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cognitive bias modification

Faith Orchard, Adela Apetroaia, Kiri Clarke, Cathy Creswell
Negative (or a lack of positive) interpretation of ambiguous social situations has been hypothesised to maintain social anxiety disorder in children, yet there is currently limited evidence to support this. Cognitive Bias Modification of Interpretation (CBM-I) provides a means to explore the causal influence of interpretation bias on social anxiety disorder, and has been associated with a reduction in social anxiety symptoms in adults. Seven to twelve year old children with a diagnosis of social anxiety disorder completed CBM-I training, adapted from materials designed for socially anxious children in the community, or no training...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Janna N Vrijsen, Paula T Hertel, Eni S Becker
Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) can yield clinically relevant results. Only few studies have directly manipulated memory bias, which is prominent in depression. In a new approach to CBM, we sought to simulate or oppose ruminative processes by training the retrieval of negative or positive words. Participants studied positive and negative word pairs (Swahili cues with Dutch translations). In the positive and negative conditions, each of the three study trials was followed by a cued-recall test of training-congruent translations; a no-practice condition merely studied the pairs...
2016: Cognitive Therapy and Research
Gina R A Ferrari, Eni S Becker, Filip Smit, Mike Rinck, Jan Spijker
BACKGROUND: Despite the range of available, evidence-based treatment options for Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), the rather low response and remission rates suggest that treatment is not optimal, yet. Computerized attention bias modification (ABM) trainings may have the potential to be provided as cost-effective intervention as adjunct to usual care (UC), by speeding up recovery and bringing more patients into remission. Research suggests, that a selective attention for negative information contributes to development and maintenance of depression and that reducing this negative bias might be of therapeutic value...
November 3, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Mike Rinck, Johannes Lindenmeyer, Reinout W Wiers
Two studies showed an improvement in clinical outcomes after alcohol approach bias retraining, a form of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM). We investigated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance effects of CBM. TDCS is a neuromodulation technique that can increase neuroplasticity and has previously been found to reduce craving. One hundred alcohol-dependent inpatients (91 used for analysis) were randomized into three experimental groups in a double-blind parallel design. The experimental group received four sessions of CBM while receiving 2 mA of anodal tDCS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)...
October 27, 2016: Addiction Biology
Miki Higaonna, Maki Enobi, Shizuka Nakamura
AIM: To develop and test interrater reliability of an evidence-based fall risk assessment tool for nurses and to investigate how nurses perceived the clarity and usability of the tool. METHODS: In phase 1, an evidence-based fall risk assessment tool was developed based on a literature review and expert discussion. The finalized tool assessed 11 risk factors and comprised 23 items. In phase 2, reliability testing was done. Two nurses out of a possible 125 participating nurses independently assessed each participating patient on admission with the assessment tool...
October 7, 2016: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
Timo Brockmeyer, Ulrike Schmidt, Hans-Christoph Friederich
BACKGROUND: The core symptoms of bulimia nervosa (BN) and binge eating disorder (BED) are recurrent episodes of binge eating. Despite negative psychological and physical consequences, BN/BED patients show uncontrollable approach tendencies towards food. This cognitive bias occurs at an early stage of information processing. Cognitive bias modification (CBM) directly targets such biases and has been shown to be effective in treating several mental disorders. In alcohol addiction, automatic action tendencies towards alcohol cues and relapse rates were successfully reduced by a specific form of CBM, termed approach bias modification...
September 26, 2016: Trials
Alicia M Hughes, Rola Gordon, Trudie Chalder, Colette R Hirsch, Rona Moss-Morris
BACKGROUND: There is an abundance of research into cognitive processing biases in clinical psychology including the potential for applying cognitive bias modification techniques to assess the causal role of biases in maintaining anxiety and depression. Within the health psychology field, there is burgeoning interest in applying these experimental methods to assess potential cognitive biases in relation to physical health conditions and health-related behaviours. Experimental research in these areas could inform theoretical development by enabling measurement of implicit cognitive processes that may underlie unhelpful illness beliefs and help drive health-related behaviours...
November 2016: British Journal of Health Psychology
Agathe Ribéreau-Gayon, Carolyn Rando, Yves Schuliar, Stéphane Chapenoire, Enrico R Crema, Julien Claes, Bernard Seret, Vincent Maleret, Ruth M Morgan
Accurate determination of the origin and timing of trauma is key in medicolegal investigations when the cause and manner of death are unknown. However, distinction between criminal and accidental perimortem trauma and postmortem modifications can be challenging when facing unidentified trauma. Postmortem examination of the immersed victims of the Yemenia airplane crash (Comoros, 2009) demonstrated the challenges in diagnosing extensive unusual circular lesions found on the corpses. The objective of this study was to identify the origin and timing of occurrence (peri- or postmortem) of the lesions...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Sven Haller, Pavel Falkovskiy, Reto Meuli, Jean-Philippe Thiran, Gunnar Krueger, Karl-Olof Lovblad, Tobias Kober, Alexis Roche, Bénédicte Marechal
INTRODUCTION: Automated brain MRI morphometry, including hippocampal volumetry for Alzheimer disease, is increasingly recognized as a biomarker. Consequently, a rapidly increasing number of software tools have become available. We tested whether modifications of simple MR protocol parameters typically used in clinical routine systematically bias automated brain MRI segmentation results. METHODS: The study was approved by the local ethical committee and included 20 consecutive patients (13 females, mean age 75...
