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Yan-Xia Lv, Sen Zhong, Hexin Tang, Bin Luo, Shao-Juan Chen, Long Chen, Fei Zheng, Lei Zhang, Lu Wang, Xing-Yuan Li, Yu-Wen Yan, Ya-Mu Pan, Miao Jiang, You-En Zhang, Lei Wang, Jian-Ye Yang, Ling-Yun Guo, Shi-You Chen, Jia-Ning Wang, Jun-Ming Tang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) suppresses arrhythmic activity and minimizes cardiomyocyte injury. However, how VNS affects angiogenesis/arteriogenesis in infarcted hearts, is poorly understood. METHODS: Myocardial infarction (MI) was achieved by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) in rats. 7 days after LAD, stainless-steel wires were looped around the left and right vagal nerve in the neck for vagus nerve stimulation (VNS)...
July 17, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Dmitry Ponomarev, Vladimir Boboshko, Vladimir Shmyrev, Igor Kornilov, Ilya Bondarenko, Ilya Soynov, Alexey Voytov, Stanislav Polyanskih, Oleg Strunin, Alexander Bogachev, Giovanni Landoni, Caetano Nigro Neto, Gretel Oliveira Nicolau, Zhang Wen, Mikhail Evdokimov, Shahrijar Sulejmanov, Aleksei Chernogrivov, Alexander Karaskov, Vladimir Lomivorotov
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 14, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Makoto Mizuno, Yusuke Ito, Atsuhiro Sugidachi
Few effective porcine models of myocardial infarction (MI) related to platelet thrombus formation are available. In this study, we established a novel porcine MI model and examined the effect of dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with aspirin and prasugrel, a P2Y12 antagonist, using this MI model. Thrombotic MI was photochemically induced using rose bengal. Male miniature pigs were divided into 3 treatment groups: Sham, MI, and DAPT. In the DAPT group, aspirin (10mg/kg, p.o.) and prasugrel (1mg/kg, p.o.) were administered 4h before photo-irradiation...
July 14, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
J A Peterson, S A Maroney, W Zwifelhofer, J P Wood, K Yan, R S Bercovitz, R K Woods, A E Mast
BACKGROUND: Neonates undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) are at risk for excessive bleeding. Blood is anticoagulated with heparin during CPB. Heparin activity is reversed with protamine at the end of CPB. Paradoxically, protamine also inhibits blood coagulation when it is dosed in excess of heparin. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate heparin-protamine balance in neonates undergoing CPB using research and clinical assays and determine their association with post-operative bleeding...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
Kamal Sharma, Komal Shah, Poonam Brahmbhatt, Yogini Kandre
Background/Introduction: Nutritional studies have indicated a critical role of dietary habits in development of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Aim: We aimed to compare the risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) in habitual "breakfast skippers" with those of "habitual breakfast eaters" in Western part of India. We also planned to compare the cardiometabolic profile of both the groups. Design: In this prospective, case-control study of 1607 individuals; 980 were patients of CAD (cases) undergoing various cardiac interventions for revascularization and other 627 were healthy individuals (controls) who were free from CVD...
July 16, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
Karan R Chadda, Ibrahim T Fazmin, Shiraz Ahmad, Haseeb Valli, Charlotte E Edling, Christopher L-H Huang, Kamalan Jeevaratnam
Heart failure (HF) affects 23 million people worldwide and results in 300,000 annual deaths. It is associated with many comorbidities, such as obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), and risk factors for both conditions overlap. 11% of HF patients have OSA and 7.7% of OSA patients have left ventricular ejection fraction <50% with arrhythmias being a significant comorbidity in HF and OSA patients. 40% of HF patients develop atrial fibrillation (AF) and 30-50% of deaths from cardiac causes in HF patients are from sudden cardiac death...
July 16, 2018: Sleep
Julie Dyall, Joshua C Johnson, Brit J Hart, Elena Postnikova, Yu Cong, Huanying Zhou, Dawn M Gerhardt, Julia Michelotti, Anna N Honko, Steven Kern, Lisa Evans DeWald, Kathleen G O'Loughlin, Carol E Green, Jon C Mirsalis, Richard S Bennett, Gene G Olinger, Peter B Jahrling, Lisa E Hensley
At the onset of the 2013-2016 epidemic of Ebola virus disease (EVD), no vaccine or antiviral medication was approved for treatment. Therefore, considerable efforts were directed towards the concept of drug repurposing or repositioning. Amiodarone, an approved multi-ion channel blocker for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmia, was reported to inhibit filovirus entry in vitro. Compassionate use of amiodarone in EVD patients indicated a possible survival benefit. In support of further clinical testing, we confirmed anti-Ebola virus activity of amiodarone in different cell types...
