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cognitive bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345581/premorbid-and-illness-related-social-difficulties-in-eating-disorders-an-overview-of-the-literature-and-treatment-developments
#1
Valentina Cardi, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330008/electrophysiological-brain-indices-of-risk-behavior-modification-induced-by-contingent-feedback
#2
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29308221/cognitive-bias-modification-for-facial-interpretation-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-transfer-to-self-report-and-cognitive-measures-in-a-healthy-sample
#3
S E Peters, J Lumsden, O H Peh, I S Penton-Voak, M R Munafò, O J Robinson
Cognitive bias modification is a potential low-intensity intervention for mood disorders, but previous studies have shown mixed success. This study explored whether facial interpretation bias modification (FIBM), a similar paradigm designed to shift emotional interpretation (and/or perception) of faces would transfer to: (i) self-reported symptoms and (ii) a battery of cognitive tasks. In a preregistered, double-blind randomized controlled trial, healthy participants received eight online sessions of FIBM (N = 52) or eight sham sessions (N = 52)...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258631/attention-bias-modification-augments-cognitive-behavioral-group-therapy-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Amit Lazarov, Sofi Marom, Naomi Yahalom, Daniel S Pine, Haggai Hermesh, Yair Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. METHODS: Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo)...
December 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179140/modifying-a-negative-interpretation-bias-for-ambiguous-social-scenarios-that-depict-the-risk-of-rejection-in-women-with-anorexia-nervosa
#5
Robert Turton, Valentina Cardi, Janet Treasure, Colette R Hirsch
BACKGROUND: A heightened sensitivity to social rejection might contribute towards the interpersonal difficulties and symptoms that characterise Anorexia Nervosa (AN). This paper examines the effect of Cognitive Bias Modification for Interpretation biases (CBM-I) training on a negative interpretation bias for ambiguous social scenarios that involve the risk of rejection and eating behaviour. METHOD: Women with AN received a single session of CBM-I training to develop a more benign interpretational style or a control condition (which included 50:50 negative and benign resolutions)...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161610/experimental-modification-of-dysfunctional-interpretations-in-individuals-with-contamination-concerns
#6
Sara L Conley, Kevin D Wu
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Dysfunctional interpretations of intrusive thoughts are implicated in the etiology and maintenance of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). Cognitive Bias Modification training for interpretations (CBM-I) has successfully modified dysfunctional interpretations in the context of several disorders, including OCD. However, research regarding CBM-I's impact on symptom reduction and behavior is mixed, which limits its clinical application. Further, support for the specific efficacy of CBM-I in individuals with contamination concerns is limited...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#7
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127945/attention-and-interpretation-bias-modification-treatment-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-efficacy-and-synergy
#8
Reut Naim, Yogev Kivity, Yair Bar-Haim, Jonathan D Huppert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) and cognitive bias modification of interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other, their combination, and with a combined control condition has not been studied. We examined their relative and combined efficacy compared to control conditions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: Ninety-five adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD), were randomly allocated to 4 groups: ABMT + CBM-I control (hereafter ABMT; n = 23), CBM-I + ABMT control (hereafter CBM-I; n = 24), combined ABMT + CBM-I (n = 23), and combined control (n = 25)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092836/invited-commentary-on-%C3%A2-confusing-procedures-with-process-in-cognitive-bias-modification-research-%C3%A2
#9
Ioana A Cristea, Robin N Kok, Pim Cuijpers
The notion that cognitive bias modification should be appraised exclusively on the basis of trials where its postulated mechanisms were successfully changed starkly contradicts the standards of evidence-based psychotherapy. In the laboratory or as a treatment, cognitive bias modification cannot continue to eschew the rigorous scrutiny applied to other interventions.
