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cognitive bias modification

P Staiger, V Manning, D Leung, K Hall, A Verdejo-Garcia, L Hughes
This has been removed as it was published accidentally. The authors listed wish it to be known that this article was not presented at the conference for which this volume is the proceedings. The full Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal can be found at
April 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
Janna N Vrijsen, Justin Dainer-Best, Sara M Witcraft, Santiago Papini, Paula Hertel, Christopher G Beevers, Eni S Becker, Jasper A J Smits
Memory bias is a risk factor for depression. In two independent studies, the efficacy of one CBM-Memory session on negative memory bias and depressive symptoms was tested in vulnerable samples. We compared positive to neutral (control) CBM-Memory trainings in highly-ruminating individuals (N = 101) and individuals with elevated depressive symptoms (N = 100). In both studies, participants studied positive, neutral, and negative Swahili words paired with their translations. In five study-test blocks, they were then prompted to retrieve either only the positive or neutral translations...
March 15, 2018: Cognition & Emotion
Hillary L Smith, Kirsten H Dillon, Jesse R Cougle
Interpretation Bias Modification (IBM) is gaining attention in the literature as an intervention that alters cognitive biases and reduces associated symptoms. Forty, primarily college-aged, non-treatment-seeking adults with major depressive disorder (MDD) were randomly assigned to receive either IBM targeting hostile interpretation bias (IBM-H) or a healthy video control (HVC) condition. Compared to those in HVC, participants in IBM-H reported more benign interpretations and fewer hostile interpretations at posttreatment...
March 2018: Behavior Therapy
Berta J Summers, Jesse R Cougle
BACKGROUND: Previous research suggests that computerized interpretation bias modification (IBM) techniques may be useful for modifying thoughts and behaviours relevant to eating pathology; however, little is known about the utility of IBM for decreasing specific eating disorder (ED) symptoms (e.g. bulimia, drive for thinness). AIMS: The current study sought to further examine the utility of IBM for ED symptoms via secondary analyses of an examination of IBM for individuals with elevated body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptoms (see Summers and Cougle, 2016), as these disorders are both characterized by threat interpretation biases of ambiguous appearance-related information...
March 13, 2018: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
Marleen Kj Bratti-van der Werf, Melissa C Laurens, Marloes G Postel, Marcel E Pieterse, Somaya Ben Allouch, Reinout W Wiers, Ernst T Bohlmeijer, Elske Salemink
BACKGROUND: Recent theoretical models emphasize the role of impulsive processes in alcohol addiction, which can be retrained with computerized Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM) training. In this study, the focus is on action tendencies that are activated relatively automatically. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to examine the effectiveness of online CBM Alcohol Avoidance Training using an adapted Approach-Avoidance Task as a supplement to treatment as usual (TAU) in an outpatient treatment setting...
March 1, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Steven Barnes, Julie Prescott
BACKGROUND: Extant evidence suggests that the proportion of adolescents suffering from anxiety disorders (ADs) has increased by up to 70% since the mid-1980s, with experience of anxiety at this stage associated with significant negative short- and long-term life outcomes. The existing therapeutic interventions (eg, cognitive behavioral therapy, CBT; attention bias modification, ABM) have proven to have clinically measurable benefits in reducing anxiety, but their efficacy is often compromised by social and practical barriers...
February 28, 2018: JMIR Serious Games
Brian J Sherman, Nathaniel L Baker, Lindsay M Squeglia, Aimee L McRae-Clark
BACKGROUND: More effective treatments for cannabis use disorder (CUD) are needed. Evidence suggests that biases in cognitive processing of drug-related stimuli are central to the development and maintenance of addiction. The current study examined the feasibility and effect of a novel intervention - approach bias modification (ApBM) - on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity. METHODS: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled proof-of-principle laboratory experiment investigated the effect of a four-session computerized ApBM training protocol on cannabis approach bias and cue-reactivity in non-treatment seeking adults age 18-65 with CUD (N = 33)...
April 2018: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
Marcella L Woud, Jan C Cwik, Simon E Blackwell, Birgit Kleim, Emily A Holmes, Dirk Adolph, Hui Zhang, Jürgen Margraf
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is characterised by dysfunctional appraisals of the trauma and its consequences including one's own symptoms. Experimental studies have shown that Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal (CBM-App) training can reduce dysfunctional interpretations and analog trauma symptoms. One important question is how to enhance the effects of CBM-App. Following work suggesting that sleep has beneficial effects on consolidation processes and can thus improve learning, the present study investigated whether a brief period of sleep (i...
2018: PloS One
Marcella L Woud, Simon E Blackwell, Susann Steudte-Schmiedgen, Michael Browning, Emily A Holmes, Catherine J Harmer, Jürgen Margraf, Andrea Reinecke
The partial N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor agonist d-cycloserine may enhance psychological therapies. However, its exact mechanism of action is still being investigated. Cognitive bias modification techniques allow isolation of cognitive processes and thus investigation of how they may be affected by d-cycloserine. We used a cognitive bias modification paradigm targeting appraisals of a stressful event, Cognitive Bias Modification-Appraisal, to investigate whether d-cycloserine enhanced the modification of appraisal, and whether it caused greater reduction in indices of psychopathology...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Laura Forcano, Fernanda Mata, Rafael de la Torre, Antonio Verdejo-Garcia
We systematically reviewed research on cognitive training and neuromodulation interventions for reducing food craving/intake, unhealthy diet and weight, and discussed their mechanisms of action. We reviewed 50 studies involving six cognitive trainings: Approach and Attentional Bias Modification, Implementation Intentions, Response Inhibition, Episodic Future Thinking and Working Memory; and four neuromodulation approaches: Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS), transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) and Neurofeedback...
