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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228368/the-oncolytic-virus-mg1-targets-and-eliminates-latently-hiv-1-infected-cells-implications-for-an-hiv-cure
#1
Nischal Ranganath, Teslin S Sandstrom, Stephanie C Burke Schinkel, Sandra C Côté, Jonathan B Angel
Latently HIV-infected cells evade immune- and drug-mediated clearance. These cells harbour intracellular signalling defects including impairment of the antiviral, type I IFN (IFN-I) response. Such defects have also been observed in several cancers, and have been exploited for the development of therapeutic oncolytic viruses, including the recombinant Maraba virus (MG1). We therefore hypothesized that MG1 would infect and eliminate latently HIV-1-infected cells, while sparing healthy uninfected cells. Preferential infection and elimination by MG1 was first demonstrated in latently HIV-1-infected cell lines...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228334/clinical-and-epidemiological-characterization-of-histoplasmosis-cases-in-a-nonendemic-area-connecticut-united-states
#2
Marwan M Azar, Xuchen Zhang, Roland Assi, Chadi Hage, L Joseph Wheat, Maricar F Malinis
We performed a retrospective analysis of histoplasmosis cases diagnosed at our institution in New Haven, Connecticut, from 2005 to 2015. Among 12 cases of active histoplasmosis, seven were immunosuppressed and five had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Eleven patients reported travel to potentially endemic areas at a median of 105 days prior to presentation; travel to the Caribbean was most common (n = 6). Median time to diagnosis from symptom onset and first Histoplasma antigen testing were 41 and 28 days, respectively...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228317/leukocyte-telomere-length-at-birth-and-during-the-early-life-of-hiv-exposed-uninfected-children-following-in-utero-exposure-to-antiretrovirals
#3
Abhinav Ajaykumar, Hugo Soudeyns, Fatima Kakkar, Jason Brophy, Ari Bitnun, Ariane Alimenti, Arianne Y K Albert, Deborah M Money, Hélène C F Côté
Background: Maternal combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) during pregnancy could impact the health of HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) children, as some antiretrovirals cross the placenta and can inhibit telomerase. Our objective was to compare HEU and HIV-unexposed uninfected (HUU) leukocyte telomere length (LTL) at birth and in early life, and investigate any relationship with cART exposure. Methods: HEU and HUU children's blood LTL was compared cross-sectionally at birth, and during the first three years of life...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228272/an-investigation-into-the-possible-regulation-of-the-expression-of-genes-by-yapa-in-talaromyces-marneffei-using-the-qrt-pcr-method
#4
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228218/nonhuman-primate-models-and-understanding-the-pathogenesis-of-hiv-infection-and-aids
#5
Ronald S Veazey, Andrew A Lackner
Research using nonhuman primates (NHPs) as models for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has resulted in tremendous achievements not only in the prevention and treatment of HIV, but also in biomedical research more broadly. Once considered a death sentence, HIV infection is now fairly well controlled with combination antiretroviral treatments, almost all of which were first tested for efficacy and safety in nonhuman primates or other laboratory animals...
December 8, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228144/randomized-controlled-trial-of-daily-text-messages-to-support-adherence-to-prep-in-at-risk-for-hiv-individuals-the-tapir-study
#6
David J Moore, Sonia Jain, Michael P Dubé, Eric S Daar, Xiaoying Sun, Jason Young, Katya Corado, Eric Ellorin, Joel Milam, Deborah Collins, Jill Blumenthal, Brookie M Best, Peter Anderson, Richard Haubrich, Sheldon R Morris
Background: Adherence is critical for efficacy of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). Methods: Between 02/2013 and 02/2016, 398 men who have sex with men and transgender women were randomized 1:1 to receive individualized Texting for Adherence Building (iTAB) or standard care (SoC) for 48 weeks. The primary endpoint was dried blood spot (DBS) tenofovir (TFV-DP) concentrations at both week 12 and week 48 (or the last on-drug visit) of >719 fmol/punch consistent with ≥4 doses per week (i...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228130/acute-retroviral-syndrome-is-associated-with-high-viral-burden-cd4-depletion-and-immune-activation-in-systemic-and-tissue-compartments
#7
Trevor A Crowell, Donn J Colby, Suteeraporn Pinyakorn, James L K Fletcher, Eugène Kroon, Alexandra Schuetz, Shelly J Krebs, Bonnie M Slike, Louise Leyre, Nicolas Chomont, Linda L Jagodzinski, Irini Sereti, Netanya S Utay, Robin Dewar, Rungsun Rerknimitr, Nitiya Chomchey, Rapee Trichavaroj, Victor G Valcour, Serena Spudich, Nelson L Michael, Merlin L Robb, Nittaya Phanuphak, Jintanat Ananworanich
Background: Many individuals with acute HIV infection (AHI) experience acute retroviral syndrome (ARS), which is associated with adverse long-term clinical outcomes. We characterized clinical, virologic, and immunologic features of ARS and described the impact of early antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Methods: Participants presenting for voluntary HIV testing were enrolled during AHI in Bangkok, Thailand. ARS was defined by ≥3 qualifying signs/symptoms...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228122/tennessee-s-in-state-vulnerability-assessment-for-a-rapid-dissemination-of-hiv-or-hcv-infection-event-utilizing-data-about-the-opioid-epidemic
#8
Michael Rickles, Peter F Rebeiro, Lindsey Sizemore, Paul Juarez, Mitchell Mutter, Carolyn Wester, Melissa McPheeters
Background: Knowing which factors contribute to county-level vulnerability to an HIV/Hepatitis C (HCV) outbreak, and which counties are most vulnerable, guide public health and clinical interventions. We therefore examined the impact of locally available indicators related to the opioid epidemic on prior national models of HCV/HIV outbreak vulnerability. Methods: Tennessee's 95 counties were the study sample. Predictors from 2012 and 2013 were used, mirroring prior methodology from the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)...
