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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054075/evaluation-of-immunological-markers-of-ovine-vaginal-irritation-implications-for-preclinical-assessment-of-non-vaccine-hiv-preventive-agents
#1
Gregg N Milligan, Gracie Vargas, Kathleen L Vincent, Yong Zhu, Nigel Bourne, Massoud Motamedi
The presence of genital inflammatory responses and a compromised vaginal epithelial barrier have been linked to an increased risk of HIV acquisition. It is important to assure that application of candidate microbicides designed to limit HIV transmission will not cause these adverse events. We previously developed high resolution in vivo imaging methodologies in sheep to assess epithelial integrity following vaginal application of a model microbicide, however characterization of genital inflammation in sheep has not been previously possible...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054021/qprtase-modified-n-doped-carbon-quantum-dots-a-fluorescent-bioprobe-for-selective-detection-of-neurotoxin-quinolinic-acid-in-human-serum
#2
Ranjana Singh, Sunayana Kashayap, Vimal Singh, Arvind M Kayastha, Hirdyesh Mishra, Preeti Suman Saxena, Anchal Srivastava, Ranjan K Singh
Highly fluorescent nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (NCQDs) were synthesized using microwave assisted green method. It was characterized by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), FTIR, UV-Visible absorption and Photoluminiscence (PL) techniques. The NCQDs were immobilized with an enzyme named quinolinate phoshphoribosyl transferase (QPRTase). The NCQDs immobilized by QPRTase was used as a fluorescent bioprobe for the selective detection of endogenous neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QA) whose elevated level in serum is marker of many neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's, Huntington's and HIV associated dementia (HAD) as well as deficiency of vitamin B6...
October 10, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053932/the-patterns-of-in-vitro-cell-death-and-inflammatory-cytokines-induced-by-distinct-bcg-vaccine-strains-are-differentially-induced-in-human-mononuclear-cells
#3
C Ponte, M Hacker, M Moraes, L Castello-Branco, F Silva, P Antas
Tuberculosis (TB) remains among the world's leading cause of mortality. For its control, studies of TB vaccines are needed. Since live-attenuated Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only TB vaccine currently in use, studies on the protective role of BCG are required. In this study, we analyzed host cells purified directly from whole blood of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative volunteers, comprising adult healthy donors (HD) and neonates (umbilical cord bloods, UCB), with the aim to directly compare in vitro immune responses with distinct BCG strains in human mononuclear cells...
October 20, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053912/community-based-screening-of-hepatitis-c-with-a-one-step-rna-detection-algorithm-from-dried-blood-spots-analysis-of-key-populations-in-barcelona-spain
#4
V Saludes, C Folch, A Morales-Carmona, L Ferrer, L Fernández, R Muñoz, M Jiménez, E Loureiro, P Fernández-Dávila, E Bascuñana, J Casabona, E Martró
Alternative strategies are required to enhance the diagnosis of silent hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hard-to-reach key populations at risk. Among them, HCV prevalence and bio-behavioural data is scarce for HIV-negative men who have sex with men (MSM) and men and trans-women sex workers. We sought to describe and assess the potential benefits of a community-based one-step HCV screening and confirmatory strategy for these populations in Barcelona. The screening strategy based on a real-time RT-PCR assay for HCV-RNA detection in dried-blood spots (DBS) was validated and implemented in addition to an antibody point-of-care test in a community centre...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053881/hiv-antiretrovirals-and-peripheral-neuropathy-a-moving-target
#5
EDITORIAL
Michelle Kaku, David M Simpson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 20, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053737/screening-for-hiv-hepatitis-b-and-syphilis-on-dried-blood-spots-a-promising-method-to-better-reach-hidden-high-risk-populations-with-self-collected-sampling
#6
Inge H M van Loo, Nicole H T M Dukers-Muijrers, Rosalie Heuts, Marianne A B van der Sande, Christian J P A Hoebe
INTRODUCTION: Many people at high risk for sexually transmitted infections (STIs), e.g., men who have sex with men (MSM), are not optimally reached by current sexual health care systems with testing. To facilitate testing by home-based sampling or sampling in outreach setting we evaluated dried blood spots (DBS), a method for self-collected blood sampling for serological screening of HIV, hepatitis B (HBV) and syphilis. The aims of this study were to assess the acceptability and feasibility of self-collected DBS and to compare the test results for screening of HIV, HBV and syphilis from DBS with blood drawn by venous puncture...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053712/reproductive-desire-among-women-living-with-hiv-aids-in-central-brazil-prevalence-and-associated-factors
