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cognitive bias modification

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150296/structural-mri-based-measures-of-neuroplasticity-in-an-extended-amygdala-network-as-a-target-for-attention-bias-modification-treatment-outcome
#1
Jacob Aday, Joshua M Carlson
Increased attentional bias to threat has been identified as a causal mechanism in the development of anxiety. As such, attention bias modification (ABM) was conceived as a treatment option where anxiety is alleviated through a computerized cognitive training regimen that reduces an individual's attentional bias to threat. Although ABM appears to be a promising treatment option for anxiety, the mechanism of action by which the treatment is effective is unknown. We hypothesize that effective ABM treatment is associated with neuroplasticity-related structural changes in an extended amygdala - prefrontal cortex network that can be detected with standard T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127945/attention-and-interpretation-bias-modification-treatment-for-social-anxiety-disorder-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-efficacy-and-synergy
#2
Reut Naim, Yogev Kivity, Yair Bar-Haim, Jonathan D Huppert
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention bias modification treatment (ABMT) and cognitive bias modification of interpretation (CBM-I) both have demonstrated efficacy in alleviating social anxiety, but how they compare with each other, their combination, and with a combined control condition has not been studied. We examined their relative and combined efficacy compared to control conditions in a randomized controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: Ninety-five adults diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD), were randomly allocated to 4 groups: ABMT + CBM-I control (hereafter ABMT; n = 23), CBM-I + ABMT control (hereafter CBM-I; n = 24), combined ABMT + CBM-I (n = 23), and combined control (n = 25)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092836/invited-commentary-on-%C3%A2-confusing-procedures-with-process-in-cognitive-bias-modification-research-%C3%A2
#3
Ioana A Cristea, Robin N Kok, Pim Cuijpers
The notion that cognitive bias modification should be appraised exclusively on the basis of trials where its postulated mechanisms were successfully changed starkly contradicts the standards of evidence-based psychotherapy. In the laboratory or as a treatment, cognitive bias modification cannot continue to eschew the rigorous scrutiny applied to other interventions.
November 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092835/confusing-procedures-with-process-when-appraising-the-impact-of-cognitive-bias-modification-on-emotional-vulnerability-%C3%A2
#4
Ben Grafton, Colin MacLeod, Daniel Rudaizky, Emily A Holmes, Elske Salemink, Elaine Fox, Lies Notebaert
If meta-analysis is to provide valuable answers, then it is critical to ensure clarity about the questions being asked. Here, we distinguish two important questions concerning cognitive bias modification research that are not differentiated in the meta-analysis recently published by Cristea et al (2015) in this journal: (1) do the varying procedures that investigators have employed with the intention of modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability?; and (2) does the process of successfully modifying cognitive bias, on average, significantly impact emotional vulnerability? We reanalyse the data from Cristea et al to address this latter question...
November 2017: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072159/a-question-of-control-examining-the-role-of-control-conditions-in-experimental-psychopathology-using-the-example-of-cognitive-bias-modification-research
#5
Simon E Blackwell, Marcella L Woud, Colin MacLeod
While control conditions are vitally important in research, selecting the optimal control condition can be challenging. Problems are likely to arise when the choice of control condition is not tightly guided by the specific question that a given study aims to address. Such problems have become increasingly apparent in experimental psychopathology research investigating the experimental modification of cognitive biases, particularly as the focus of this research has shifted from theoretical questions concerning mechanistic aspects of the association between cognitive bias and emotional vulnerability, to questions that instead concern the clinical efficacy of 'cognitive bias modification' (CBM) procedures...
October 26, 2017: Spanish Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061602/cognitive-bias-modification-for-social-anxiety-in-adults-who-stutter-a-feasibility-study-of-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Jan McAllister, Sally Gascoine, Amy Carroll, Kate Humby, Mary Kingston, Lee Shepstone, Helen Risebro, Bundy Mackintosh, Tammy Davidson Thompson, Jo Hodgekins
OBJECTIVE: To determine the feasibility and acceptability of a computerised treatment for social anxiety disorder for adults who stutter including identification of recruitment, retention and completion rates, large cost drivers and selection of most appropriate outcome measure(s) to inform the design of a future definitive trial. DESIGN: Two-group parallel design (treatment vs placebo), double-blinded feasibility study. PARTICIPANTS: 31 adults who stutter...
