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Juvenile Diabetes type 1

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926868/polycystic-ovary-syndrome-pcos-in-juvenile-and-adult-type-1-diabetes-in-a-german-austrian-cohort
#1
Christina Reinauer, Esther Bollow, Elke Fröhlich-Reiterer, Katharina Laubner, Dominik Bergis, Christof Schöfl, Hans-Peter Kempe, Michael Hummel, Pia Hennes, Katja Gollisch, Holger Haberland, Nicolin Datz, Thomas Meissner, Reinhard W Holl
Context While an association between PCOS and type 2 diabetes is well established, to date there have been few data on clinical care of type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients with PCOS. Objective The aim of our study was to characterize T1D patients with the comorbidity of PCOS within the DPV cohort with regard to diabetes phenotype, therapy and metabolic control. Design and Setting Clinical data from the prospective German/Austrian DPV cohort on patients with T1D and documented PCOS (n=76) were compared to female T1D controls (n=32,566) in reproductive age...
September 19, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923465/continuous-glucose-monitoring-in-pregnant-women-with-type-1-diabetes-conceptt-a-multicentre-international-randomised-controlled-trial
#2
Denice S Feig, Lois E Donovan, Rosa Corcoy, Kellie E Murphy, Stephanie A Amiel, Katharine F Hunt, Elisabeth Asztalos, Jon F R Barrett, J Johanna Sanchez, Alberto de Leiva, Moshe Hod, Lois Jovanovic, Erin Keely, Ruth McManus, Eileen K Hutton, Claire L Meek, Zoe A Stewart, Tim Wysocki, Robert O'Brien, Katrina Ruedy, Craig Kollman, George Tomlinson, Helen R Murphy
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women with type 1 diabetes are a high-risk population who are recommended to strive for optimal glucose control, but neonatal outcomes attributed to maternal hyperglycaemia remain suboptimal. Our aim was to examine the effectiveness of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on maternal glucose control and obstetric and neonatal health outcomes. METHODS: In this multicentre, open-label, randomised controlled trial, we recruited women aged 18-40 years with type 1 diabetes for a minimum of 12 months who were receiving intensive insulin therapy...
September 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28920919/age-dependent-human-%C3%AE-cell-proliferation-induced-by-glucagon-like-peptide-1-and-calcineurin-signaling
#3
Chunhua Dai, Yan Hang, Alena Shostak, Greg Poffenberger, Nathaniel Hart, Nripesh Prasad, Neil Phillips, Shawn E Levy, Dale L Greiner, Leonard D Shultz, Rita Bottino, Seung K Kim, Alvin C Powers
Inadequate pancreatic β cell function underlies type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Strategies to expand functional cells have focused on discovering and controlling mechanisms that limit the proliferation of human β cells. Here, we developed an engraftment strategy to examine age-associated human islet cell replication competence and reveal mechanisms underlying age-dependent decline of β cell proliferation in human islets. We found that exendin-4 (Ex-4), an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R), stimulates human β cell proliferation in juvenile but not adult islets...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819917/polyglandular-autoimmune-syndromes
#4
REVIEW
G J Kahaly, L Frommer
BACKGROUND: In recent years, scientific knowledge pertaining to the rare ORPHAN polyglandular autoimmune syndrome (registered code ORPHA 282196) has accumulated. OBJECTIVE: To offer current demographic, clinical, serological and immunogenic data on PAS. METHODS: Review of the pertinent and current literature. RESULTS: Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PAS) are multifactorial diseases with at least two coexisting autoimmune-mediated endocrinopathies...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680339/exceptional-manifestation-of-polyautoimmunity-in-a-very-young-girl-a-case-report
#5
Agnieszka Mroczkowska-Juchkiewicz, Jacek Postępski, Edyta Olesińska, Paulina Krawiec, Elżbieta Pac-Kożuchowska
Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one autoimmune disease in a single patient. The exact pathogenic mechanisms responsible for the coexistence of distinct autoimmune diseases within an individual have not been clearly explained. We report a case of a very young girl with the extremely rare co-existence of four distinct autoimmune diseases i.e. juvenile idiopathic arthritis, type 1 diabetes mellitus, coeliac disease and autoimmune hepatitis, recognized based on validated international classification criteria...
