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Respiratory Therapy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339740/margin-estimation-and-disturbances-of-irradiation-field-in-layer-stacking-carbon-ion-beams-for-respiratory-moving-targets
#1
Shinya Tajiri, Mutsumi Tashiro, Tomohiro Mizukami, Chihiro Tsukishima, Masami Torikoshi, Tatsuaki Kanai
Carbon-ion therapy by layer-stacking irradiation for static targets has been practised in clinical treatments. In order to apply this technique to a moving target, disturbances of carbon-ion dose distributions due to respiratory motion have been studied based on the measurement using a respiratory motion phantom, and the margin estimation given by the square root of the summation Internal margin2+Setup margin2 has been assessed. We assessed the volume in which the variation in the ratio of the dose for a target moving due to respiration relative to the dose for a static target was within 5%...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Radiation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339402/outcomes-of-hospitalised-muscular-dystrophy-patients
#2
Ghilas Boussaid, Hélène Prigent, Gilbert Caranhac, Djillali Annane, Christian Devaux, David Orlikowski, Frédéric Lofaso
BACKGROUND: In France, referral centres in teaching hospitals were created 10 years ago to provide MD patients with treatments and follow-up designed to prevent complications and improve outcomes. Respiratory failure is a major cause of death among subjects with MD, and its prevention and treatment can serve as a touchstone for assessing the effectiveness of MD care pathways. OBJECTIVE: We report data from a preliminary study of admissions of MD patients in France and of factors associated with mortality, with special emphasis on respiratory failure [RF]...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neuromuscular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339316/practical-insight-to-monitor-home-niv-in-copd-patients
#3
Jean-Michel Arnal, Joëlle Texereau, Aude Garnero
Home noninvasive ventilation (NIV) is used in COPD patients with concomitant chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure in order to correct nocturnal hypoventilation and improve sleep quality, quality of life, and survival. Monitoring of home NIV is needed to assess the effectiveness of ventilation and adherence to therapy, resolve potential adverse effects, reinforce patient knowledge, provide maintenance of the equipment, and readjust the ventilator settings according to the changing condition of the patient...
March 24, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335547/genomic-loads-and-genotypes-of-respiratory-syncytial-virus-viral-factors-during-lower-respiratory-tract-infection-in-chilean-hospitalized-infants
#4
Yazmín Espinosa, Camila San Martín, Alejandro A Torres, Mauricio J Farfán, Juan P Torres, Vasanthi Avadhanula, Pedro A Piedra, Lorena I Tapia
The clinical impact of viral factors (types and viral loads) during respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is still controversial, especially regarding newly described genotypes. In this study, infants with RSV bronchiolitis were recruited to describe the association of these viral factors with severity of infection. RSV antigenic types, genotypes, and viral loads were determined from hospitalized patients at Hospital Roberto del Río, Santiago, Chile. Cases were characterized by demographic and clinical information, including days of lower respiratory symptoms and severity...
March 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333899/-stem-progenitor-cells-in-diseases-of-the-respiratory-tract
#5
EDITORIAL
Tadeusz Płusa
Stem cells (SCs - stem cells) are characterized by plasticity and the ability to differentiate into other cell types. They are obtained from bone marrow, peripheral blood and cord blood. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) shows a broad immunomodulating, increases the number of regulatory T cells (Treg), modifies the activity of T cells, dendritic cells and NK (natural killer). Direct impact on reducing the release of proinflammatory cytokines and increased release of proinflammatory cytokines. Within the respiratory tract has a number of resident stem and progenitor cells referred to as L-MSCs (lung mesenchymal stem cells) whose presence was confirmed by markers as defined in the trachea, epithelial cells and alveolar...
March 21, 2017: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333694/high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-beyond-the-perinatal-period
#6
Michael Lee, Joshua Nagler
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: High-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is emerging as a means of oxygen delivery and respiratory support for a range of conditions outside the perinatal period. We aim to review the mechanisms of action and advantages of HFNC and to summarize current findings regarding clinical benefit in specific pediatric disease processes and in patients with significant respiratory distress. RECENT FINDINGS: Currently published studies outside the neonatal population demonstrate both safety and efficacy of this mode of respiratory support...
March 22, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333157/consensus-approach-to-nasal-high-flow-therapy-in-neonates
#7
B A Yoder, B Manley, C Collins, K Ives, A Kugelman, A Lavizzari, M McQueen
OBJECTIVE: Nasal high-flow therapy (nHFT) is commonly used for noninvasive respiratory support in the neonatal intensive care unit. Our objective was to determine which aspects of neonatal nHFT have achieved adequate evidence base to support consensus among experienced clinical investigators, and to document areas lacking consensus to promote future investigations. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, modified Delphi collation of tabular queries related to specific aspects of neonatal nHFT...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332328/paediatric-high-flow-nasal-cannula-therapy-in-children-with-bronchiolitis-a-retrospective-safety-and-efficacy-study-in-a-non-tertiary-environment
#8
Michelle Davison, Mike Watson, Leesa Wockner, Frances Kinnear
OBJECTIVE: The objective was to examine the safety and efficacy of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy for children with bronchiolitis in a non-tertiary paediatric setting. METHODS: This was a single-centre retrospective study conducted over 26 months (March 2013-April 2015) on children aged 1-23 months with suspected bronchiolitis, who commenced on HFNC therapy in either the ED or the ward. Changes with respect to baseline data were analysed for effect on work of breathing (WOB), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR)...
