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cognitive bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761057/the-performance-of-cleaner-wrasse-labroides-dimidiatus-in-a-reversal-learning-task-varies-across-experimental-paradigms
#1
Simon Gingins, Fanny Marcadier, Sharon Wismer, Océane Krattinger, Fausto Quattrini, Redouan Bshary, Sandra A Binning
Testing performance in controlled laboratory experiments is a powerful tool for understanding the extent and evolution of cognitive abilities in non-human animals. However, cognitive testing is prone to a number of potential biases, which, if unnoticed or unaccounted for, may affect the conclusions drawn. We examined whether slight modifications to the experimental procedure and apparatus used in a spatial task and reversal learning task affected performance outcomes in the bluestreak cleaner wrasse, Labroides dimidiatus (hereafter "cleaners")...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733406/the-development-of-drink-less-an-alcohol-reduction-smartphone-app-for-excessive-drinkers
#2
Claire Garnett, David Crane, Robert West, Jamie Brown, Susan Michie
Excessive alcohol consumption poses a serious problem for public health. Digital behavior change interventions have the potential to help users reduce their drinking. In accordance with Open Science principles, this paper describes the development of a smartphone app to help individuals who drink excessively to reduce their alcohol consumption. Following the UK Medical Research Council's guidance and the Multiphase Optimization Strategy, development consisted of two phases: (i) selection of intervention components and (ii) design and development work to implement the chosen components into modules to be evaluated further for inclusion in the app...
May 4, 2018: Translational Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729676/attentional-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-disorder-what-do-patients-think-and-why-does-it-matter
#3
Jennie M Kuckertz, Casey A Schofield, Elise M Clerkin, Jennifer Primack, Hannah Boettcher, Risa B Weisberg, Nader Amir, Courtney Beard
BACKGROUND: In the past decade, a great deal of research has examined the efficacy and mechanisms of attentional bias modification (ABM), a computerized cognitive training intervention for anxiety and other disorders. However, little research has examined how anxious patients perceive ABM, and it is unclear to what extent perceptions of ABM influence outcome. AIMS: To examine patient perceptions of ABM across two studies, using a mixed methods approach. METHOD: In the first study, participants completed a traditional ABM program and received a hand-out with minimal information about the purpose of the task...
May 6, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709580/increased-conflict-induced-slowing-but-no-differences-in-conflict-induced-positive-or-negative-prediction-error-learning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#4
Matthew A Albrecht, James A Waltz, James F Cavanagh, Michael J Frank, James M Gold
People with schizophrenia (PSZ) often fail to pursue rewarding activities despite largely intact in-the-moment hedonic experiences. Deficits in effort-based decision making in PSZ may be related to enhanced effects of cost or reduced reward, i.e., through the amplification of negative prediction errors or by dampened positive prediction errors (here, positive and negative prediction errors refer to outcomes that are better or worse than expected respectively). We administered a modified Simon task to people with schizophrenia (PSZ; N=46) and healthy controls (N=32)...
April 27, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699842/effects-of-appraisal-training-on-responses-to-a-distressing-autobiographical-event
#5
Marcella L Woud, Armin Zlomuzica, Jan C Cwik, Jürgen Margraf, Lorika Shkreli, Simon E Blackwell, Thomas E Gladwin, Thomas Ehring
Dysfunctional appraisals are a key factor suggested to be involved in the development and maintenance of PTSD. Research has shown that experimental induction of a positive or negative appraisal style following a laboratory stressor affects analogue posttraumatic stress symptoms. This supports a causal role of appraisal in the development of traumatic stress symptoms and the therapeutic promise of modifying appraisals to reduce PTSD symptoms. The present study aimed to extend previous findings by investigating the effects of experimentally induced appraisals on reactions to a naturally occurring analogue trauma and by examining effects on both explicit and implicit appraisals...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680962/cognitive-bias-modification-reduces-social-anxiety-symptoms-in-socially-anxious-adolescents-with-mild-intellectual-disabilities-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Anke M Klein, Elske Salemink, Eva de Hullu, Esther Houtkamp, Marlissa Papa, Mariët van der Molen
The goal of this study was to examine the effects of Cognitive Bias Modification training for Interpretation (CBM-I) in socially anxious adolescents with Mild Intellectual Disabilities (MID). A total of 69 socially anxious adolescents with MID were randomly assigned to either a positive or a neutral control-CMB-I-training. Training included five sessions in a 3-week period, and each session consisted of 40 training items. Adolescents in the positive training group showed a significant reduction in negative interpretation bias on the two interpretation bias tasks after training compared to adolescents in the control-training group...