2017: Central-European Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488272/pathophysiological-characteristics-of-preproinsulin-specific-cd8-t-cells-in-subjects-with-juvenile-onset-and-adult-onset-type-1-diabetes-a-1-year-follow-up-study
#6
Mahinder Paul, Darshan Badal, Neenu Jacob, Devi Dayal, Rakesh Kumar, Anil Bhansali, Sanjay Kumar Bhadada, Naresh Sachdeva
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Among the beta-cell associated antigens, preproinsulin (PPI) has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D). PPI-specific autoreactive CD8+ T cells emerge early during beta-cell destruction and persist in peripheral circulation during diabetes progression. However, the influence of insulin therapy on phenotype of autoreactive CD8+ T cells in T1D including, juvenile-onset T1D (JOT1D), and adult-onset T1D (AOT1D) is not yet known. METHODS: We followed the time course of PPI-specific CD8+ T cells in JOT1D and AOT1D subjects that achieved glycemic control after 1 year of insulin therapy, using major histocompatibility complex-I (MHC-I) dextramers by flow cytometry...
May 10, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458655/diabetes-and-insulin-injection-modalities-effects-on-hepatic-and-hippocampal-expression-of-11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-type-1-in-juvenile-diabetic-male-rats
#7
Véronica Rougeon, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Nicole Barthe, Marie-Christine Beauvieux, Jean-Christophe Helbling, Véronique Pallet, Nathalie Marissal-Arvy, Pascal Barat
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis is often encountered in diabetes, leading to several clinical complications. Our recent results showing an elevated tetrahydrocortisol/tetrahydrocorticosterone ratio in morning urine of diabetic children compared to that of controls suggest an increased nocturnal activity of 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in the former. QUESTION: We hypothesized that these observations could be explained by a reduced inhibition of hepatic 11β-HSD1 activity by exogenous insulin owing to its subcutaneous (SC) administration and absence of first hepatic passage...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428167/developing-a-patient-centered-mhealth-app-a-tool-for-adolescents-with-type-1-diabetes-and-their-parents
#8
Bree E Holtz, Katharine M Murray, Denise D Hershey, Julie K Dunneback, Shelia R Cotten, Amanda J Holmstrom, Arpita Vyas, Molly K Kaiser, Michael A Wood
BACKGROUND: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) afflicts approximately 154,000 people under 20 years of age. Three-quarters of adolescents are not achieving glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) targets, which leads to negative health outcomes. Mobile health (mHealth), the use of technology in health, has been used successfully to improve health in many chronic conditions, including diabetes. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to use patient-centered research methods to inform and improve the design and functionality of our T1D app, MyT1DHero, and to provide insight for others who are designing a health app for adolescents and parents...
April 19, 2017: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378047/-confocal-microscope-examination-of-the-corneal-nerve-plexus-as-biomarker-for-systemic-diseases-view-from-the-corneal-nerve-plexus-on-diabetes-mellitus-disease
#9
S Baltrusch
It is estimated that approximately 50% of patients with diabetes mellitus suffer from polyneuropathy, which is frequently diagnosed too late. Consequently, the question arises whether imaging procedures of the eye, namely optical coherence tomography of the retina and confocal microscopy of the cornea are suitable for the diagnostics and follow-up control of neurodegenerative changes in patients with diabetes mellitus. De Clerck and co-workers could demonstrate this by a systematic review of studies. Of these studies 11 were further evaluated with respect to corneal confocal microscopy...