July 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Christopher De Bono, Charlotte Thellier, Nicolas Bertrand, Rachel Sturny, Estelle Jullian, Claudio Cortes, Sonia Stefanovic, Stéphane Zaffran, Magali Théveniau-Ruissy, Robert G Kelly
The arterial and venous poles of the mammalian heart are hotspots of congenital heart defects such as those observed in 22q11.2 deletion (or DiGeorge) and Holt-Oram syndromes. These regions of the heart are derived from late differentiating cardiac progenitor cells of the Second Heart Field (SHF) located in pharyngeal mesoderm contiguous with the elongating heart tube. The T-box transcription factor Tbx1, encoded by the major 22q11.2 deletion syndrome gene, regulates SHF addition to both cardiac poles from a common progenitor population...
July 17, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Viatcheslav Korshunov, Diego Penela, Markus Linhart, Juan Acosta, Mikel Martinez, David Soto-Iglesias, Juan Fernández-Armenta, Francesca Vassanelli, Mario Cabrera, Roger Borràs, Beatriz Jáuregui, Jose T Ortiz-Pérez, Rosario J Perea, Xavier Bosch, Damian Sanchez-Quintana, Lluis Mont, Antonio Berruezo
Aims: Left ventricular (LV) outflow tract ventricular arrhythmias (OTVA) are associated with hypertension (HT), older age, and LV dysfunction, suggesting that LV overload plays a role in the aetiopathogenesis. We hypothesized that anatomical modifications of the LV outflow tract (LVOT) could predict left vs. right OTVA site of origin (SOO). Methods and results: Fifty-six (32 men, 53 ± 18 years old) consecutive patients referred for OTVA ablation were included...
July 16, 2018: Europace: European Pacing, Arrhythmias, and Cardiac Electrophysiology
Elke Dworatzek, Shokoufeh Mahmoodzadeh, Cindy Schriever, Kana Kusumoto, Lisa Kramer, Gabriela Santos, Daniela Fliegner, Yuet-Kin Leung, Shuk-Mei Ho, Wolfram-Hubertus Zimmermann, Susanne Lutz, Vera Regitz-Zagrosek
Aims: Sex differences in cardiac fibrosis point to the regulatory role of 17β-Estradiol (E2) in cardiac fibroblasts (CF). We therefore asked whether male and female CF in rodent and human models are differentially susceptible to E2, and whether this is related to sex-specific activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) and beta (ERβ). Methods and Results: In female rat CF (rCF), 24 h E2-treatment (10-8 M) led to a significant down-regulation of collagen I and III expression, whereas both collagens were up-regulated in male rCF...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Sirirat Surinkaew, Mona Aflaki, Abhijit Takawale, Yu Chen, Xiao-Yan Qi, Marc-Antoine Gillis, Yan-Fen Shi, Jean-Claude Tardif, Nipon Chattipakorn, Stanley Nattel
Aims: Heart failure (HF) produces left atrial (LA)-selective fibrosis and promotes atrial fibrillation. HF also causes adrenergic activation, which contributes to remodeling via a variety of signaling molecules, including the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac). Here, we evaluate the effects of Epac1-signaling on LA-fibroblast (FB) function and its potential role in HF-related atrial remodeling. Methods and Results: HF was induced in adult male mongrel dogs by ventricular tachypacing (VTP)...
July 17, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Rhiannon E Mayhugh, Paul J Laurienti, Jason Fanning, Lise Gauvin, Keri J Heilman, Stephen W Porges, W Jack Rejeski
BACKGROUND: Alcohol craving, a known correlate of vulnerability to Alcohol Use Disorder (AUD), has been found to be inversely related to cardiac vagal tone (CVT). Here we examine how resting CVT, CVT reactivity to a postural challenge, and their interaction influence craving during imposed alcohol abstinence and their usual drinking among moderate to heavy drinkers. METHODS: Participants were recruited from the local community (final n = 29) and assessed for CVT functioning via respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA) at rest (RSA-rest) and during a postural challenge (RSA-react)...
2018: PloS One
Jinggang Xia, Shaodong Hu, Ji Xu, Hengjian Hao, Chunlin Yin, Dong Xu
Background This study aimed to investigate the correlation between glucose fluctuation from self-monitored blood glucose (SMBG) and the major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) during a 6-month follow-up period using the WeChat application. Methods From November 2016 to June 2017, 262 patients with ACS were discharged in a stable condition and completed a 6-month follow-up period. SMBG was recorded using the WeChat application. The patients were divided to a high glucose fluctuation group (H group; n=92) and a low glucose fluctuation group (L group; n=170)...