November 2016: Neuroradiology
J O Bowler, L Hoppitt, J Illingworth, T Dalgleish, M Ononaiye, G Perez-Olivas, B Mackintosh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: It is well established that attention bias and interpretation bias each have a key role in the development and continuation of anxiety. How the biases may interact with one another in anxiety is, however, poorly understood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, the present study examined whether training a more positive interpretation bias or attention bias resulted in transfer of effects to the untrained cognitive domain. Differences in anxiety reactivity to a real-world stressor were also assessed...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Anxiety disorders are common and difficult to treat. Some cognitive models of anxiety propose that attention bias to threat causes and maintains anxiety. This view led to the development of a computer-delivered treatment: attention bias modification (ABM) which predominantly trains attention avoidance of threat. However, meta-analyses indicate disappointing effectiveness of ABM-threat-avoidance training in reducing anxiety. This article considers how ABM may be improved, based on a review of key ideas from models of anxiety, attention and cognitive control...
August 7, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Ioana A Cristea, Robin N Kok, Pim Cuijpers
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) interventions, presumably targeting automatic processes, are considered particularly promising for addictions. We conducted a meta-analysis examining randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of CBM for substance addiction outcomes. METHODS: Studies were identified through systematic searches in bibliographical databases. We included RCTs of CBM interventions, alone or in combination with other treatments, for any type of addiction...
2016: PloS One
Xianmin Gong, Hongrui Xiao, Dahua Wang
False recognition results from the interplay of multiple cognitive processes, including verbatim memory, gist memory, phantom recollection, and response bias. In the current study, we modified the simplified Conjoint Recognition (CR) paradigm to investigate the way in which the valence of emotional stimuli affects the cognitive process and behavioral outcome of false recognition. In Study 1, we examined the applicability of the modification to the simplified CR paradigm and model. Twenty-six undergraduate students (13 females, aged 21...
November 2016: Cognition
Marie Louise Reinholdt-Dunne, Sarah Ege
Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is considered the treatment of choice for paediatric anxiety disorders, yet there remains substantial room for improvement in treatment outcomes. This paper examines whether theory and research into the role of information-processing in the underlying psychopathology of paediatric anxiety disorders indicate possibilities for improving treatment response. Using a critical review of recent theoretical, empirical and academic literature, the paper examines the role of information-processing biases in paediatric anxiety disorders, the extent to which CBT targets information-processing biases, and possibilities for improving treatment response...
September 1, 2016: Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review
E L de Voogd, R W Wiers, P J M Prins, P J de Jong, W J Boendermaker, R J Zwitser, E Salemink
Based on information processing models of anxiety and depression, we investigated the efficacy of multiple sessions of online attentional bias modification training to reduce attentional bias and symptoms of anxiety and depression, and to increase emotional resilience in youth. Unselected adolescents (N = 340, age: 11-18 years) were randomly allocated to eight sessions of a dot-probe, or a visual search-based attentional training, or one of two corresponding placebo control conditions. Cognitive and emotional measures were assessed pre- and post-training; emotional outcome measures also at three, six and twelve months follow-up...
August 24, 2016: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Tess E den Uyl, Thomas E Gladwin, Reinout W Wiers
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) can be used to retrain automatic approach tendencies for alcohol. We investigated whether changing cortical excitability with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could enhance CBM effects in hazardous drinkers. We also studied the underlying mechanisms by including behavioral (craving, implicit associations, approach tendencies) and electrophysiological (event-related potentials) measurements. METHODS: The analytical sample consisted of 78 hazardous drinkers (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test >8) randomly assigned to 4 conditions in a 2-by-2 factorial design (control/active CBM and sham/active tDCS)...
October 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Naomi Kakoschke, Eva Kemps, Marika Tiggemann
Recent theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence have suggested that biased cognitive processing is an important contributor to unhealthy behaviour. Approach bias modification is a novel intervention in which approach biases for appetitive cues are modified. The current review of the literature aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of modifying approach bias for harmful consumption behaviours, including alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and unhealthy eating. Relevant publications were identified through a search of four electronic databases (PsycINFO, Google Scholar, ScienceDirect and Scopus) that were conducted between October and December 2015...
August 10, 2016: Addictive Behaviors
Iman Elfeddali, Hein de Vries, Catherine Bolman, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers
OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of a multiple-sessions Web-based Attentional Bias Modification (ABM) self-help intervention in 434 smokers who made a quit-attempt. METHOD: Respondents were randomized to receive 6 sessions of ABM- or placebo-training in a period of 2 weeks. Smoking-related cognitions (e.g., self-efficacy and intention to quit) and cognitive biases (i.e., attentional and approach bias) for smoking-cues were assessed before training (pretest). Primary outcome-variable was continued abstinence, 6 months after baseline...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Jason A Oliver, Kade G Jentink, David J Drobes, David E Evans
OBJECTIVE: There has been growing interest in the role that implicit processing of drug cues can play in motivating drug use behavior. However, the extent to which drug cue processing biases relate to the processing biases exhibited to other types of evocative stimuli is largely unknown. The goal of the present study was to determine how the implicit cognitive processing of smoking cues relates to the processing of affective cues using a novel paradigm. METHOD: Smokers (n = 50) and nonsmokers (n = 38) completed a picture-viewing task, in which participants were presented with a series of smoking, pleasant, unpleasant, and neutral images while engaging in a distractor task designed to direct controlled resources away from conscious processing of image content...
August 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Victoria Manning, Petra K Staiger, Kate Hall, Joshua B B Garfield, Gabriella Flaks, Daniel Leung, Laura K Hughes, Jarrad A G Lum, Dan I Lubman, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
BACKGROUND: Relapse is common in alcohol-dependent individuals and can be triggered by alcohol-related cues in the environment. It has been suggested that these individuals develop cognitive biases, in which cues automatically capture attention and elicit an approach action tendency that promotes alcohol seeking. The study aim was to examine whether cognitive bias modification (CBM) training targeting approach bias could be delivered during residential alcohol detoxification and improve treatment outcomes...
September 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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