October 22, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052837/research-review-cognitive-bias-modification-of-interpretations-in-youth-and-its-effect-on-anxiety-a-meta-analysis
#7
Georgina Krebs, Victoria Pile, Sean Grant, Michelle Degli Esposti, Paul Montgomery, Jennifer Y F Lau
BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence suggests that cognitive bias modification of interpretations (CBM-I) is effective in altering interpretation biases and reducing anxiety in adults. Less is known about the impact of CBM-I in young people, but some recent findings, including a meta-analysis of combined cognitive bias modification of interpretation and attention techniques, have cast doubt on its clinical utility. Given the current debate, this meta-analysis sought to establish the independent effects of CBM-I on interpretations biases and anxiety in youth...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048185/impulsivity-and-approach-tendencies-towards-cigarette-stimuli-implications-for-cigarette-smoking-and-cessation-behaviors-among-youth
#8
Hanna Weckler, Grace Kong, Helle Larsen, Janna Cousijn, Reinout W Wiers, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin
Impulsivity is associated with smoking, difficulties quitting smoking, and approach tendencies toward cigarette stimuli among adolescents. We examined the effects of impulsivity on (a) the association between approach tendencies and adolescents' smoking status and (b) the effectiveness of Cognitive Bias Modification (CBM), a smoking cessation intervention focused on changing approach tendencies, among adolescent smokers. We conducted a secondary analysis of evidence from 2 previous published studies: Study 1: a cross-sectional study comparing impulsivity and approach tendencies between adolescent smokers (n = 67) and nonsmokers (n = 58); Study 2: a treatment study that randomized 60 adolescent smokers to receive either CBM or sham training...
October 2017: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034489/modification-of-automatic-alcohol-approach-tendencies-in-alcohol-dependent-patients-with-mild-or-major-neurocognitive-disorder
#9
Anke Loijen, Mike Rinck, Serge J W Walvoort, Roy P C Kessels, Eni S Becker, Jos I M Egger
BACKGROUND: To examine the applicability of an alcohol-avoidance training procedure in patients with alcohol dependence and alcohol-induced neurocognitive disorders, we trained two groups that differed in the degree of cognitive impairment: One group fulfilled the DSM-5 criteria for Alcohol-Induced Mild Neurocognitive Disorder, and one group was diagnosed with Korsakoff's syndrome (Alcohol-Induced Major Neurocognitive Disorder, Confabulatory/Amnesic subtype; DSM-5). The intervention is assumed to match the preserved cognitive capacity for implicit learning in both groups...
October 16, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031084/moving-towards-the-benign-automatic-interpretation-bias-modification-in-dysphoria
#10
Alexandra H Cowden Hindash, Jonathan A Rottenberg
Automatic cognitive biases are important to theories of depression and reducing such biases may contribute to therapeutic gains. The present study examined (1) whether it was possible to reduce automatic interpretation biases (AIB) in a single session among dysphoric subjects and (2) whether the effects of modifying AIB generalized to other measures of cognition and emotion. 76 dysphoric students completed a modified semantic association paradigm in which they were randomized to receive active or random-feedback-based training...
September 21, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992377/a-single-session-of-attentional-bias-modification-reduces-alcohol-craving-and-implicit-measures-of-alcohol-bias-in-young-adult-drinkers
#11
Peter Luehring-Jones, Courtney Louis, Tracy A Dennis-Tiwary, Joel Erblich
BACKGROUND: Attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques for reducing problematic alcohol consumption hold promise as highly-accessible and cost-effective treatment approaches. A growing body of literature has examined ABM as a potentially efficacious intervention for reducing drinking and drinking-related cognitions in alcohol-dependent individuals as well as those at-risk of developing problem drinking habits. METHODS: The present study tested the effectiveness of a single session of visual probe-based ABM training in a cohort of 60 non-treatment-seeking young adult drinkers, with a focus on examining mechanisms underlying training efficacy...
October 9, 2017: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985112/minimally-sufficient-conditions-for-the-evolution-of-social-learning-and-the-emergence-of-non-genetic-evolutionary-systems
#12
Miguel Gonzalez, Richard Watson, Seth Bullock
Social learning, defined as the imitation of behaviors performed by others, is recognized as a distinctive characteristic in humans and several other animal species. Previous work has claimed that the evolutionary fixation of social learning requires decision-making cognitive abilities that result in transmission bias (e.g., discriminatory imitation) and/or guided variation (e.g., adaptive modification of behaviors through individual learning). Here, we present and analyze a simple agent-based model that demonstrates that the transition from instinctive actuators (i...
2017: Artificial Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981848/social-cognition-psychometric-evaluation-results-of-the-final-validation-study
#13
Amy E Pinkham, Philip D Harvey, David L Penn
Social cognition is increasingly recognized as an important treatment target in schizophrenia; however, the dearth of well-validated measures that are suitable for use in clinical trials remains a significant limitation. The Social Cognition Psychometric Evaluation (SCOPE) study addresses this need by systematically evaluating the psychometric properties of promising measures. In this final phase of SCOPE, eight new or modified tasks were evaluated. Stable outpatients with schizophrenia (n = 218) and healthy controls (n = 154) completed the battery at baseline and 2-4 weeks later across three sites...
