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Sudden infant death syndrome

Isabel Friedmann, Elias M Dahdouh, Perlyne Kugler, Gracia Mimran, Jacques Balayla
OBJECTIVE: Public Health initiatives, such as the "Safe to Sleep" campaign, have traditionally targeted infants' risk factors for the prevention of Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). However, controversy remains regarding maternal and obstetrical risk factors for SIDS. In our study, we sought out to determine both modifiable and non-modifiable obstetrical and maternal risk factors associated with SIDS. METHODS: We conducted a population-based cohort study using the CDC's Linked Birth-Infant Death data from the United States for the year 2010...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Fiona Brigid McDonald, Kumaran Chandrasekharan, Richard J A Wilson, Shabih U Hasan
Maternal cigarette smoke (CS) exposure exhibits a strong epidemiological association with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome but other environmental stressors, including infection, hyperthermia and hypoxia have also been postulated as important risk factors. This study examines if maternal CS exposure causes maladaptations within homeostatic control networks by influencing the response to lipopolysaccharide, heat stress and/or hypoxia in neonatal rats. Pregnant dams were exposed to CS or parallel sham treatments daily for the length of gestation...
October 12, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Kamal Ali, Thomas Rosser, Ravindra Bhat, Kim Wolff, Simon Hannam, Gerrard F Rafferty, Anne Greenough
OBJECTIVES: To determine at the peak age for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) the ventilatory response to hypoxia of infants whose mothers substance misused in pregnancy (SM infants), or smoked during pregnancy (S mothers) and controls whose mothers neither substance misused or smoked. In addition, we compared the ventilatory response to hypoxia during the neonatal period and peak age of SIDS. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: Infants of S or SM mothers compared to control infants would have a poorer ventilatory response to hypoxia at the peak age of SIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Pulmonology
Giulia Ottaviani
Crib death, or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), is the most frequent form of death in the first year of life, striking one baby in every 1,700-2,000. Yet, despite advances in maternal-infant care, sudden intrauterine unexplained/unexpected death syndrome (SIUDS) has a sixfold to eightfold greater incidence than that of SIDS. Frequent congenital abnormalities, likely morphological substrates for SIDS-SIUDS, were detected, mainly represented by alterations of the cardiac conduction system, such as accessory pathways and abnormal resorptive degeneration, and hypoplasia/agenesis of the vital brainstem structures...
2016: Frontiers in Pediatrics
M B F Powell, C R Ahlers-Schmidt, M Engel, B T Bloom
OBJECTIVE: To define the impact of care standardization on caffeine and cardiorespiratory monitoring at neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge. STUDY DESIGN: Electronic records were abstracted for infants aged 24-36 weeks gestation with birth weights appropriate for gestational age. Infants who died, transferred prior to discharge, had major pulmonary anomalies, required a home monitor for mechanical ventilation or had a family history of sudden infant death syndrome were excluded...
September 29, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
Kristina Schwender, Hannah Holtkötter, Kristina Schulze Johann, Alina Glaub, Marianne Schürenkamp, Ulla Sibbing, Sabrina Banken, Mechtild Vennemann, Heidi Pfeiffer, Marielle Vennemann
PURPOSE: Smoking during pregnancy has long been known as an important risk factor for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). However, the precise relationship between the smoking behavior of the mother and SIDS still remains unclear. In this study, the influence of prenatal smoking exposure on the childrens' DNA methylation state of a CpG island located upstream of the promoter of the growth factor independent 1 (GFI1) gene was analyzed. METHODS: Blood samples of well-defined SIDS cases with non-smoking mothers (n = 11), SIDS cases with smoking mothers during pregnancy (n = 11), and non-SIDS cases (n = 6) were obtained from a previous study and methylation states were determined by bisulfite sequencing...
