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Mohammad Islamuddin, Garima Chouhan, Muzamil Yaqub Want, Hani A Ozbak, Hassan A Hemeg, Farhat Afrin
BACKGROUND: The therapy of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is limited by resistance, toxicity and decreased bioavailability of the existing drugs coupled with dramatic increase in HIV-co-infection, non-availability of vaccines and down regulation of cell-mediated immunity (CMI). Thus, we envisaged combating the problem with plant-derived antileishmanial drug that could concomitantly mitigate the immune suppression of the infected hosts. Several plant-derived compounds have been found to exert leishmanicidal activity via immunomodulation...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Milly Marston, Jessica Nakiyingi-Miiro, Sylvia Kusemererwa, Mark Urassa, Denna Michael, Constance Nyamukapa, Simon Gregson, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the relationship between HIV natural history and fertility by duration of infection in East and Southern Africa before the availability of antiretroviral therapy, and assess potential biases in estimates of age-specific sub-fertility when using retrospective birth histories in cross-sectional studies. DESIGN: Pooled analysis of prospective population-based HIV cohort studies in Masaka (Uganda) Kisesa (Tanzania), and Manicaland (Zimbabwe)...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Alana T Brennan, Mary-Ann Davies, Jacob Bor, Gilles Wandeler, Kathryn Stinson, Robin Wood, Hans Prozesky, Frank Tanser, Geoffrey Fatti, Andrew Boulle, Izukanji Sikazwe, Kara Wool-Kaloustian, Constantin Yiannoutsos, Valériane Leroy, Nathalie de Rekeneire, Matthew P Fox
OBJECTIVE: We assessed the relationship between phasing out stavudine in first-line antiretroviral therapy(ART) in accordance with World Health Organization 2010 policy and single-drug substitutions (SDS)(substituting the nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor(NRTI) in first-line ART) in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Prospective cohort analysis (IeDEA-Multiregional) including ART-naïve, HIV-infected patients ≥16 years initiating ART between January 2005-December 2012...
October 20, 2016: AIDS
Eleanor E Friedman, Wayne A Duffus
OBJECTIVES: To examine sociodemographic factors and chronic health conditions of people living with HIV (PLWHIV/HIV+) at least 65 years old and compare their chronic disease prevalence with beneficiaries without HIV. DESIGN: National fee-for-service Medicare claims data (parts A and B) from 2006 to 2009 were used to create a retrospective cohort of beneficiaries at least 65 years old. METHODS: Beneficiaries with an inpatient or skilled nursing facility claim, or outpatient claims with HIV diagnosis codes were considered HIV+...
October 23, 2016: AIDS
Narayanan Viswanath
In this study, the expected time required to eradicate HIV-1 completely was found as the conditional absorbing time in a finite state space continuous-time Markov chain model. The Markov chain has two absorbing states: one corresponds to HIV eradication and another representing the possible disaster. This method allowed us to calculate the expected eradication time by solving systems of linear equations. To overcome the challenge of huge dimension of the problem, we applied a novel stop and resume technique...
October 20, 2016: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
Brennan S Dirk, Logan R Van Nynatten, Jimmy D Dikeakos
Viruses must continuously evolve to hijack the host cell machinery in order to successfully replicate and orchestrate key interactions that support their persistence. The type-1 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) is a prime example of viral persistence within the host, having plagued the human population for decades. In recent years, advances in cellular imaging and molecular biology have aided the elucidation of key steps mediating the HIV-1 lifecycle and viral pathogenesis. Super-resolution imaging techniques such as stimulated emission depletion (STED) and photoactivation and localization microscopy (PALM) have been instrumental in studying viral assembly and release through both cell-cell transmission and cell-free viral transmission...
October 19, 2016: Viruses
Cameron Browne
This paper concerns modeling the coupled within-host population dynamics of virus and CTL (Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte) immune response. There is substantial evidence that the CTL immune response plays a crucial role in controlling HIV in infected patients. Recent experimental studies have demonstrated that certain CTL variants can recognize HIV infected cells early in the infected cell lifecycle before viral production, while other CTLs only detect viral proteins (epitopes) presented on the surface of infected cells after viral production...
October 1, 2016: Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering: MBE
Ye Rin Lee, Kanghee Moon, Young Ae Kim, So Youn Park, Chang Mo Oh, Kyung Suk Lee, In Hwan Oh
Globally, the incidence of communicable diseases has decreased compared to non-communicable diseases. However, chronic communicable diseases such as HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis persist worldwide. Furthermore, emerging new infections such as H1N1 influenza pose a new threat to public health. However, most studies have focused on non-communicable diseases because of their increasing incidence, with fewer studies investigating communicable diseases. Therefore, we estimated the burden of communicable diseases in Korea using national representative 2012 data...
