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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936416/antigen-recognition-triggered-drug-delivery-mediated-by-nanocapsule-functionalized-cytotoxic-t-cells
#1
R Brad Jones, Stephanie Mueller, Sudha Kumari, Vlad Vrbanac, Shy Genel, Andrew M Tager, Todd M Allen, Bruce D Walker, Darrell J Irvine
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocytes (CTLs) kill pathogen-infected or transformed cells following interaction of their T-cell receptors (TCRs) with foreign (e.g. virus-derived) peptides bound to MHC-I molecules on the target cell. TCR binding triggers CTLs to secrete perforin, which forms pores in the target cell membrane, promoting target death. Here, we show that by conjugating drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles to the surface of CTLs, their lytic machinery can be co-opted to lyse the cell-bound drug carrier, providing triggered release of drug cargo upon target cell recognition...
November 25, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936379/clinical-and-epidemiological-characteristics-associated-with-unfavorable-tuberculosis-treatment-outcomes-in-tb-hiv-co-infected-patients-in-brazil-a-hierarchical-polytomous-analysis
#2
Thiago Nascimento do Prado, Jayant V Rajan, Angélica Espinosa Miranda, Elias Dos Santos Dias, Lorrayne Beliqui Cosme, Lia Gonçalves Possuelo, Mauro N Sanchez, Jonathan E Golub, Lee W Riley, Ethel Leonor Maciel
BACKGROUND: TB patients co-infected with HIV have worse treatment outcomes than non-coinfected patients. How clinical characteristics of TB and socioeconomic characteristics influence these outcomes is poorly understood. Here, we use polytomous regression analysis to identify clinical and epidemiological characteristics associated with unfavorable treatment outcomes among TB-HIV co-infected patients in Brazil. METHODS: TB-HIV cases reported in the Brazilian information system (SINAN) between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2011 were identified and categorized by TB treatment outcome (cure, default, death, and development of MDR TB)...
December 6, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936368/utility-of-brief-versions-of-the-alcohol-use-disorders-identification-test-audit-to-identify-excessive-drinking-among-patients-in-hiv-care-in-south-africa
#3
Neo K Morojele, Sebenzile Nkosi, Connie T Kekwaletswe, Paul A Shuper, Samuel O Manda, Bronwyn Myers, Charles D H Parry
OBJECTIVE: In sub-Saharan Africa, large proportions of patients who are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) engage in excessive alcohol use, which may lead to adverse health consequences and may go undetected. Consequently, health care workers need brief screening tools to be able to routinely identify and manage excessive alcohol use among their patients. Various brief versions of the valid and reliable 10-item Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) (i.e., the AUDIT-C, AUDIT-3, AUDIT-QF, AUDIT-PC, AUDIT-4, and m-FAST) may potentially replace the full AUDIT in busy HIV care settings...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936236/an-evaluation-of-selected-populations-for-hiv-1-vaccine-cohort-development-in-nigeria
#4
Ogbonnaya S Njoku, Mark M Manak, Robert J O'Connell, Ashley L W Shutt, Jennifer A Malia, Richard A Heipertz, Sodsai Tovanabutra, Mark J Milazzo, Gideon Akindiran Akintunde, Abraham S Alabi, Aminu Suleiman, Amos A Ogundeji, Terfa S Kene, Robbie Nelson, Ojor R Ayemoba, Darrell E Singer, Merlin L Robb, Sheila A Peel, Nelson L Michael
Development of a globally effective HIV-1 vaccine will need to encompass Nigeria, one of the hardest hit areas, with an estimated 3.2 million people living with HIV. This cross-sectional Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved study was conducted in 2009-12 at four market sites and two highway settlements sites in Nigeria to identify and characterize populations at high risk for HIV; engage support of local stakeholders; and assess the level of interest in future vaccine studies. Demographic, HIV risk data were collected by structured interviewer-administered questionnaires...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936233/malaria-in-hiv-infected-children-receiving-hiv-protease-inhibitor-compared-with-non-nucleoside-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitor-based-antiretroviral-therapy-impaact-p1068s-substudy-to-p1060
#5
Charlotte V Hobbs, Erin E Gabriel, Portia Kamthunzi, Gerald Tegha, Jean Tauzie, Elizabeth Petzold, Linda Barlow-Mosha, Benjamin H Chi, Yonghua Li, Tiina Ilmet, Brian Kirmse, Jillian Neal, Sunil Parikh, Nagamah Deygoo, Patrick Jean Philippe, Lynne Mofenson, William Prescott, Jingyang Chen, Philippa Musoke, Paul Palumbo, Patrick E Duffy, William Borkowsky