September 27, 2016: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
Johan J Dempers, Jean Coldrey, Elsie H Burger, Vonita Thompson, Shabbir A Wadee, Hein J Odendaal, Mary Ann Sens, Brad B Randall, Rebecca D Folkerth, Hannah C Kinney
The rate for the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) in Cape Town, South Africa, is estimated to be among the highest in the world (3.41/1000 live births). In several of these areas, including those of extreme poverty, only sporadic, nonstandardized infant autopsy, and death scene investigation (DSI) occurred. In this report, we detail a feasibility project comprising 18 autopsied infants with sudden and unexpected death whose causes of death were adjudicated according to the 1991 NICHD definitions (SIDS, n = 7; known cause of death, n = 7; and unclassified, n = 4)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Masako Hirabayashi, Masao Yoshinaga, Yuichi Nomura, Hiroya Ushinohama, Seiichi Sato, Nobuo Tauchi, Hitoshi Horigome, Hideto Takahashi, Naokata Sumitomo, Hirohiko Shiraishi, Masami Nagashima
: While the prevalence of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) has decreased worldwide, this decline has plateaued recently. Strategies are needed to resume the constant decrease of SIDS in Japan. A prospective electrocardiographic screening program for infants was performed between July 2010 and March 2011. Parents of 4319 infants were asked about environmental factors related to SIDS through questionnaires at a one-month medical checkup and one year. Parental awareness of prone position, smoke exposure, and breast feeding as environmental factors were 81...
September 23, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Elizabeth G Damato, Madeline C Haas, Pamela Czeck, Donna A Dowling, Sarah Gutin Barsman
BACKGROUND: The high prevalence of prematurity and low birth-weight places twin infants at increased risk for sudden unexpected infant death (SUID) and/or sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Risk for these SUID and SIDS is affected by a combination of nonmodifiable intrinsic risk factors and modifiable extrinsic stressors including infant care practices related to sleep. Although adherence to the full scope of American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) 2011 recommendations is intended to decrease risk, these recommendations are aimed at singleton infants and may require tailoring for families with multiple infants...
September 19, 2016: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Melissa C Bartick, Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Brittany D Green, Briana J Jegier, Arnold G Reinhold, Tarah T Colaizy, Debra L Bogen, Andrew J Schaefer, Alison M Stuebe
The aim of this study was to quantify the excess cases of pediatric and maternal disease, death, and costs attributable to suboptimal breastfeeding rates in the United States. Using the current literature on the associations between breastfeeding and health outcomes for nine pediatric and five maternal diseases, we created Monte Carlo simulations modeling a hypothetical cohort of U.S. women followed from age 15 to age 70 years and their children from birth to age 20 years. We examined disease outcomes using (a) 2012 breastfeeding rates and (b) assuming that 90% of infants were breastfed according to medical recommendations...
September 19, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
Robin L Haynes, Rebecca D Folkerth, David S Paterson, Kevin G Broadbelt, S Dan Zaharie, Richard H Hewlett, Johan J Dempers, Elsie Burger, Shabbir Wadee, Pawel Schubert, Colleen Wright, Mary Ann Sens, Laura Nelsen, Bradley B Randall, Hoa Tran, Elaine Geldenhuys, Amy J Elliott, Hein J Odendaal, Hannah C Kinney
The Safe Passage Study is an international, prospective study of approximately 12 000 pregnancies to determine the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) upon stillbirth and the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). A key objective of the study is to elucidate adverse effects of PAE upon binding to serotonin (5-HT) 1A receptors in brainstem homeostatic networks postulated to be abnormal in unexplained stillbirth and/or SIDS. We undertook a feasibility assessment of 5-HT1A receptor binding using autoradiography in the medulla oblongata (6 nuclei in 27 cases)...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Sanja Ramirez, Travis Allen, Lindsay Villagracia, Yooree Chae, Jan M Ramirez, Daniel D Rubens
Infants that succumb to Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) have been identified with inner ear dysfunction (IED) at birth and on autopsy. We previously investigated whether IED could play a mechanistic role in SIDS. We discovered that animals with IED displayed significant suppression of movement arousal to a hypoxic-hypercarbic gas mixture under light anesthesia. In the current study we investigated the role of each gas in triggering movements and the response to hypercarbia during natural sleep without anesthesia...
September 12, 2016: Neuroscience
Luca Roncati, Veronica Termopoli, Teresa Pusiol
The endocrine disruptors (EDs) are able to influence the endocrine system, mimicking or antagonizing hormonal molecules. They are bio-persistent for their degradation resistance in the environment. Our research group has investigated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) the EDs presence in 35 brain samples, coming from 27 cases of sudden intrauterine unexplained death syndrome (SIUDS) and 8 cases of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), collected by centralization in the last year (2015). More in detail, a mixture of 25 EDs has been subjected to analytical procedure, following standard protocols...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Giulia Ottaviani, L Maximilian Buja
Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is defined as the unexpected death without an obvious noncardiac cause that occurs within 1 h of witnessed symptom onset (established SCD) or within 24 h of unwitnessed symptom onset (probable SCD). In the United States, its incidence is 69/100,000 per year. Dysfunctions of the cardiac conduction and autonomic nervous systems are known to contribute to SCD pathogenesis, even if most clinicians and cardiovascular pathologists lack experience with detailed examination of the cardiac conduction system and fail to recognize lesions that are crucial to explain the SCD itself...