February 9, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Ian H Stanley, Melanie A Hom, Thomas E Joiner
Help-seeking stigma is a potent barrier to the utilization of mental health services. This study aimed to determine if, compared to a psychoeducation condition, individuals randomized to a novel cognitive bias modification intervention for help-seeking stigma (CBM-HS) demonstrate greater reductions in help-seeking stigma, as well as increases in readiness to change and help-seeking behaviors. Participants included 32 undergraduates with a DSM-5 psychiatric disorder who denied past-year mental health treatment...
February 2, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Aaron M Norr, Nicholas P Allan, Greg M Reger, Norman B Schmidt
BACKGROUND: The suicide rate in the Unites States continues to increase suggesting novel intervention strategies are needed. Anxiety sensitivity (AS), or a fear of anxiety-related sensations, is a suicide risk factor that can be ameliorated via a single-session, computerized intervention called the Cognitive Anxiety Sensitivity Treatment (CAST). Results from randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that reductions in suicidal ideation (SI) due to CAST were mediated by AS reductions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Gina R A Ferrari, Martin Möbius, Eni S Becker, J Spijker, Mike Rinck
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The general positivity training, a Cognitive Bias Modification procedure modifying individuals' approach-avoidance tendencies to positively and negatively valenced pictures by means of a joystick task, has been proven effective in attenuating stress reactivity in dysphoric students. The present study explored which training component (pull positive pictures, push negative pictures, or both) is the active one in changing action tendencies and stress responses...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Karin Mogg, Brendan P Bradley
Research in experimental psychopathology and cognitive theories of anxiety highlight threat-related attention biases (ABs) and underpin the development of a computer-delivered treatment for anxiety disorders: attention-bias modification (ABM) training. Variable effects of ABM training on anxiety and ABs generate conflicting research recommendations, novel ABM training procedures, and theoretical controversy. This article summarises an updated cognitive-motivational framework, integrating proposals from cognitive models of anxiety and attention, as well as evidence of ABs...
February 2, 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Susannah Pick, John D C Mellers, Laura H Goldstein
This study sought to extend knowledge about the previously reported preconscious attentional bias (AB) for facial emotion in patients with dissociative seizures (DS) by exploring whether the finding could be replicated, while controlling for concurrent anxiety, depression, and potentially relevant cognitive impairments. Patients diagnosed with DS (n=38) were compared with healthy controls (n=43) on a pictorial emotional Stroop test, in which backwardly masked emotional faces (angry, happy, neutral) were processed implicitly...
February 2, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Maud Grol, Anne K Schwenzfeier, Johannes Stricker, Charlotte Booth, Alexander Temple-McCune, Nazanin Derakshan, Colette Hirsch, Eni Becker, Elaine Fox
Worry refers to the experience of uncontrollable negative thoughts. Cognitive models suggest that the combination of negative information processing biases along with diminished attentional control contribute to worry. In the current study we investigate whether promoting a) adaptive interpretation bias and b) efficient deployment of attentional control would influence the tendency to worry. Worry-prone individuals (n = 60) received either active cognitive bias modification for interpretation bias (CBM-I) combined with sham working memory training (WMT), adaptive WMT combined with sham CBM-I, or sham WMT combined with sham CBM-I...
January 20, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Valentina Cardi, Kate Tchanturia, Janet Treasure
Social difficulties in eating disorders can manifest as predisposing traits and premorbid difficulties, and/or as consequences of the illness. Objective The aim of this paper is to briefly review the evidence for social problems in people with eating disorders and to consider the literature on treatments that target these features. Method A narrative review of the literature was conducted. Results People with eating disorders often manifest traits, such as shyness, increased tendency to submissiveness and social comparison, and problems with peer relationships before illness onset...
January 17, 2018: Current Neuropharmacology
Alberto Megías, Miguel Angel Torres, Andrés Catena, Antonio Cándido, Antonio Maldonado
The main aim of this research was to study the effects of response feedback on risk behavior and the neural and cognitive mechanisms involved, as a function of the feedback contingency. Sixty drivers were randomly assigned to one of three feedback groups: contingent, non-contingent and no feedback. The participants' task consisted of braking or not when confronted with a set of risky driving situations, while their electroencephalographic activity was continuously recorded. We observed that contingent feedback, as opposed to non-contingent feedback, promoted changes in the response bias towards safer decisions...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Psychophysiology
S E Peters, J Lumsden, O H Peh, I S Penton-Voak, M R Munafò, O J Robinson
Cognitive bias modification is a potential low-intensity intervention for mood disorders, but previous studies have shown mixed success. This study explored whether facial interpretation bias modification (FIBM), a similar paradigm designed to shift emotional interpretation (and/or perception) of faces would transfer to: (i) self-reported symptoms and (ii) a battery of cognitive tasks. In a preregistered, double-blind randomized controlled trial, healthy participants received eight online sessions of FIBM (N = 52) or eight sham sessions (N = 52)...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Amit Lazarov, Sofi Marom, Naomi Yahalom, Daniel S Pine, Haggai Hermesh, Yair Bar-Haim
BACKGROUND: Cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) is a first-line treatment for social anxiety disorder (SAD). However, since many patients remain symptomatic post-treatment, there is a need for augmenting procedures. This randomized controlled trial (RCT) examined the potential augmentation effect of attention bias modification (ABM) for CBGT. METHODS: Fifty patients with SAD from three therapy groups were randomized to receive an 18-week standard CBGT with either ABM designed to shift attention away from threat (CBGT + ABM), or a placebo protocol not designed to modify threat-related attention (CBGT + placebo)...
December 20, 2017: Psychological Medicine
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