIV outcomes. Buprenorphine treatment for opioid use disorder improves HIV outcomes and other outcomes...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689537/hiv-infection-advances-toward-a-cure
#19
Daniel C Douek
Achieving cure of HIV infection requires eliminating all replication-competent virus from the reservoir of latently infected cells or completely inhibiting infected cells from emerging from latency. Strategies include very early use of antiretroviral therapy; hematopoietic stem cell transplantation; "shock-and-kill" approaches; immune therapy with immune checkpoint inhibitors; gene therapy, including use of CC chemokine receptor 5-modified CD4+ T cells; and broadly neutralizing antibody therapy. Success is likely to require a combination of approaches...
April 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689099/glycan-modifications-to-the-gp120-immunogens-used-in-the-rv144-vaccine-trial-improve-binding-to-broadly-neutralizing-antibodies
#20
Rachel C Doran, Gwen P Tatsuno, Sara M O'Rourke, Bin Yu, David L Alexander, Kathryn A Mesa, Phillip W Berman
To date, the RV144 HIV vaccine trial has been the only study to show that immunization can confer protection from HIV infection. While encouraging, the modest 31.2% (P = 0.04) efficacy achieved in this study left significant room for improvement, and created an incentive to optimize the AIDSVAX B/E vaccine immunogens to increase the level of vaccine efficacy. Since the completion of the RV144 trial, our understanding of the antigenic structure of the HIV envelope protein, gp120, and of the specificity of broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bN-mAbs) that bind to it, has significantly improved...
2018: PloS One
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