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Juvenile Diabetes type 1

Anouk Verwoerd, Nienke M Ter Haar, Sytze de Roock, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Debby Bogaert
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The microbiome has received increasing attention as a potential contributing factor to the development of a wide array of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Afzal Ahmad, Benedicta D'Souza, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, Anand Kumar, M Nandini, Vivian D'Souza, A M Poornima, Nutan Kamath
Alstrom's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathic condition affecting 1:10,00,000 children. It's a single gene disorder of ALMS1 on chromosome 2 with multisystem involvement with cone-rod retinal dystrophy causing juvenile blindness, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and sensorineural hearing loss. Till now only 800 patients with this disorder has been identified so far. In this report, we describe the case of a 9-year old male boy from south India. He had been initially referred for polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, generalized weakness from 1 weeks...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
Helen Clapin, Helen Phelan, Loren Bruns, Richard Sinnott, Peter Colman, Maria Craig, Timothy Jones
Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes...
September 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Sharon Levy, Fatma Dedeoglu, Jonathan M Gaffin, Katharine C Garvey, Elizabeth Harstad, Andrew MacGinnitie, Paul A Rufo, Qian Huang, Rosemary E Ziemnik, Lauren E Wisk, Elissa R Weitzman
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks...
2016: PloS One
P Komminoth
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGAS), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndromes (APS), are a heterogeneous group of rare, genetically caused diseases of the immune system which lead to inflammatory damage of various endocrine glands resulting in malfunctions. In addition, autoimmune diseases of non-endocrine organs may also be found. Early diagnosis of PGAS is often overlooked because of heterogeneous symptoms and the progressive occurrence of the individual diseases. The two most important forms of PGAS are the juvenile and adult types...
May 2016: Der Pathologe
Sabbir Khan, Gopabandhu Jena
Recent evidence highlighted that there is a link between type-1 diabetes mellitus and histone deacetylases (HDACs) due to their involvement in beta-cell differentiation, proliferation, and function. The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of valproic acid (VPA) on beta-cell proliferation, function, and apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and VPA was administered at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks by oral route...
September 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Eva Lévy, Marie-Claude Stolzenberg, Julie Bruneau, Sylvain Breton, Bénédicte Neven, Sylvie Sauvion, Mohammed Zarhrate, Patrick Nitschké, Alain Fischer, Aude Magérus-Chatinet, Pierre Quartier, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat
LRBA (lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein) deficiency associates immune deficiency, lymphoproliferation, and various organ-specific autoimmunity. To date, prevalent symptoms are autoimmune cytopenias and enteropathy, and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. In 2 siblings from a consanguineous family presenting with early onset polyautoimmunity, we presumed autosomal recessive inheritance and performed whole exome sequencing. We herein report the first case of early-onset, severe, chronic polyarthritis associated with LRBA deficiency...
July 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Jean Xavier, Nadège Bourvis, Antoine Tanet, Tatiana Ramos, Didier Perisse, Isabelle Marey, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli
OBJECTIVE: Wolfram syndrome (WS, MIM 222300) is a rare autosomal, recessive neurodegenerative disorder associated with mutations in WFS1, a gene that has been associated with bipolar disorder (BD). WS, characterized by the association of juvenile-onset diabetes mellitus (DM) and bilateral progressive optic atrophy (BPOA), encompasses several other clinical features, including cognitive impairments and psychiatric disorders. Detailed data on the psychiatric phenotype are still scarce, and how WS relates to BD is still unknown...
April 5, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Sampath Prahalad, Courtney E McCracken, Lori A Ponder, Sheila T Angeles-Han, Kelly A Rouster Stevens, Larry B Vogler, Carl D Langefeld, Susan D Thompson
BACKGROUND: Clinically distinct autoimmune phenotypes share genetic susceptibility factors. We investigated the prevalence of familial autoimmunity among subjects with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (cSLE) and juvenile dermatomyositis (JDM) in the CARRA Registry, the largest multicenter observational Registry for pediatric rheumatic disease. METHODS: Children with JIA, cSLE and JDM enrolled in the CARRA Registry between May 2010 and May 2012 were investigated for differences in proportion of subjects who had first-degree relatives (FDR) with autoimmunity...
2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
Mehmet M Uzel, Ufuk Elgin, Emine Sen, Melikşah Keskin, Elif Sağsak, Zehra Aycan
PURPOSE: To compare the anterior segment parameters of patients with juvenile diabetes mellitus (DM) and healthy children by optical biometry. METHODS: This prospective controlled clinical trial included 47 patients with juvenile type 1 DM and 50 age- and sex-matched healthy children. Central corneal thickness (CCT), aqueous depth (AD), lens thickness (LT), axial length, pupillary diameter (PD), K1 and K2 keratometry, and white to white distance (WTW) measurements were performed with optical biometry...
March 5, 2016: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Giuseppe Lopalco, Donato Rigante, Margherita Giannini, Mauro Galeazzi, Giovanni Lapadula, Florenzo Iannone, Luca Cantarini
Anakinra is a biologic response modifier that competitively antagonises the biologic effects of interleukin-1, the ancestor pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine produced by numerous cell types, found in excess in the serum, synovial fluid and any involved tissues of patients with many inflammatory diseases. The magnitude of the risk of different infections, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, associated with the large use of anakinra in many rheumatologic, metabolic or autoinflammatory disorders is still unknown...
May 2016: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
R L Cameron, S Ahmed, K G J Pollock
BACKGROUND: Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines are currently utilised globally in national immunisation programmes. While evidence from clinical trials and epidemiological studies suggest that the HPV vaccines are both effective and safe, concerns about the safety of the vaccine and scientifically unproven associations with severe adverse events following immunisation have led to dramatic decreases in vaccine uptake in Japan and acceptance issues in other countries. AIM: In Scotland, we utilised hospital admissions data to assess the impact of the HPV immunisation programme on the incidence of 60 diagnoses between 2004 and 2014 in both girls and boys; with boys acting as a comparator group...