July 2017: Der Ophthalmologe: Zeitschrift der Deutschen Ophthalmologischen Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333965/worm-infestations-and-development-of-autoimmunity-in-children-the-abis-study
#10
Johnny Ludvigsson, Michael P Jones, Åshild Faresjö
Worm infestations influence the immune system and may therefore decrease the risk for autoimmune diseases. The aim of the study was to determine whether children who have developed autoimmune disease were less likely to have had worm infestations in childhood. The ABIS-study is a prospective population-based cohort study of children born in southeast Sweden 1997/99. 17.055 children participated. As of June 2014 116 individuals had developed Type 1 diabetes, 181 celiac disease, and 53 Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28132032/effect-of-salacia-reticulata-w-and-clitoria-ternatea-l-on-the-cognitive-and-behavioral-changes-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-young-diabetic-rats
#11
R Rajashree, Rajani Patil, Sanjiva D Khlokute, Shivaprasad S Goudar
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) of juvenile onset affects both the peripheral and central nervous systems (CNS). However, central effects are less documented and studied than peripheral deficits. Currently, the only feasible treatment available for type 1 DM (T1DM) is insulin which has its own limitations. Hence, an alternative therapy, especially a newer herbal formulation is very much the need of the time. The present study aimed to determine the effects of the alcoholic extracts of roots of the Salacia reticulata W...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Basic and Clinical Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941197/-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases-and-accompanying-comorbidities
#12
REVIEW
Maria Majdan
Immune-Mediated Inflammatory Diseases (IMIDs) are a group of unrelated conditions that share common inflammatory pathways with immune dysregulation and imbalance in inflammatory cytokines. The aetiology of these conditions is unknown. IMIDs encompassing disorders as diverse as asthma, type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) Crohn disease and ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriasis (Ps), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), uveitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)...
2016: Wiadomości Lekarskie: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818684/no-contribution-of-gad-65-and-ia-2-autoantibodies-around-time-of-diagnosis-to-the-increasing-incidence-of-juvenile-type-1-diabetes-a-9-year-nationwide-danish-study
#13
Steffen U Thorsen, Christian B Pipper, Henrik B Mortensen, Flemming Pociot, Jesper Johannesen, Jannet Svensson
Aims. A new perspective on autoantibodies as pivotal players in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has recently emerged. Our key objective was to examine whether increased levels of autoantibodies against the β-cell autoantigens glutamic acid decarboxylase (isoform 65) (GADA) and insulinoma associated antigen-2A (IA-2A) mirrored the 3.4% annual increase in incidence of T1D. Methods. From the Danish Childhood Diabetes Register, we randomly selected 500 patients and 500 siblings for GADA and IA-2A analysis (1997 through 2005)...
2016: International Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650128/the-human-microbiome-and-juvenile-idiopathic-arthritis
#14
REVIEW
Anouk Verwoerd, Nienke M Ter Haar, Sytze de Roock, Sebastiaan J Vastert, Debby Bogaert
Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in childhood. The pathogenesis of JIA is thought to be the result of a combination of host genetic and environmental triggers. However, the precise factors that determine one's susceptibility to JIA remain to be unravelled. The microbiome has received increasing attention as a potential contributing factor to the development of a wide array of immune-mediated diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease, type 1 diabetes and rheumatoid arthritis...
September 20, 2016: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605748/metabolic-syndrome-in-childhood-rare-case-of-alstrom-syndrome-with-blindness
#15
Afzal Ahmad, Benedicta D'Souza, Charu Yadav, Ashish Agarwal, Anand Kumar, M Nandini, Vivian D'Souza, A M Poornima, Nutan Kamath
Alstrom's syndrome (AS) is a rare autosomal recessive ciliopathic condition affecting 1:10,00,000 children. It's a single gene disorder of ALMS1 on chromosome 2 with multisystem involvement with cone-rod retinal dystrophy causing juvenile blindness, obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 Diabetes mellitus, hypogonadism and sensorineural hearing loss. Till now only 800 patients with this disorder has been identified so far. In this report, we describe the case of a 9-year old male boy from south India. He had been initially referred for polyphagia, polyuria, polydipsia, generalized weakness from 1 weeks...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry: IJCB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27257171/australasian-diabetes-data-network-building-a-collaborative-resource
#16
Helen Clapin, Helen Phelan, Loren Bruns, Richard Sinnott, Peter Colman, Maria Craig, Timothy Jones
Australasia is a region with a high incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D). There are approximately 140 000 individuals with T1D, and of these 10 000 are children. Although the region covers a huge geographical area, most children with T1D are managed by tertiary academic centers in the major capital cities. Local longitudinal data collection has been in place for several decades in most of these centers, however ongoing national data collection had not been attempted. In 2012, with funding from the Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation (JDRF) Australian Type 1 Clinical Research Network, a national collaboration was formed to provide ongoing longitudinal collection of T1D patient characteristics and outcomes...