August 28, 2016: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Edelmann J, Dobosz T, Sobieszczanska M, Kawecka-Negrusz M, Dreßler J, Nastainczyk-Wulf M
Congenital long QT-syndrome (LQTS) is an inherited cardiac arrhythmia, which is characterized by a prolonged QT interval which predisposes to sudden cardiac death due to ventricular arrhythmias. The altered functions are based on different mutations in LQTS-associated genes. In this study, we performed a mutation analysis for the detection of 125 LQTS-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) focused on the genes KCNQ1, KCNH2, and SCN5A by using the SNaPshot multiplex minisequencing technique. Furthermore, we investigated 152 autopsy-negative cases from younger adults and infants, as well as samples from patients with clinically suspicion for LQTS, in which we found two types of variations...
September 9, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Hannah C Kinney, Annapurna H Poduri, Jane B Cryan, Robin L Haynes, Lisa Teot, Lynn A Sleeper, Ingrid A Holm, Gerald T Berry, Sanjay P Prabhu, Simon K Warfield, Catherine Brownstein, Harry S Abram, Michael Kruer, Walter L Kemp, Beata Hargitai, Joanne Gastrang, Othon J Mena, Elisabeth A Haas, Roya Dastjerdi, Dawna D Armstrong, Richard D Goldstein
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) and sudden unexplained death in childhood (SUDC) are defined as sudden death in a child remaining unexplained despite autopsy and death scene investigation. They are distinguished from each other by age criteria, i.e. with SIDS under 1 year and SUDC over 1 year. Our separate studies of SIDS and SUDC provide evidence of shared hippocampal abnormalities, specifically focal dentate bilamination, a lesion classically associated with temporal lobe epilepsy, across the 2 groups...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Nils J Bergman
AIM: To identify a hypothesis on: Supine sleep, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) reduction and association with increasing autism incidence. METHODS: Literature was searched for autism spectrum disorder incidence time trends, with correlation of change-points matching supine sleep campaigns. A mechanistic model expanding the hypothesis was constructed based on further review of epidemiological and other literature on autism. RESULTS: In five countries (Denmark, United Kingdom, Australia, Israel, United States) with published time trends of autism, change-points coinciding with supine sleep campaigns were identified...
August 8, 2016: World Journal of Clinical Pediatrics
S F Graham, O P Chevallier, P Kumar, O Türko Gcaron Lu, R O Bahado-Singh
OBJECTIVE: Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) is defined as the sudden death of an infant <1 year of age that cannot be explained following a thorough investigation. Currently, no reliable clinical biomarkers are available for the prediction of infants who will die of SIDS. STUDY DESIGN: This study aimed to profile the medulla oblongata from postmortem human brain from SIDS victims (n=16) and compare their profiles with that of age-matched controls (n=7). RESULTS: Using LC-Orbitrap-MS, we detected 12 710 features in electrospray ionization positive (ESI+) mode and 8243 in ESI- mode from polar extracts of brain...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
David T Mage, Maria Luisa Latorre, Alejandro G Jenik, E Maria Donner
INTRODUCTION: The cause of the sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is perhaps the oldest of unsolved mysteries of medicine, possibly dating back to Exodus in Biblical times when Egyptian children died in their sleep as if from a plague. It occurs when infants die unexpectedly with no sufficient cause of death found in a forensic autopsy, including death scene investigation and review of medical history. That SIDS is an X-linked recessive death from infectious respiratory disease of a physiologically anemic infant and not a simple anomalous cardiac or neurological condition is an extraordinary claim that requires extraordinary evidence...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Khairul Zainun, Kirsten Hope, Andrew G Nicholson, Marta Cecilia Cohen
Abnormal muscularization of intra acinar pulmonary arteries is a histological hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. The disease is multi-factorial in origin and can be idiopathic as well associated with a variety of conditions such as congenital heart disease and both congenital and acquired lung diseases. We report two cases presenting as sudden unexpected death in late neonatal period (SUDI) showing abnormal muscularization of acinar pulmonary arteries reminiscent of PPHN...
August 30, 2016: Pediatric and Developmental Pathology
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