April 21, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679914/a-multi-site-proof-of-concept-investigation-of-computerized-approach-avoidance-training-in-adolescent-cannabis-users
#7
Joanna Jacobus, Charles T Taylor, Kevin M Gray, Lindsay R Meredith, Anna M Porter, Irene Li, Norma Castro, Lindsay M Squeglia
BACKGROUND: Few effective treatment options exist for cannabis-using youth. This pilot study aimed to test Approach-Avoidance Training to reduce cannabis use with non-treatment-seeking adolescents. METHODS: Eighty cannabis-using non-treatment-seeking adolescents (average age 19) were recruited from San Diego, California and Charleston, South Carolina, and randomized to complete either six sessions of Cannabis Approach-Avoidance Task Training (CAAT-training) designed to reduce automatic approach biases for cannabis cues or CAAT-sham training...
April 11, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656487/experimental-research-requires-valid-and-sensitive-measures-of-alcohol-intake-and-this-is-a-step-in-the-right-direction-commentary-on-leeman-et-al-2018
#8
Matt Field, Andrew Jones, Inge Kersbergen, Eric Robinson
The paper by Leeman and colleagues (2018) makes an important contribution to the broader literature on cognitive bias modification (CBM) for alcohol use disorders. In a balanced discussion, the authors speculate on possible explanations for their null findings, including failure of CBM to change cognitive biases, participant characteristics, and the suitability and sensitivity of the alcohol self-administration paradigm that was the primary outcome measure. The former explanations have been the subject of recent discussion, often heated (see Cristea, Kok, & Cuijpers, 2015, 2017, 2018; Grafton et al...
April 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587807/acceptance-and-commitment-therapy-preceded-by-an-experimental-attention-bias-modification-procedure-in-recurrent-depression-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Tom Østergaard, Tobias Lundgren, Robert Zettle, Rune Jonassen, Catherine J Harmer, Tore C Stiles, Nils Inge Landrø, Vegard Øksendal Haaland
BACKGROUND: This project studies the effect of group-based Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) following Attention Bias Modification (ABM) on residual symptoms in recurrent depression. ACT is a cognitive-behavioral intervention combining acceptance and mindfulness processes with commitment and behavior-change processes. ACT enjoys modest empirical support in treating depression and has also shown promising results in secondary prevention of depression. The experimental cognitive bias modification (ABM) procedure has been shown to reduce surrogate markers of depression vulnerability in patients in remission from depression...
March 27, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579115/metabolic-syndrome-and-cognitive-decline-in-the-elderly-a-systematic-review
#10
Naima Assuncao, Felipe Kenji Sudo, Claudia Drummond, Fernanda Guarino de Felice, Paulo Mattos
BACKGROUND: Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) refers to a cluster of metabolic disturbances which is associated with increased risk for vascular and degenerative conditions in general population. Although the relationship between vascular risk factors and dementia is undisputable, additional hazard for cognitive decline in older population with concurrent metabolic disorders still waits to be demonstrated. The present review aims to analyze data on MetS and risk for cognitive decline in elderly persons...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567546/body-image-related-negative-interpretation-bias-in-anorexia-nervosa
#11
Timo Brockmeyer, Alisa Anderle, Hagen Schmidt, Stephanie Febry, Wally Wünsch-Leiteritz, Andreas Leiteritz, Hans-Christoph Friederich
A distorted body image and pronounced body dissatisfaction are hallmarks of anorexia nervosa (AN) that typically result in dietary restraint and compensatory behaviours. Cognitive biases such as negative interpretation bias are considered key maintaining factors of these maladaptive cognitions and behaviours. However, little attention has been paid to empirical tests whether negative interpretation bias exists in AN and to what degree it is associated with symptom severity. Participants in the present study were 40 women with AN and 40 healthy women with no history of an eating disorder...