November 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Jin Young Ahn, David Boettiger, Sasisopin Kiertiburanakul, Tuti Parwati Merati, Bui Vu Huy, Wing Wai Wong, Rossana Ditangco, Man Po Lee, Shinichi Oka, Nicolas Durier, Jun Yong Choi
INTRODUCTION: Outbreaks of syphilis have been described among HIV-infected men who have sex with men (MSM) in Western communities, whereas reports in Asian countries are limited. We aimed to characterize the incidence and temporal trends of syphilis among HIV-infected MSM compared with HIV-infected non-MSM in Asian countries. METHODS: Patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database cohort and with a negative non-treponemal test since enrolment were analyzed...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Joel E Gallant, Graeme Moyle, Juan Berenguer, Peter Shalit, Huyen Cao, Ya-Pei Liu, Joel Myers, Lisa Rosenblatt, Lingfeng Yang, Javier Szwarcberg
OBJECTIVES: Cobicistat (COBI) enhances atazanavir (ATV) pharmacokinetic parameters similarly to ritonavir (RTV) in both healthy volunteers and HIV-infected adults. Primary efficacy and safety outcomes of this Phase 3, international, randomized, double-blind, double-dummy, active-controlled trial in HIV-1-infected treatment-naïve adults (GS-US-216-0114/NCT01108510) demonstrated that ATV+COBI was non-inferior to ATV+RTV, each in combination with emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (FTC/TDF), at Weeks 48 and 144, with high rates of virologic success for both regimens (85...
October 21, 2016: Current HIV Research
Nancy Xiaonan Yu, Floortje Mols, Sunita M Stewart, Jianxin Zhang
There is evidence that Type D personality can predict impaired quality of life and health status in various chronic conditions. The evidence is conflicting as to whether Type D is associated with increased healthcare services, and no study has reported on the healthcare utilization of people living with HIV (PLWH) who have a Type D personality. This study investigated the impact of Type D personality on healthcare utilization in a sample of Chinese PLWH and examined physical and emotional symptoms as possible mechanisms of healthcare utilization...
October 23, 2016: AIDS Care
Athanasios Tsiouris, Lynn Wilson, Rajesh B Sekar, Abeel A Mangi, James J Yun
BACKGROUND: A lack of donor hearts remains a major limitation of heart transplantation. Hearts from Centers for Disease Control (CDC) high-risk donors can be utilized with specific recipient consent. However, outcomes of heart transplantation with CDC high-risk donors are not well known. We sought to define outcomes, including posttransplant hepatitis and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status, in recipients of CDC high-risk donor hearts at our institution. METHODS: All heart transplant recipients from August 2010 to December 2014 (n = 74) were reviewed...
October 23, 2016: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
Kathleen M Clark, Jermaine L Jenkins, Nadia Fedoriw, Mark E Dumont
The function and localization of proteins and peptides containing C-terminal "CaaX" (Cys-aliphatic-aliphatic-anything) sequence motifs are modulated by post-translational attachment of isoprenyl groups to the cysteine sulfhydryl, followed by proteolytic cleavage of the aaX amino acids. The zinc metalloprotease ZMPSTE24 is one of two enzymes known to catalyze this cleavage. The only identified target of mammalian ZMPSTE24 is prelamin A, the precursor to the nuclear scaffold protein lamin A. ZMPSTE24 also cleaves prelamin A at a second site 15 residues upstream from the CaaX site...
October 24, 2016: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Chiara Vendramin, Siobhan McGuckin, Ferras Alwan, John-Paul Westwood, Mari Thomas, Marie Scully
BACKGROUND: Patients presenting with acute episodes of thrombotic microangiopathies (TMAs) require urgent access to plasma exchange (PEX). OctaplasLG, a solvent/detergent fresh-frozen plasma product that has undergone viral inactivation and prion reduction step, has been used in our institution since 2013, replacing Octaplas. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We prospectively reviewed 981 PEX procedures where OctaplasLG was the replacement fluid in 90 patients admitted acutely with a TMA presentation within our institution from January 1, 2013, to December 31, 2015...