BACKGROUND: HIV and malaria geographically overlap. HIV protease inhibitors kill malaria parasites in vitro and in vivo, but further evaluation in clinical studies is needed. METHODS: Thirty-one children from Malawi aged 4-62 months were followed every 3 months and at intercurrent illness visits for ≤47 months (September 2009-December 2011). We compared malaria parasite carriage by blood smear microscopy (BS) and confirmed clinical malaria incidence (CCM, or positive BS with malaria symptoms) in children initiated on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) with zidovudine, lamivudine, and either nevirapine (NVP), a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, or lopinavir-ritonavir (LPV-rtv), a protease inhibitor...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936146/performance-of-clinical-screening-algorithms-for-tuberculosis-intensified-case-finding-among-people-living-with-hiv-in-western-kenya
#6
Surbhi Modi, Joseph S Cavanaugh, Ray W Shiraishi, Heather L Alexander, Kimberly D McCarthy, Barbara Burmen, Hellen Muttai, Chad M Heilig, Allyn K Nakashima, Kevin P Cain
OBJECTIVE: To assess the performance of symptom-based screening for tuberculosis (TB), alone and with chest radiography among people living with HIV (PLHIV), including pregnant women, in Western Kenya. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: PLHIV from 15 randomly-selected HIV clinics were screened with three clinical algorithms [World Health Organization (WHO), Ministry of Health (MOH), and "Improving Diagnosis of TB in HIV-infected persons" (ID-TB/HIV) study], underwent chest radiography (unless pregnant), and provided two or more sputum specimens for smear microscopy, liquid culture, and Xpert MTB/RIF...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936098/analysis-of-hiv-diversity-in-hiv-infected-black-men-who-have-sex-with-men-hptn-061
#7
Iris Chen, Gordon Chau, Jing Wang, William Clarke, Mark A Marzinke, Vanessa Cummings, Autumn Breaud, Oliver Laeyendecker, Sheldon D Fields, Sam Griffith, Hyman M Scott, Steven Shoptaw, Carlos Del Rio, Manya Magnus, Sharon Mannheimer, Hong-Van Tieu, Darrell P Wheeler, Kenneth H Mayer, Beryl A Koblin, Susan H Eshleman
BACKGROUND: HIV populations often diversify in response to selective pressures, such as the immune response and antiretroviral drug use. We analyzed HIV diversity in Black men who have sex with men who were enrolled in the HIV Prevention Trials Network 061 study. METHODS: A high resolution melting (HRM) diversity assay was used to measure diversity in six regions of the HIV genome: two in gag, one in pol, and three in env. HIV diversity was analyzed for 146 men who were HIV infected at study enrollment, including three with acute infection and 13 with recent infection (identified using a multi-assay algorithm), and for 21 men who seroconverted during the study...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936092/the-association-between-sexually-transmitted-infections-length-of-service-and-other-demographic-factors-in-the-u-s-military
#8
Robert Deiss, Richard J Bower, Edgie Co, Octavio Mesner, Jose L Sanchez, Jennifer Masel, Anuradha Ganesan, Grace E Macalino, Brian K Agan
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have found higher rates of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among military personnel than the general population, but the cumulative risk of acquiring STIs throughout an individual's military career has not been described. METHODS: Using ICD-9 diagnosis codes, we analyzed the medical records of 100,005 individuals from all service branches, divided in equal cohorts (n = 6,667) between 1997 and 2011. As women receive frequent STI screening compared to men, these groups were analyzed separately...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936054/high-prevalence-of-faecal-carriage-of-esbl-producing-enterobacteriaceae-among-children-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#9
Marit G Tellevik, Bjørn Blomberg, Øyvind Kommedal, Samuel Y Maselle, Nina Langeland, Sabrina J Moyo