March 14, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557763/processing-confusing-procedures-in-the-recent-re-analysis-of-a-cognitive-bias-modification-meta-analysis
#12
Anne-Will Kruijt, Per Carlbring
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554617/intervention-related-reductions-in-perceived-burdensomeness-mediates-incidence-of-suicidal-thoughts
#13
Nicholas P Allan, Joseph W Boffa, Amanda M Raines, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: Interventions aimed at preventing suicidal thoughts target people at risk for suicide based on risk factor elevations. Based on the interpersonal psychological theory of suicide, elevated perceived burdensomeness (PB) and thwarted belongingness (TB) are potential targets for prevention of the occurrence of suicidal thoughts. PB is the belief that one is a burden to others. TB is the perceived lack of social connectedness. METHODS: This study was designed to examine the effects of a preventative intervention targeting PB and TB on the 6-month incidence of suicide ideation in a sample of 138 people (M = 38...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29544647/removed-do-impulsive-individuals-respond-better-to-cognitive-bias-modification-treatment-for-alcohol-dependence
#14
P Staiger, V Manning, D Leung, K Hall, A Verdejo-Garcia, L Hughes
This has been removed as it was published accidentally. The authors listed wish it to be known that this article was not presented at the conference for which this volume is the proceedings. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy.
April 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540103/effect-of-cognitive-bias-modification-memory-on-depressive-symptoms-and-autobiographical-memory-bias-two-independent-studies-in-high-ruminating-and-dysphoric-samples
#15
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530259/modification-of-hostile-interpretation-bias-in-depression-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530107/effects-of-an-appearance-focused-interpretation-training-intervention-on-eating-disorder-symptoms
#17
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that computerized interpretation bias modification (IBM) techniques may be useful for modifying thoughts and behaviours relevant to eating pathology; however, little is known about the utility of IBM for decreasing specific eating disorder (ED) symptoms (e.g. bulimia, drive for thinness). AIMS: The current study sought to further examine the utility of IBM for ED symptoms via secondary analyses of an examination of IBM for individuals with elevated body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms (see Summers and Cougle, 2016), as these disorders are both characterized by threat interpretation biases of ambiguous appearance-related information...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496657/augmenting-outpatient-alcohol-treatment-as-usual-with-online-alcohol-avoidance-training-protocol-for-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#18
Marleen Kj Bratti-van der Werf, Melissa C Laurens, Marloes G Postel, Marcel E Pieterse, Somaya Ben Allouch, Reinout W Wiers, Ernst T Bohlmeijer, Elske Salemink
BACKGROUND: Recent theoretical models emphasize the role of impulsive processes in alcohol addiction, which can be retrained with computerized Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) training. In this study, the focus is on action tendencies that are activated relatively automatically. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of online CBM Alcohol Avoidance Training using an adapted Approach-Avoidance Task as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) in an outpatient treatment setting...
March 1, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29490893/empirical-evidence-for-the-outcomes-of-therapeutic-video-games-for-adolescents-with-anxiety-disorders-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Steven Barnes, Julie Prescott
BACKGROUND: Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers...
February 28, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471922/approach-bias-modification-for-cannabis-use-disorder-a-proof-of-principle-study
#20
Brian J Sherman, Nathaniel L Baker, Lindsay M Squeglia, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: More effective treatments for cannabis use disorder (CUD) are needed. Evidence suggests that biases in cognitive processing of drug-related stimuli are central to the development and maintenance of addiction. The current study examined the feasibility and effect of a novel intervention - approach bias modification (ApBM) - on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled proof-of-principle laboratory experiment investigated the effect of a four-session computerized ApBM training protocol on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity in non-treatment seeking adults age 18-65 with CUD (N = 33)...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
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