November 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092835/confusing-procedures-with-process-when-appraising-the-impact-of-cognitive-bias-modification-on-emotional-vulnerability-%C3%A2
#10
Ben Grafton, Colin MacLeod, Daniel Rudaizky, Emily A Holmes, Elske Salemink, Elaine Fox, Lies Notebaert
If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072159/a-question-of-control-examining-the-role-of-control-conditions-in-experimental-psychopathology-using-the-example-of-cognitive-bias-modification-research
#11
Simon E Blackwell, Marcella L Woud, Colin MacLeod
While control conditions are vitally important in research, selecting the optimal control condition can be challenging. Problems are likely to arise when the choice of control condition is not tightly guided by the specific question that a given study aims to address. Such problems have become increasingly apparent in experimental psychopathology research investigating the experimental modification of cognitive biases, particularly as the focus of this research has shifted from theoretical questions concerning mechanistic aspects of the association between cognitive bias and emotional vulnerability, to questions that instead concern the clinical efficacy of 'cognitive bias modification' (CBM) procedures...
October 26, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052837/research-review-cognitive-bias-modification-of-interpretations-in-youth-and-its-effect-on-anxiety-a-meta-analysis
#13
Georgina Krebs, Victoria Pile, Sean Grant, Michelle Degli Esposti, Paul Montgomery, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) is effective in altering interpretation biases and reducing anxiety in adults. Less is known about the impact of CBM-I in young people, but some recent findings, including a meta-analysis of combined cognitive bias modification of interpretation and attention techniques, have cast doubt on its clinical utility. Given the current debate, this meta-analysis sought to establish the independent effects of CBM-I on interpretations biases and anxiety in youth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048185/impulsivity-and-approach-tendencies-towards-cigarette-stimuli-implications-for-cigarette-smoking-and-cessation-behaviors-among-youth
#14
Hanna Weckler, Grace Kong, Helle Larsen, Janna Cousijn, Reinout W Wiers, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Impulsivity is associated with smoking, difficulties quitting smoking, and approach tendencies toward cigarette stimuli among adolescents. We examined the effects of impulsivity on (a) the association between approach tendencies and adolescents' smoking status and (b) the effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a smoking cessation intervention focused on changing approach tendencies, among adolescent smokers. We conducted a secondary analysis of evidence from 2 previous published studies: Study 1: a cross-sectional study comparing impulsivity and approach tendencies between adolescent smokers (n = 67) and nonsmokers (n = 58); Study 2: a treatment study that randomized 60 adolescent smokers to receive either CBM or sham training...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#15
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031084/moving-towards-the-benign-automatic-interpretation-bias-modification-in-dysphoria
#16
Alexandra H Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A Rottenberg
Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training...
September 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#17
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985112/minimally-sufficient-conditions-for-the-evolution-of-social-learning-and-the-emergence-of-non-genetic-evolutionary-systems
#18
Miguel Gonzalez, Richard Watson, Seth Bullock
Social learning, defined as the imitation of behaviors performed by others, is recognized as a distinctive characteristic in humans and several other animal species. Previous work has claimed that the evolutionary fixation of social learning requires decision-making cognitive abilities that result in transmission bias (e.g., discriminatory imitation) and/or guided variation (e.g., adaptive modification of behaviors through individual learning). Here, we present and analyze a simple agent-based model that demonstrates that the transition from instinctive actuators (i...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981848/social-cognition-psychometric-evaluation-results-of-the-final-validation-study
#19
Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
Social cognition is increasingly recognized as an important treatment target in schizophrenia; however, the dearth of well-validated measures that are suitable for use in clinical trials remains a significant limitation. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study addresses this need by systematically evaluating the psychometric properties of promising measures. In this final phase of SCOPE, eight new or modified tasks were evaluated. Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 218) and healthy controls (n = 154) completed the battery at baseline and 2-4 weeks later across three sites...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974265/effectiveness-of-two-web-based-cognitive-bias-modification-interventions-targeting-approach-and-attentional-bias-in-gambling-problems-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#20
Marilisa Boffo, Ronny Willemen, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers, Geert Dom
BACKGROUND: Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments...
October 3, 2017: Trials
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