December 7, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227887/-there-is-not-a-safe-space-where-they-can-find-themselves-to-be-free-un-safe-spaces-and-the-promotion-of-queer-visibilities-among-township-males-who-have-sex-with-males-msm-in-cape-town-south-africa
#9
N R Hassan, L Swartz, A Kagee, A De Wet, A Lesch, Z Kafaar, P A Newman
Males who have sex with males (MSM) are prioritised in the global fight against HIV/AIDS, as a key affected population to receive HIV prevention, treatment, and HIV-related care and support (WHO, 2016). There is, however, limited empirical research conducted on how to engage communities of South African MSM in clinical HIV prevention research programs. The development of LGBTIQ safe spaces may potentially be a viable option to promote community-based engagement by bridging the divides between HIV-prevention researchers, marginalised queer populations, and other HIV-prevention stakeholders located in heteronormative spaces (Molyneux et al...
December 8, 2017: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227883/associations-between-medical-cannabis-and-other-drug-use-among-unstably-housed-women
#10
Meredith C Meacham, Danielle E Ramo, Alex H Kral, Elise D Riley
BACKGROUND: Several studies suggest that U.S. state-level legalization of cannabis for medical purposes may be associated with reductions in opioid use; yet its relationship with stimulant use, particularly in high-risk populations like unstably housed women, has received less attention. The purpose of this study was to estimate independent associations between medical and non-medical use of cannabis and use of stimulants and opioids among unstably housed women. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were analyzed from 245 women in the SHADOW study, a community based cohort in San Francisco, CA, in which HIV+ women were oversampled (126 HIV+ and 119 HIV-)...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227881/experiences-with-compulsory-drug-detention-among-people-who-inject-drugs-in-bangkok-thailand-a-qualitative-study
#11
Thomas Kerr, Will Small, Prempreeda Pramoj Na Ayutthaya, Kanna Hayashi
BACKGROUND: Thailand has employed a system of compulsory drug detention centres (CDDCs) where drug users are confined following arrest. Although concerns regarding CDDCs persist, research focused on CDDCs in Thailand is limited. We undertook this study to explore experiences with CDDCs among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Thailand. METHODS: Data were derived from the Mitsampan Community Research Project, a mixed- methods study involving PWID in Bangkok. Between July 2011 and June 2012, semi-structured, in-depth interviews were conducted with PWID who had been exposed to CDDCs...
December 8, 2017: International Journal on Drug Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227466/morbidity-and-mortality-of-a-cohort-of-peruvian-hiv-infected-children-2003-2012
#12
Amira N Baker, Angela M Bayer, Rolando M Viani, Lenka Kolevic, Myung-Shin Sim, Jaime G Deville
BACKGROUND: Data on pediatric HIV in Peru is limited. The National Institute of Child Health (Instituto Nacional de Salud del Niño: INSN) cares for the most HIV-infected children under age 18 in the country. We describe the outcomes of children seen at INSN's HIV clinic over the 10 years when antiretroviral therapy (ART) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) interventions became available in 2004. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of INSN HIV clinic patients between 2003-2012...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227462/psychiatric-disorders-antiretroviral-medication-adherence-and-viremia-in-a-cohort-of-perinatally-hiv-infected-adolescents-and-young-adults
#13
Amelia Bucek, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Stephanie Benson, Patricia Warne, Elaine J Abrams, Katherine S Elkington, Curtis Dolezal, Andrew Wiznia, Claude Ann Mellins
BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected (PHIV+) adolescents and young adults (AYA) are at risk for sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence, and mental health and substance use problems that, in HIV-infected adults, predict non-adherence. Studies on the relationship between psychiatric and substance use disorders (SUD) and adherence among PHIV+ AYA are limited, but may be important to informing evidence-based interventions to promote adherence. METHODS: Data were analyzed from three annual follow-up interviews (FU2-4, N=179) in a longitudinal study of PHIV+ AYA...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227461/population-pharmacokinetics-of-lopinavir-in-severely-malnourished-hiv-infected-children-and-the-effect-on-treatment-outcomes
#14
Moherndran Archary, Helen Mcllleron, Raziya Bobat, Phillip La Russa, Thobekile Sibaya, Lubbe Wiesner, Stefanie Hennig
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, malnutrition remains a common clinical syndrome at antiretroviral treatment (ART) initiation. Physiological changes due to malnutrition and during nutritional recovery could affect the pharmacokinetics of antiretroviral drugs. METHODS: HIV-infected children admitted with severe acute malnutrition were randomised to early or delayed initiation of lopinavir/ritonavir, abacavir and lamivudine using WHO weight-band dosage charts...