August 31, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974265/effectiveness-of-two-web-based-cognitive-bias-modification-interventions-targeting-approach-and-attentional-bias-in-gambling-problems-study-protocol-for-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Marilisa Boffo, Ronny Willemen, Thomas Pronk, Reinout W Wiers, Geert Dom
BACKGROUND: Disordered gamblers have phenotypical and pathological similarities to those with substance use disorders (SUD), including exaggerated automatic cognitive processing of motivationally salient gambling cues in the environment (i.e., attentional and approach bias). Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a family of computerised interventions that have proved effective in successfully re-training these automatic cognitive biases in SUD. CBM interventions can, in principle, be administered online, thus showing potential of being a low-cost, low-threshold addition to conventional treatments...
October 3, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917715/attentional-control-predicts-change-in-bias-in-response-to-attentional-bias-modification
#15
Julian Basanovic, Lies Notebaert, Ben Grafton, Colette R Hirsch, Patrick J F Clarke
Procedures that effectively modify attentional bias to negative information have been examined for their potential to be a source of therapeutic change in emotional vulnerability. However, the degree to which these procedures modify attentional bias is subject to individual differences. This generates the need to understand the mechanisms that influence attentional bias change across individuals. The present study investigated the association between individual differences in attentional control and individual differences in the magnitude of bias change evoked by an attentional bias modification procedure...
September 11, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855880/effects-of-cognitive-bias-modification-training-via-smartphones
#16
Ranming Yang, Lixia Cui, Feng Li, Jing Xiao, Qin Zhang, Tian P S Oei
Background and Objectives: Negative cognitive biases have been linked to anxiety and mood problems. Accumulated data from laboratory studies show that positive and negative interpretation styles with accompanying changes in mood can be induced through cognitive bias modification (CBM) paradigms. Despite the therapeutic potential of positive training effects, few studies have explored training paradigms administered via smartphones. The current study aimed to compare the effectiveness of three different types of training programmes (cognitive bias modification-attention, CBM-A; cognitive bias modification-interpretation, CBM-I; attention and interpretation modification, AIM) administered via smart-phones by using a control condition (CC)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843575/can-less-be-more-open-trial-of-a-stepped-care-approach-for-child-and-adolescent-anxiety-disorders
#17
Jeremy W Pettit, Yasmin Rey, Michele Bechor, Raquel Melendez, Daniella Vaclavik, Victor Buitron, Yair Bar-Haim, Daniel S Pine, Wendy K Silverman
This open trial presents a stepped care treatment approach for youths with anxiety disorders. In Step 1, 124 youths (65 girls; M age=9.7years) participated in a low intensity computer administered attention bias modification (ABM) protocol. Statistically significant reductions in youth anxiety severity were found following Step 1. Youths and parents were then given the option to not continue with further treatment or step up to a higher intensity cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol (Step 2). Of 112 youths who completed Step 1, 67 (59...
October 2017: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28826327/positive-memory-enhancement-training-for-individuals-with-major-depressive-disorder
#18
Kimberly A Arditte Hall, Rudi De Raedt, Kiara R Timpano, Jutta Joormann
When in a negative mood state, individuals with major depressive disorder (MDD) may have difficulties recalling positive autobiographical memories in a manner that repairs that negative mood. Using cognitive bias modification techniques, investigators have successfully altered different aspects of cognition among individuals with MDD. However, little has been done to investigate the modification of positive autobiographical memory recall. This study examined the impact of a novel positive memory enhancement training (PMET) on the memories and subjective affective experiences of individuals with MDD (N = 27)...
August 22, 2017: Cognitive Behaviour Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759865/cognitive-bias-modification-a-review-of-meta-analyses
#19
REVIEW
Emma B Jones, Louise Sharpe
BACKGROUND: Cognitive bias modification (CBM) is a novel, but controversial intervention with considerable divergence amongst conclusions in individual studies and reviews. This systematic review synthesizes meta-analyses of CBM to determine whether CBM is effective, and what parameters most reliably evoke the process of CBM. METHODS: A systematic literature search resulted in twelve meta-analyses in total, from which the published effect sizes were extracted. RESULTS: Attention bias modification (ABM) shifted targeted biases in adults (ES = 0...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752017/attention-bias-modification-abm-review-of-effects-of-multisession-abm-training-on-anxiety-and-threat-related-attention-in-high-anxious-individuals
#20
REVIEW
Karin Mogg, Allison M Waters, Brendan P Bradley
Attention bias modification (ABM) aims to reduce anxiety by reducing attention bias (AB) to threat; however, effects on anxiety and AB are variable. This review examines 34 studies assessing effects of multisession-ABM on both anxiety and AB in high-anxious individuals. Methods include ABM-threat-avoidance (promoting attention-orienting away from threat), ABM-positive-search (promoting explicit, goal-directed attention-search for positive/nonthreat targets among negative/threat distractors), and comparison conditions (e...
July 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
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