July 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Fernanda S Hackenhaar, Tássia M Medeiros, Fernanda M Heemann, Camile S Behling, Camila D Mahl, Cleber Verona, Ana Carolina A Silva, Vanessa Martins Oliveira, Diego F M Riveiro, Silvia R R Vieira, Mara S Benfato
Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R)-induced oxidative stress is one of the main mechanisms of tissue injury after cardiac arrest (CA). A decrease in antioxidant defenses may contribute to I/R injury. The present study aims to investigate the influence of mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH) on levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants after CA. We investigated antioxidant levels at 6, 12, 36, and 72 hours after CA in central venous blood samples of patients admitted to intensive care. The sample consisted of 31 patients under controlled normothermia (36°C) and 11 patients treated with 24 hours of MTH (33°C)...
July 17, 2018: Therapeutic Hypothermia and Temperature Management
Yingxue Wang, Bridgette A Christopher, Kirkland A Wilson, Deborah Muoio, Robert W McGarrah, Henri Brunengraber, Guo-Fang Zhang
High concentrations of propionate and its metabolites are found in several diseases that are often associated with the development of cardiac dysfunction, such as obesity, diabetes, propionic acidemia, and methylmalonic acidemia. In the present work, we employed a stable isotope-based metabolic flux approach to understand propionate-mediated perturbation of cardiac energy metabolism. Propionate led to accumulation of propionyl-CoA (increased by ~101-fold) and methylmalonyl-CoA (increased by 36-fold). This accumulation caused significant mitochondrial CoA trapping and inhibited fatty acid oxidation...
July 17, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Emily Mihalko, Ke Huang, Erin Sproul, Ke Cheng, Ashley C Brown
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, affects millions of people worldwide and results in significant death and disabilities. A major cause of MI is fibrin-rich thrombus formation that occludes the coronary arteries, blocking blood flow to the heart and causing fibrin deposition. In treating MI, reestablishing blood flow is critical. However, ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury itself can also occur and contributes to cardiac fibrosis. Fibrin-specific poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) nanogels (FSNs) comprised of a core-shell colloidal hydrogel architecture are utilized in this study to design a dual-delivery system that simultaneously addresses the need to 1) reestablish blood flow and 2) inhibit cardiac fibrosis following I/R injury...
July 17, 2018: ACS Nano
Estefanía Rossetti, Anabella Boto, Carlos González Cambaceres, Silvina Ruvinsky, Ezequiel Sagray
Hydatidosis is a parasitic infection caused by the Echinococcus granulosus larvae, transmitted by the ingestion of infected food, characterized by the formation of cysts in vital organs. In Argentina, the disease is spread throughout the territory, constituting an important public health issue. The disease usually affects the liver and lungs. The affection of other organs is rare, and even more uncommon the affection of the heart. We present the case of a disseminated hydatidosis in a pediatric patient, whose initial clinical manifestation was an acute arterial embolism of the right limb caused by the rupture of a hydatidic cardiac cyst...
August 1, 2018: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
Nilay Patel, Juan Viles-Gonzalez, Kanishk Agnihotri, Shilpkumar Arora, Nileshkumar J Patel, Ekta Aneja, Mahek Shah, Apurva O Badheka, Naga Venkata Pothineni, Krishna Kancharla, Siva Mulpuru, Peter Noseworthy, Fred Kusumoto, Yong Mei Cha, Abhishek Deshmukh
BACKGROUND: The utilization of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) has increased significantly since its initial approval for use in selected patients with heart failure. Limited data exits regarding current trends in implant related in-hospital complications and cost utilization. The aim of our study was to examine in-hospital complication rates associated with CRT-D and their trends over the last decade. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample, we estimated 378,248 CRT-D procedures from 2003 to 2012...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Aman Gupta, Deepak Kumar Pasupula, Aditya Bhonsale, Krishna Kancharla, Norman C Wang, Evan Adelstein, Sandeep Jain, Samir Saba
BACKGROUND: Guideline recommendations for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) have excluded patients with reversible causes. We previously demonstrated mortality benefit with the ICD in survivors of SCA associated with reversible causes other than myocardial infarction (MI) or ischemia treated with coronary revascularization. In the present study, we examined the incidence of ICD therapy in patients with SCA related to reversible causes...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Tingting Fang, Ruiping Cao, Wenlian Wang, Hongwei Ye, Lin Shen, Zhenghong Li, Junfeng Hu, Qin Gao
The aim of the present study was to investigate whether necroptosis occurs in high glucose (HG)-induced H9c2 cardiac cell injury and whether the activation of aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) can inhibit necroptosis. H9c2 cardiac cells were treated with 35 mM glucose to establish a HG‑induced cell injury model. Alda‑1 (20 µM), a specific activator of ALDH2 and necrostatin‑1 (Nec‑1, 100 µM), an inhibitor of necroptosis were used to treat H9c2 cardiac cells under HG conditions. Cell viability was measured using a Cell Counting Kit‑8 assay and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was measured by the dihydroethidium staining method...
July 9, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
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