April 2016: Internal Medicine Journal
M V Tejesvi, M Arvonen, S M Kangas, P L Keskitalo, A M Pirttilä, T J Karttunen, P Vähäsalo
Alterations in the intestinal microbial flora have been linked with autoimmune diseases. Our objective was to analyse the composition of the faecal microbiome of children with new-onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) compared to healthy controls, and to identify specific gut bacteria associated with JIA. Stool samples from patients were taken at the time of diagnosis of JIA. The microbiome profiles of samples of 30 children with JIA (mean age 6.2 years, 22 girls) were analysed with 16S region-based sequencing profiling and compared to the stool samples of healthy controls (n = 27, mean age 5...
March 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Ane Lilleøre Rom, Chun Sen Wu, Jørn Olsen, Damini Jawaheer, Merete Lund Hetland, Bent Ottesen, Lina Steinrud Mørch
OBJECTIVE: To estimate the influence of parental rheumatoid arthritis (RA) on child morbidity. DESIGN: Nationwide cohort study. SETTING: Individual linkage to nationwide Danish registries. PARTICIPANTS: All singletons born in Denmark during 1977-2008 (n=1 917 723) were followed for an average of 16 years. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted HRs for child morbidity; that is, 11 main diagnostic groups and specific autoimmune diseases within the International Classification of Diseases 8th and 10th versions...
October 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Raffaello Pompei
Diabetes is a common chronic disease due to an altered glucose metabolism, caused by the quantitative and/or qualitative dysfunction of the insulin hormone. Two types of diabetes are recognized: juvenile diabetes, or type 1, which has an autoimmune origin, and adult diabetes, or type 2 (DMT2), which covers 90-95 % of all diabetic patients.The causes of DMT2 are not yet clear: heredity, life style, nutrition, and environment are considered the main risk factors. Several viral infections, namely cytomegalovirus, coxsackie and other enteroviruses, rubella and hepatitis C virus, have been claimed to be associated with some forms of diabetes...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Rahul Krishnan, Nhat Truong, Marina Gerges, Miranda Stiewig, Nicholas Neel, KhueTu Ho-Nguyen, Christina Kummerfeld, Michael Alexander, Tom Spizzo, Michael Martin, Clarence E Foster, Edwin S Monuki, Jonathan R T Lakey
BACKGROUND: During the process of islet isolation, pancreatic enzymes are activated and released, adversely affecting islet survival and function. We hypothesize that the exocrine component of pancreases harvested from pre-weaned juvenile pigs is immature and hence pancreatic tissue from these donors is protected from injury during isolation and prolonged tissue culture. METHODS: Biopsy specimens taken from pancreases harvested from neonatal (5-10 days), pre-weaned juvenile (18-22 days), weaned juvenile (45-60 days), and young adult pigs (>90 days) were fixed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin...
September 2015: Xenotransplantation
Maria Faresjö
Stress is defined as a state of threatened homeostasis or disharmony that is counteracted by a complex repertoire of physiological and behavioral adaptive responses in order to establish homeostasis. Confronted with a stressful condition, the nervous and immune systems initiate a coping process to maintain homeostasis in the body. Psychological stress, recognized as a public health issue in children and young adults, may be one mechanism to induce and maintain autoimmunity in children. It is necessary to increase our understanding of how psychological stress can affect the immune system at a young age because autoimmune diseases, especially type 1 diabetes, are alarmingly common in children...
2015: Critical Reviews in Immunology
Marta Novotna, Stepan Podzimek, Zdenek Broukal, Erika Lencova, Jana Duskova
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disease of an autoimmune origin with early manifestation predominantly in the childhood. Its incidence has been rising in most European countries. Diabetes has been intensively studied by all branches of medicine. There were a number of studies investigating oral consequences of diabetes; however, unambiguous conclusions were drawn only for the relationship between diabetes and periodontal impairment. Many studies confirmed higher plaque levels and higher incidence of chronic gingivitis both in adults and in children with diabetes...
2015: Mediators of Inflammation
Daisuke Chujo, Thien-Son Nguyen, Emile Foucat, Derek Blankenship, Jacques Banchereau, Gerald T Nepom, Damien Chaussabel, Hideki Ueno
The breakdown of immune tolerance against islet antigens causes type 1 diabetes (T1D). The antigens associated with adult-onset T1D (AT1D) remain largely undefined. It is possible that AT1D patients display a unique type of CD4(+) T cells specific for a certain islet antigen. Here we analyzed the cytokine production profiles of CD4(+) helper T (Th) cells that are specific for three islet antigens; GAD65, preproinsulin, and IGRP in patients with AT1D, juvenile-onset T1D (JT1D), and age-, gender- and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched control adults...
December 2015: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
Nan-Kai Wang, Chi-Chun Lai, Jung-Pan Wang, Wei-Chi Wu, Laura Liu, Lung-Kun Yeh, Hsiao-Jung Tseng, Chee-Jen Chang, Fu-Sung Lo
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine risk factors associated with the development of diabetic retinopathy (DR) 10 yr after the diagnosis of juvenile-onset type 1 diabetes in Taiwan. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study of 153 individuals with type 1 diabetes for >10 yr duration (mean duration: 13.1 yr) included participants in the Chang Gung Juvenile Diabetes Eye Study. Risk factors assessed for association with DR included age, gender, age at onset and duration of diabetes, self-reported smoking, blood pressure, lipid profile, urinalysis, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), body mass index, spherical equivalent, and axial length of the eyeball...
September 2016: Pediatric Diabetes
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