December 8, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227443/associations-between-medicare-part-d-and-out-of-pocket-spending-hiv-viral-load-adherence-and-adap-use-in-dual-eligibles-with-hiv
#15
Nadya Belenky, Brian W Pence, Stephen R Cole, Stacie B Dusetzina, Andrew Edmonds, Jonathan Oberlander, Michael W Plankey, Adebola Adedimeji, Tracey E Wilson, Jennifer Cohen, Mardge H Cohen, Joel E Milam, Elizabeth T Golub, Adaora A Adimora
BACKGROUND: The implementation of Medicare part D on January 1, 2006 required all adults who were dually enrolled in Medicaid and Medicare (dual eligibles) to transition prescription drug coverage from Medicaid to Medicare part D. Changes in payment systems and utilization management along with the loss of Medicaid protections had the potential to disrupt medication access, with uncertain consequences for dual eligibles with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who rely on consistent prescription coverage to suppress their HIV viral load (VL)...
January 2018: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227424/effect-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-growth-parameters-of-children-with-hiv-infection
#16
Anju Seth, Rajeev Kumar Malhotra, Rohini Gupta, Jagdish Chandra, Praveen Kumar, Sarita Singh, Garima Sharma
BACKGROUND: Children living with HIV (CLHIV) commonly experience growth failure. We report growth parameters in CLHIV at baseline and during 3 years of antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: Records of CLHIV who had completed at least 3 years on ART were reviewed after excluding subjects who died, were lost to follow-up or developed treatment failure to assess impact of sustained administration of ART. Height-for-age (HFA) and body mass index for age (BFA) Z scores were calculated, and proportion of CLHIV with wasting and stunting estimated at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months after starting ART using the linear mixed model...
January 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227356/novel-advances-on-tissue-immune-dynamics-in-hiv-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-lessons-from-imaging-studies
#17
Eirini Moysi, Kartika Padhan, Giulia Fabozzi, Constantinos Petrovas
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To describe recent findings on the effect of HIV/SIV infection on lymph node viral and T-cell dynamics using imaging-based methodologies. RECENT FINDINGS: Chronic infection, particularly HIV/SIV, alters dramatically the microenvironment, immune cell frequency, distribution, function and tissue organization of secondary lymphoid tissues. These changes are not always reversible. Over the past few years, the implementation of advanced imaging protocols on human lymph node biopsies as well as on longitudinal lymphoid tissues samples from nonhuman primates (NHP) have provided a wealth of information on how local immune responses evolve over time in response to a persisting retroviral pathogen...
December 8, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227133/prevalence-of-intimate-partner-violence-and-associated-factors-amongst-women-attending-antenatal-care-at-outapi-clinic-namibia-a-descriptive-survey
#18
Leonard T Bikinesi, Robert Mash, Kate Joyner
BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a significant and largely hidden public health problem for all women and, during pregnancy, can have significant effects on the health of both mother and the unborn baby. Previous Namibian studies suggest rates of IPV as high as 36%, although few studies have been conducted in primary care. AIM: To determine the prevalence of IPV amongst women attending antenatal care. SETTING: Outapi primary care clinic, Namibia...
December 6, 2017: African Journal of Primary Health Care & Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227104/x-ray-absorption-spectroscopy-combined-with-time-dependent-density-functional-theory-elucidates-differential-substitution-pathways-of-au-i-and-au-iii-with-zinc-fingers
#19
Camilla Abbehausen, Raphael Enoque Ferraz de Paiva, Ragnar Bjornsson, Saulo Quintana Gomes, Zhifeng Du, Pedro Paulo Corbi, Frederico Alves Lima, Nicholas Farrell
A combination of two elements' (Au, Zn) X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) allowed the elucidation of differential substitution pathways of Au(I) and Au(III) compounds reacting with biologically relevant zinc fingers (ZnFs). Gold L3-edge XAS probed the interaction of gold and the C-terminal Cys2HisCys finger of the HIV-1 nucleocapsid protein NCp7, and the Cys2His2 human transcription factor Sp1. The use of model compounds helped assign oxidation states and the identity of the gold-bound ligands...
December 11, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226950/syndecans-in-chronic-inflammatory-and-autoimmune-diseases-pathological-insights-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#20
REVIEW
Solomon A Agere, Eugene Y Kim, Nahid Akhtar, Salahuddin Ahmed
Syndecans (SDCs) are a family of heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) glycoproteins ubiquitously expressed on the cell surfaces and extracellular matrix of all mammalian tissues. There are four mammalian syndecans, SDC-1 thorough 4, which play a critical role in cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, differentiation, and angiogenesis through independent and growth factor mediated signaling. An altered expression of SDCs is often observed in autoimmune disorders, cancer, HIV infection, and many other pathological conditions...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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