#7
Marise Ramos de Souza, Waldemar Naves do Amaral, Rafael Alves Guimarães, Giovanni Rezza, Sandra Maria Brunini
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence and examine the factors associated with reproductive desire among women living with HIV/AIDS (WLWHA) in Central Brazil. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 274 WLWHA, aged 18 to 49 years, was conducted with the support of treatment services and non-governmental organizations that assist people living with HIV/AIDS. Data regarding sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, sexual behavior, and reproductive variables were collected through interviews...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053437/reaching-egyptian-gays-using-social-media-a-comprehensive-health-study-and-a-framework-for-future-research
#8
Ahmed Gamal Elmahy
Internet has revolutionized research on sexual minorities by providing direct and safe access to hidden, stigmatized and high risk populations. This study investigated the possibility of using Facebook to reach Egyptian gays. The questionnaire was manually distributed to an extensive list of Facebook pages and groups related to the topic that has been collected using a snowball-like technique. The recruitment lasted from August 2015 to May 2016. Among the 461 eligible participants, the mean age was 26.6 (SD = 7...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053397/combined-intravitreal-and-systemic-antibiotic-therapy-in-a-patient-with-syphilitic-uveitis
#9
Arjun B Sood, William A Pearce, Kimberly A Workowski, James Lockwood, Steven Yeh
PURPOSE: To report the novel use of combined intravitreal and systemic antibiotic therapy in a patient with syphilitic panuveitis and discuss the management of ocular syphilis. METHODS: Case report Results: A 45-year old heterosexual male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) presented with 1 month of blurry vision in both eyes. Clinical examination revealed a bilateral panuveitis. The patient denied history of genital lesions or rash, but did complain of difficulty hearing bilaterally...
October 20, 2017: Ocular Immunology and Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053386/promoting-health-from-the-pulpit-a-process-evaluation-of-hiv-sermons-to-reduce-hiv-stigma-and-promote-testing-in-african-american-and-latino-churches
#10
Denise D Payán, Karen R Flórez, Laura M Bogart, David E Kanouse, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Kathryn P Derose
Embedding health messages into sermons is a potentially valuable strategy to address HIV and other health disparities in churches that predominantly serve racial and ethnic minorities. This study explores implementation of an HIV sermon as part of a multi-component intervention in three churches (Latino Catholic, Latino Pentecostal, and African American Baptist) in high HIV prevalence areas of Los Angeles County, California. Clergy were given an HIV sermon guide that included local public health data, stigma reduction cues, HIV testing messages, and a sample sermon...
October 20, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053175/distinct-pattern-of-tp53-mutations-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-related-head-and-neck-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#11
Frederico O Gleber-Netto, Mei Zhao, Sanchit Trivedi, Jiping Wang, Samar Jasser, Christina McDowell, Humam Kadara, Jiexin Zhang, Jing Wang, William N William, J Jack Lee, Minh Ly Nguyen, Sara I Pai, Heather M Walline, Dong M Shin, Robert L Ferris, Thomas E Carey, Jeffrey N Myers, Curtis R Pickering
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals (HIVIIs) have a higher incidence of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and clinical and histopathological differences have been observed in their tumors in comparison with those of HNSCC patients without a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The reasons for these differences are not clear, and molecular differences between HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC may exist. This study compared the mutational patterns of HIV-related HNSCC and non-HIV-related HNSCC...
October 20, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052773/a-systemic-review-of-tuberculosis-with-hiv-coinfection-in-children
#12
REVIEW
Jaishree Naidoo, Nasreen Mahomed, Halvani Moodley
The epidemiology of tuberculosis is adversely impacted by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection. HIV-infected patients are more prone to opportunistic infections, most commonly tuberculosis, and the risk of death in coinfected patients is higher than in those without HIV. Due to the impaired cellular immunity and reduced immunological response in HIV-infected patients, the classic imaging features of tuberculosis usually seen in patients without HIV may present differently. The aim of this review article is to highlight the imaging features that may assist in the diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients with HIV coinfection...