April 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331122/an-autopsy-case-report-of-adult-t-cell-leukemia-accompanied-by-rheumatoid-arthritis-mimicking-diffuse-panbronchiolitis
#9
Tomoko Shiraishi, Hiroshi Ishimoto, Kentaro Akata, Toshinori Kawanami, Kazuhiro Yatera, Hiroshi Mukae
A 50-year-old female with a history of chronic sinusitis and rheumatoid arthritis visited our department with repetitive lower respiratory tract infections of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Her chest CT showed diffuse panbronchiolitis-like pulmonary lesions, her blood examination revealed atypical lymphocytes, and she was serologically positive for anti-human T-lymphotrophic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibody. Her rheumatoid arthritis had been well-controlled after biological agent treatment followed by anti-inflammatory analgesic treatment...
2017: Journal of UOEH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329477/second-degree-burn-to-mustard-powder
#10
Danielle M Tartar, Victoria R Sharon
Mustard seeds and powder are commonly used inhomeopathic and traditional medicines, in whichthey are believed to have both anti-microbial andanti-inflammatory properties. They are thereforeutilized in the treatment of conditions ranging fromarthritis to respiratory congestion. Herein, we presenta patient with a second degree burn who usedmustard powder in the form of a mustard plasterto treat chest congestion. She experienced seconddegree burn wounds to the lower neck and chest, andrecovery with complete re-epithelialization followingtopical silver sulfadiazine, liberal emollient therapy,and triamcinolone ointment...
January 15, 2017: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329404/tofacitinib-in-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-and-chronic-plaque-psoriasis
#11
A K Gupta, M Cernea, C W Lynde
Tofacitinib is an oral immunosuppressant approved for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and is currently undergoing investigation (Phase III trials) for treating chronic plaque psoriasis. Tofacitinib inhibits Janus kinases (JAKs), which are essential for the signaling of multiple inflammatory pathways and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of RA and psoriasis. The efficacy and safety of tofacitinib in the treatment of RA and psoriasis have been demonstrated in Phase III trials. Across all studies, the efficacy of tofacitinib in alleviating symptoms of RA and psoriasis were superior to placebo...
March 2017: Skin Therapy Letter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329354/clinical-significance-of-human-coronavirus-in-bronchoalveolar-lavage-samples-from-hematopoietic-cell-transplantation-recipients-and-patients-with-hematologic-malignancies
#12
Chikara Ogimi, Alpana A Waghmare, Jane M Kuypers, Hu Xie, Cecilia C Yeung, Wendy M Leisenring, Sachiko Seo, Su-Mi Choi, Keith R Jerome, Janet A Englund, Michael Boeckh
Background: The possible role of human coronaviruses (HCoV) in lower respiratory tract disease (LRTD) in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients and patients with hematologic malignancies (HM) has not been well studied. Methods: We conducted a retrospective review of HCT/HM patients with HCoV detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). HCoV strains were identified in BAL samples using strain-specific PCR. Mortality rates were compared among HCT recipients with LRTD caused by HCoV, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza or parainfluenza virus (PIV) by multivariable Cox regression analysis...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328824/early-use-of-noninvasive-techniques-for-clearing-respiratory-secretions-during-noninvasive-positive-pressure-ventilation-in-patients-with-acute-exacerbation-of-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-and-hypercapnic-encephalopathy-a-prospective-cohort-study
#13
Jinrong Wang, Zhaobo Cui, Shuhong Liu, Xiuling Gao, Pan Gao, Yi Shi, Shufen Guo, Peipei Li
Noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation (NPPV) might be superior to conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV) in patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPDs). Inefficient clearance of respiratory secretions provokes NPPV failure in patients with hypercapnic encephalopathy (HE). This study compared CMV and NPPV combined with a noninvasive strategy for clearing secretions in HE and AECOPD patients.The present study is a prospective cohort study of AECOPD and HE patients enrolled between October 2013 and August 2015 in a critical care unit of a major university teaching hospital in China...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328243/factors-associated-with-bleeding-and-thrombosis-in-children-receiving-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo
#14
Heidi J Dalton, Ron Reeder, Pamela Garcia-Filion, Richard Holubkov, Robert A Berg, Athena Zuppa, Frank W Moler, Thomas Shanley, Murray M Pollack, Christopher Newth, John Berger, David Wessel, Joseph Carcillo, Michael Bell, Sabrina Heidemann, Kathleen L Meert, Richard Harrison, Allan Doctor, Robert F Tamburro, J Michael Dean, Tammara Jenkins, Carol Nicholson
RATIONALE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is employed for respiratory and cardiac failure in children but is complicated by bleeding and thrombosis. OBJECTIVES: (1) Measure the incidence of bleeding (blood loss requiring transfusion or intracranial hemorrhage) and thrombosis during ECMO support; (2) identify factors associated with these complications; and (3) determine the impact of these complications on patient outcome. METHODS: Prospective, observational cohort study in pediatric, cardiac, and neonatal intensive care units in eight hospitals from December 2012 to September 2014...