September 2016: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227975/a-screening-tool-for-assessing-alcohol-use-risk-among-medically-vulnerable-youth
#17
Sharon Levy, Fatma Dedeoglu, Jonathan M Gaffin, Katharine C Garvey, Elizabeth Harstad, Andrew MacGinnitie, Paul A Rufo, Qian Huang, Rosemary E Ziemnik, Lauren E Wisk, Elissa R Weitzman
BACKGROUND: In an effort to reduce barriers to screening for alcohol use in pediatric primary care, the National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse (NIAAA) developed a two-question Youth Alcohol Screening Tool derived from population-based survey data. It is unknown whether this screening tool, designed for use with general populations, accurately identifies risk among youth with chronic medical conditions (YCMC). This growing population, which comprises nearly one in four youth in the US, faces a unique constellation of drinking-related risks...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27099223/-polyglandular-autoimmune-syndromes-an-overview
#18
REVIEW
P Komminoth
Polyglandular autoimmune syndromes (PGAS), also known as autoimmune polyendocrinopathy syndromes (APS), are a heterogeneous group of rare, genetically caused diseases of the immune system which lead to inflammatory damage of various endocrine glands resulting in malfunctions. In addition, autoimmune diseases of non-endocrine organs may also be found. Early diagnosis of PGAS is often overlooked because of heterogeneous symptoms and the progressive occurrence of the individual diseases. The two most important forms of PGAS are the juvenile and adult types...
May 2016: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27079868/valproic-acid-improves-glucose-homeostasis-by-increasing-beta-cell-proliferation-function-and-reducing-its-apoptosis-through-hdac-inhibition-in-juvenile-diabetic-rat
#19
Sabbir Khan, Gopabandhu Jena
Recent evidence highlighted that there is a link between type-1 diabetes mellitus and histone deacetylases (HDACs) due to their involvement in beta-cell differentiation, proliferation, and function. The present study aimed to investigate the protective role of valproic acid (VPA) on beta-cell proliferation, function, and apoptosis in juvenile diabetic rat. Diabetes was induced in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats by streptozotocin (75 mg/kg, i.p.) and VPA was administered at the doses of 150 and 300 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks by oral route...
September 2016: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27057999/lrba-deficiency-with-autoimmunity-and-early-onset-chronic-erosive-polyarthritis
#20
Eva Lévy, Marie-Claude Stolzenberg, Julie Bruneau, Sylvain Breton, Bénédicte Neven, Sylvie Sauvion, Mohammed Zarhrate, Patrick Nitschké, Alain Fischer, Aude Magérus-Chatinet, Pierre Quartier, Frédéric Rieux-Laucat
LRBA (lipopolysaccharide-responsive and beige-like anchor protein) deficiency associates immune deficiency, lymphoproliferation, and various organ-specific autoimmunity. To date, prevalent symptoms are autoimmune cytopenias and enteropathy, and lymphocytic interstitial lung disease. In 2 siblings from a consanguineous family presenting with early onset polyautoimmunity, we presumed autosomal recessive inheritance and performed whole exome sequencing. We herein report the first case of early-onset, severe, chronic polyarthritis associated with LRBA deficiency...
July 2016: Clinical Immunology: the Official Journal of the Clinical Immunology Society
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