BACKGROUND: Faecal carriage of ESBL-producing bacteria is a potential risk for transmission and infection. Little is known about faecal carriage of antibiotic resistance in Tanzania. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of faecal carriage of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and to identify risk factors for carriage among young children in Tanzania. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: From August 2010 to July 2011, children below 2 years of age were recruited in Dar es Salaam, including healthy community children (n = 250) and children hospitalized due to diarrhoea (n = 250) or other diseases (n = 103)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936047/cross-neutralizing-antibodies-in-hiv-1-individuals-infected-by-subtypes-b-f1-c-or-the-b-bbr-variant-in-relation-to-the-genetics-and-biochemical-characteristics-of-the-env-gene
#10
Dalziza Victalina de Almeida, Karine Venegas Macieira, Beatriz Gilda Jegerhorn Grinsztejn, Valdiléa Gonçalves Veloso Dos Santos, Monick Lindenmeyer Guimarães
Various HIV-1 env genetic and biochemical features impact the elicitation of cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies in natural infections. Thus, we aimed to investigate cross-neutralizing antibodies in individuals infected with HIV-1 env subtypes B, F1, C or the B/Bbr variant as well as env characteristics. Therefore, plasma samples from Brazilian chronically HIV-1 infected individuals were submitted to the TZM-bl neutralization assay. We also analyzed putative N-glycosylation sites (PNGLs) and the size of gp120 variable domains in the context of HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in Brazil...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935986/quantifying-adaptive-and-innate-immune-responses-in-hiv-infected-participants-using-a-novel-high-throughput-assay
#11
Michelle K Yong, Paul U Cameron, Tim Spelman, Julian H Elliott, Christopher K Fairley, Jeffrey Boyle, Misato Miyamasu, Sharon R Lewin
OBJECTIVES: HIV infection is characterised by persistent immune dysfunction of both the adaptive and innate immune responses. The aim of this study was to evaluate these responses using a novel high throughput assay in healthy controls and HIV-infected individuals prior to and following anti-retroviral treatment (ART). DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: Whole blood was assessed using the QuantiFERON Monitor® (QFM) assay containing adaptive and innate immunostimulants...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935980/changes-in-prevalence-of-hiv-or-syphilis-among-male-sex-workers-and-non-commercial-men-who-have-sex-with-men-in-shenzhen-china-results-of-a-second-survey
#12
Yuanwei Huang, Yanting Zhang, Ke Li, Jin Zhao
BACKGROUND: A previous time-location sampling survey (TLS) was performed in 2008 to evaluate the HIV or syphilis infection rate among male sex workers (MSWs) and non-commercial men who have sex with men (ncMSM) in Shenzhen, China. This is a second TLS performed in 2014. This article describes the findings and changes in the prevalence of HIV and syphilis. METHODS: TLS was used to collect information as a second cross-sectional survey to an earlier TLS assessment...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935971/costs-of-care-of-hiv-infected-children-initiating-lopinavir-ritonavir-based-antiretroviral-therapy-before-the-age-of-two-in-cote-d-ivoire
#13
Sophie Desmonde, Divine Avit, Junie Petit, Madeleine Amorissani Folquet, Francois Tanoh Eboua, Clarisse Amani Bosse, Evelyne Dainguy, Véronique Mea, Marguerite Timite-Konan, Sylvie Ngbeché, Andrea Ciaranello, Valeriane Leroy
OBJECTIVES: To access the costs of care for Ivoirian children before and after initiating LPV/r-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) before the age of two. METHODS: We assessed the direct costs of care for all HIV-infected children over the first 12 months on LPV/r-based ART initiated <2 years of age in Abidjan. We recorded all drug prescriptions, ART and cotrimoxazole prophylaxis delivery, medical analyses/examinations and hospital admissions. We compared these costs to those accrued in the month prior to ART initiation...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935939/structural-basis-for-inhibitor-induced-aggregation-of-hiv-integrase
#14
Kushol Gupta, Vesa Turkki, Scott Sherrill-Mix, Young Hwang, Grant Eilers, Louis Taylor, Charlene McDanal, Ping Wang, David Temelkoff, Robert T Nolte, Emile Velthuisen, Jerry Jeffrey, Gregory D Van Duyne, Frederic D Bushman
The allosteric inhibitors of integrase (termed ALLINIs) interfere with HIV replication by binding to the viral-encoded integrase (IN) protein. Surprisingly, ALLINIs interfere not with DNA integration but with viral particle assembly late during HIV replication. To investigate the ALLINI inhibitory mechanism, we crystallized full-length HIV-1 IN bound to the ALLINI GSK1264 and determined the structure of the complex at 4.4 Å resolution. The structure shows GSK1264 buried between the IN C-terminal domain (CTD) and the catalytic core domain...