March 22, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326675/utilization-and-outcomes-of-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-in-the-united-states-shortly-after-device-approval
#15
Michael N Young, Sammy Elmariah, Kevin F Kennedy, Ignacio Inglessis, Robert W Yeh
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the national uptake of TAVR, associated in-hospital outcomes, and the effect of procedural experience on outcomes in the first two years following device approval. BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is a newly established therapy for high-risk patients with severe aortic stenosis. Evaluating the manner in which TAVR has disseminated into real-world practice is essential for understanding its impact on population health...
March 22, 2017: Catheterization and Cardiovascular Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326177/characterization-of-secondary-care-for-copd-in-sweden
#16
Josefin Sundh, Christer Janson, Gunnar Johansson, Anders Lindén, Claes-Göran Löfdahl, Thomas Sandström, Kjell Larsson
Introduction: Only a selected proportion of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients are managed in secondary care. The aim of this study was to characterize disease severity, treatment and structure of secondary care for COPD in Sweden. Methods: Information was collected from 29 of 33 existing secondary care units of respiratory medicine in Sweden, using both individual data from 373 consecutively enrolled COPD patients with Global initiative on Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage III-IV and a structural questionnaire about available resources at the units...
2017: European Clinical Respiratory Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324595/recent-advances-in-developing-antiviral-therapies-for-respiratory-syncytial-virus
#17
REVIEW
Brian C Shook, Kai Lin
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection presents a significant health challenge in small children, the elderly and immunocompromised patients. There is still a high unmet medical need among patients with RSV infection, and no specific antiviral therapy is available. The only approved agents are palivizumab, which has to be given prophylactically, mainly in high-risk infants, and ribavirin, which is rarely used due to toxicity concerns and questionable benefits. Efforts to develop new antiviral agents have been hampered by the perceived need for high safety hurdles in pediatric patient populations use and the lack of well-characterized druggable targets...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324594/polymers-in-the-delivery-of-sirna-for-the-treatment-of-virus-infections
#18
REVIEW
Nicholas Reynolds, Megan Dearnley, Tracey M Hinton
Viral diseases remain a major cause of death worldwide. Despite advances in vaccine and antiviral drug technology, each year over three million people die from a range of viral infections. Predominant viruses include human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis viruses, and gastrointestinal and respiratory viruses. Now more than ever, robust, easily mobilised and cost-effective antiviral strategies are needed to combat both known and emerging disease threats. RNA interference and small interfering (si)RNAs were initially hailed as a "magic bullet", due to their ability to inhibit the synthesis of any protein via the degradation of its complementary messenger RNA sequence...
April 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323735/covered-balloon-expanding-stents-in-airway-stenosis
#19
Adnan Majid, Fayez Kheir, Jey Chung, Daniel Alape, Bryan Husta, Scott Oh, Erik Folch
BACKGROUND: The balloon-expanding stents are widely available but rarely described for use within the tracheobronchial tree. This report describes our experience with these stents in airway stenosis particularly as a lobar salvage therapy. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of all records in which the balloon-expanding stents were used at a tertiary medical center. Ages, sex, location of stenosis, etiology of stenosis, stent size, duration of stent placement and associated interventions for airway stenosis were recorded...
April 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323670/prevention-of-respiratory-complications-of-the-surgical-patient-actionable-plan-for-continued-process-improvement
#20
Katarina J Ruscic, Stephanie D Grabitz, Maíra I Rudolph, Matthias Eikermann
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Postoperative respiratory complications (PRCs) increase hospitalization time, 30-day mortality and costs by up to $35 000. These outcomes measures have gained prominence as bundled payments have become more common. RECENT FINDINGS: Results of recent quantitative effectiveness studies and clinical trials provide a framework that helps develop center-specific treatment guidelines, tailored to minimize the risk of PRCs. The implementation of those protocols should be guided by a local, respected, and visible facilitator who leads proper implementation while inviting center-specific input from surgeons, anesthesiologists, and other perioperative stakeholders...
March 20, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
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