October 23, 2016: Transfusion
Collins C Iwuji, Nuala McGrath, Tulio de Oliveira, Kholoud Porter, Deenan Pillay, Martin Fisher, Melanie Newport, Marie-Louise Newell
INTRODUCTION: Remarkable strides have been made in controlling the HIV epidemic, although not enough to achieve epidemic control. More recently, interest in biomedical HIV control approaches has increased, but substantial challenges with the HIV cascade of care hinder successful implementation. We summarise all available HIV prevention methods and make recommendations on how to address current challenges. DISCUSSION: In the early days of the epidemic, behavioural approaches to control the HIV dominated, and the few available evidence-based interventions demonstrated to reduce HIV transmission were applied independently from one another...
November 30, 2015: Journal of AIDS & Clinical Research
Filip Bielejec, Guy Baele, Allen G Rodrigo, Marc A Suchard, Philippe Lemey
Various factors determine the rate at which mutations are generated and fixed in viral genomes. Viral evolutionary rates may vary over the course of a single persistent infection and can reflect changes in replication rates and selective dynamics. Dedicated statistical inference approaches are required to understand how the complex interplay of these processes shapes the genetic diversity and divergence in viral populations. Although evolutionary models accommodating a high degree of complexity can now be formalized, adequately informing these models by potentially sparse data, and assessing the association of the resulting estimates with external predictors, remains a major challenge...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Sara Gianella, Sergei L Kosakovsky Pond, Michelli F Oliveira, Konrad Scheffler, Matt C Strain, Antonio De la Torre, Scott Letendre, Davey M Smith, Ronald J Ellis
To design effective eradication strategies, it may be necessary to target HIV reservoirs in anatomic compartments other than blood. This study examined HIV RNA rebound following interruption of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to determine whether the central nervous system (CNS) might serve as an independent source of resurgent viral replication. Paired blood and CSF samples were collected longitudinally from 14 chronically HIV-infected individuals undergoing ART interruption...
July 2016: Virus Evolution
Joakim Esbjörnsson, Mattias Mild, Anne Audelin, Jannik Fonager, Helena Skar, Louise Bruun Jørgensen, Kirsi Liitsola, Per Björkman, Göran Bratt, Magnus Gisslén, Anders Sönnerborg, Claus Nielsen, Patrik Medstrand, Jan Albert
Increased knowledge about HIV-1 transmission dynamics in different transmission groups and geographical regions is fundamental for assessing and designing prevention efforts against HIV-1 spread. Since the first reported cases of HIV infection during the early 1980s, the HIV-1 epidemic in the Nordic countries has been dominated by HIV-1 subtype B and MSM transmission. HIV-1 pol sequences and clinical data of 51 per cent of all newly diagnosed HIV-1 infections in Sweden, Denmark, and Finland in the period 2000-2012 (N = 3,802) were analysed together with a large reference sequence dataset (N = 4,537) by trend analysis and phylogenetics...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Bas B Oude Munnink, Matthew Cotten, Marta Canuti, Martin Deijs, Maarten F Jebbink, Formijn J van Hemert, My V T Phan, Margreet Bakker, Seyed Mohammad Jazaeri Farsani, Paul Kellam, Lia van der Hoek
Several novel clades of astroviruses have recently been identified in human faecal samples. Here, we describe a novel astrovirus-like RNA virus detected in human stools, which we have tentatively named bastrovirus. The genome of this novel virus consists of 6,300 nucleotides organized in three open reading frames. Several sequence divergent strains were detected sharing 67-93 per cent nucleotide identity. Bastrovirus encodes a putative structural protein that is homologous to the capsid protein found in members of the Astroviridae family (45% amino acid identity)...
January 2016: Virus Evolution
Jill O Robinson, Melody J Slashinski, Elizabeth Chiao, Amy L McGuire
There is an urgent need for consistent data sharing policies that promote the advancement of science while respecting the values and interests of those providing their genetic data for research. Responding to the article of Jalayne J. Arias, Genevieve Pham-Kanter, and Eric G. Campbell, 'The Growth and Gaps of Genetic Data Sharing Policies in the United States', this commentary further explores the challenges of human subjects' protection in existing data sharing policies. We will elaborate on the need for data sharing policies to accommodate variation in individual and group preferences around data sharing and privacy concerns by comparing our previously published data on patients' and parents' consent to data sharing and attitudes about privacy to data from focus groups with HIV-positive, underserved individuals who were asked about their willingness to participate in genetic research and share their data broadly...
November 2015: Journal of Law and the Biosciences
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