September 2017: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052689/an-hiv-vaccine-is-essential-for-ending-the-hiv-aids-pandemic
#13
Anthony S Fauci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 9, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052529/evaluating-a-multi-component-community-based-program-to-improve-adherence-and-retention-in-care-among-adolescents-living-with-hiv-in-zimbabwe-study-protocol-for-a-cluster-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Webster Mavhu, Nicola Willis, Juliet Mufuka, Collin Mangenah, Kudzanayi Mvududu, Sarah Bernays, Walter Mangezi, Tsitsi Apollo, Ricardo Araya, Helen A Weiss, Frances M Cowan
BACKGROUND: World Health Organization (WHO) adolescent HIV-testing and treatment guidelines recommend community-based interventions to support antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence and retention in care, while acknowledging that the evidence to support this recommendation is weak. This cluster randomized controlled trial aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a psychosocial, community-based intervention on HIV-related and psychosocial outcomes. METHODS/DESIGN: We are conducting the trial in two districts...
October 20, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052492/systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-secondary-prophylaxis-for-prevention-of-hiv-related-toxoplasmic-encephalitis-relapse-using-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole
#15
Mark P Connolly, Gertruud Haitsma, Adrián V Hernández, José E Vidal
A recent systematic literature and meta-analysis reported relative efficacy of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for the treatment of toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) in HIV-infected adults. Here, we estimated relapse rates during secondary prophylaxis with TMP-SMX, and further explored differences in relapse rates prior to introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and the widespread adoption of HAART. A systematic search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials yielded 707 studies whereby 663 were excluded after abstract screening, and 38 were excluded after full review leaving 6 studies for extraction...
September 2017: Pathogens and Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052434/a-virtual-clinic-improves-pneumococcal-vaccination-coverage-among-patients-living-with-hiv-at-a-veterans-affairs-medical-center
#16
Charles M Burns, Richard E Banks, Brigid M Wilson, Rebecca R Carter, Robin L P Jump, Federico Perez
People living with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should receive pneumococcal vaccinations as part of their routine health maintenance. Our goal was to create a "virtual clinic" to help increase rates of pneumococcal vaccination among people living with HIV without adding substantially to the workload of primary providers. We used administrative data from our Veterans Affairs (VA) medical center to identify a cohort of veterans living with HIV who were not current with either the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13), the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) or both...
October 20, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052344/brief-counselling-after-home-based-hiv-counselling-and-testing-strongly-increases-linkage-to-care-a-cluster-randomized-trial-in-uganda
#17
Eugene Ruzagira, Heiner Grosskurth, Anatoli Kamali, Kathy Baisley
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether counselling provided subsequent to HIV testing and referral for care increases linkage to care among HIV-positive persons identified through home-based HIV counselling and testing (HBHCT) in Masaka, Uganda. METHODS: The study was an open-label cluster-randomized trial. 28 rural communities were randomly allocated (1:1) to intervention (HBHCT, referral and counselling at one and two months) or control (HBHCT and referral only)...
October 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052340/absence-of-neurocognitive-disadvantage-associated-with-paediatric-hiv-subtype-a-infection-in-children-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#18
Paul Bangirana, Theodore D Ruel, Michael J Boivin, Satish K Pillai, Leila B Giron, Alla Sikorskii, Asish Banik, Jane Achan
INTRODUCTION: Infection with HIV subtype A has been associated with poorer neurocognitive outcomes compared to HIV subtype D in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy (ART). In this study, we sought to determine whether subtype-specific differences are also observed among children receiving ART. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Children were recruited from a clinical trial in which they were randomized to receive either lopinavir (LPV)- or non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)- based ART (NCT00978068)...
October 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052142/infection-of-kshv-and-interaction-with-hiv-the-bad-romance
#19
Jie Qin, Chun Lu
Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), namely, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is considered as the pathogen of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the most frequent cancer in untreated HIV-infected individuals. Patients infected with HIV have a much higher possibility developing KS than average individual. Researchers have found that HIV, which functions as a cofactor of KS, contributes a lot to the development of KS. In this article, we will give a brief introduction of KS and KSHV and how the interaction between KSHV and HIV contributes to the development of KS...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052137/malignancies-in-hiv-infected-and-aids-patients
#20
Yongjia Ji, Hongzhou Lu
Currently, HIV infection and AIDS are still one of the most important epidemic diseases around the world. As early in the initial stage of HIV epidemic, the high incidence of ADCs including Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma was the substantial amount of disease burden of HIV infection and AIDS. With the increasing accessibility of HAART and improving medical care for HIV infection and AIDS, AIDS-related illness including ADCs has dramatically decreased. Meanwhile, the incidence of NADCs rises in PLWH...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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