December 2016: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935802/perceptions-on-diabetes-care-provision-among-health-providers-in-rural-tanzania-a-qualitative-study
#15
Mary Mwangome, Eveline Geubbels, Paul Klatser, Marjolein Dieleman
Diabetes prevalence in Tanzania was estimated at 9.1% in 2012 among adults aged 24-65 years - higher than the HIV prevalence in the general population at that time. Health systems in lower- and middle-income countries are not designed for chronic health care, yet the rising burden of non-communicable diseases such as diabetes demands chronic care services. To inform policies on diabetes care, we conducted a study on the health services in place to diagnose, treat and care for diabetes patients in rural Tanzania...
October 22, 2016: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935786/beneficioso-y-una-prioridad-latina-women-s-perceptions-about-hiv-testing
#16
S Sudha, Sharon D Morrison, Kenneth J Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Studies indicate a higher rate of HIV infection among Latinos in the United States, and a pattern of later testing associated with poorer disease management, greater risk of spreading infection, and higher death rates. Thus, it is imperative to generate culturally holistic strategies to improve HIV testing among Latina women. METHODS: We surveyed 182 Latina women in the southeastern US. We cross-tabulated demographic, social, and experiential factors of women who have taken a previous HIV test with women who have not yet been tested...
January 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935712/the-monomer-electron-density-force-field-medff-a-physically-inspired-model-for-noncovalent-interactions
#17
Steven Vandenbrande, Michel Waroquier, Veronique Van Speybroeck, Toon Verstraelen
We propose a methodology to derive pairwise-additive noncovalent force fields from monomer electron densities without any empirical input. Energy expressions are based on the symmetry-adapted perturbation theory (SAPT) decomposition of interaction energies. This ensures a physically motivated force field featuring an electrostatic, exchange-repulsion, dispersion, and induction contribution, which contains two types of parameters. First, each contribution depends on several fixed atomic parameters, resulting from a partitioning of the monomer electron density...
December 9, 2016: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935692/dynamic-and-electrostatic-effects-on-the-reaction-catalyzed-by-hiv-1-protease
#18
Agnieszka Krzemińska, Vicent Moliner, Katarzyna Świderek
HIV-1 Protease (HIV-1 PR) is one of the three enzymes essential for the replication process of HIV-1 virus, which explains why it has been the main target for design of drugs against acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This work is focused on exploring the proteolysis reaction catalyzed by HIV-1 PR, with special attention to the dynamic and electrostatic effects governing its catalytic power. Free energy surfaces for all possible mechanisms have been computed in terms of potentials of mean force (PMFs) within hybrid QM/MM potentials, with the QM subset of atoms described at semiempirical (AM1) and DFT (M06-2X) level...
December 9, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935650/association-between-diabetes-mellitus-and-active-tuberculosis-in-africa-and-the-effect-of-hiv
#19
REVIEW
Sarah Lou Bailey, Helen Ayles
OBJECTIVE: To determine current evidence for the association between diabetes and active tuberculosis in Africa, and how HIV modifies, or not, any association between diabetes and active tuberculosis. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review by searching the EMBASE, Global Health and Medline databases. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they explored the association between diabetes mellitus prevalence and active tuberculosis incidence or prevalence, used a comparison group, were conducted in an African population and adjusted the analysis for at least age...
December 9, 2016: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935535/continuous-ambulatory-peritoneal-dialysis-in-patients-with-hiv-and-end-stage-renal-failure
#20
Kwazi C Ndlovu, Alain Assounga
♦ Background: This study aimed to evaluate the differences in continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD)-related outcomes according to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status of end-stage renal failure patients. ♦ Methods: This prospective cohort study included 70 HIV-negative and 70 HIV-positive consecutive patients with renal failure who underwent dialysis with newly inserted Tenckhoff catheters between September 2012 and February 2015. Patients were followed up monthly at a central renal clinic for 1 year or until the primary endpoints of technique failure or death...
December 1, 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
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