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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223904/spatiotemporal-variations-of-hydrogeochemistry-and-its-controlling-factors-in-the-gandaki-river-basin-central-himalaya-nepal
#1
Ramesh Raj Pant, Fan Zhang, Faizan Ur Rehman, Guanxing Wang, Ming Ye, Chen Zeng, Handuo Tang
The characterization and assessment of water quality in the head water region of Himalaya is necessary, given the immense importance of this region in sustaining livelihoods of people and maintaining ecological balance. A total of 165 water samples were collected from 55 sites during pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons in 2016 from the Gandaki River Basin of the Central Himalaya, Nepal. The pH, EC values and TDS concentrations were measured in-situ and the concentrations of major ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Cl-, SO42-, NO3-) and Si were analyzed in laboratory...
December 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220350/deep-sequencing-of-near-full-length-hiv-1-genomes-from-plasma-identifies-circulating-subtype-c-and-infrequent-occurrence-of-ac-recombinant-form-in-southern-india
#2
Shuba Varshini Alampalli, Michael M Thomson, Raghavan Sampathkumar, Karthi Sivaraman, Anto Jesuraj U K J, Chirag Dhar, George D Souza, Neil Berry, Annapurna Vyakarnam
India has the third largest number of HIV-1-infected individuals accounting for approximately 2.1 million people, with a predominance of circulating subtype C strains and a low prevalence of subtype A and A1C and BC recombinant forms, identified over the past two decades. Recovery of near full-length HIV-1 genomes from a plasma source coupled with advances in next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies and development of universal methods for amplifying whole genomes of HIV-1 circulating in a target geography or population provides the opportunity for a detailed analysis of HIV-1 strain identification, evolution and dynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218443/prevalence-and-associated-risk-factors-of-giardia-duodenalis-infection-among-school-going-children-in-nepal
#3
Sarmila Tandukar, Jeevan B Sherchand, Jia Xue, Sital Uprety, Samendra P Sherchan, Dinesh Bhandari, Bikash Malla, Rajani Ghaju Shrestha, Laxmi Parajuli, Shristi Poudel, Ashmita Dhital, Eiji Haramoto
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and its associated risk factors among school-going children in Kathmandu, Nepal. Between August and September 2016, a total of 333 stool samples were collected from children at five public schools. The collected samples were subjected to formol-ether concentration, followed by conventional microscopic examination for intestinal parasites. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites was 24.3% (81/333), with Giardia spp. showing the highest prevalence of 18...
December 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217880/renal-manifestation-in-scrub-typhus-during-a-major-outbreak-in-central-nepal
#4
A Sedhain, G R Bhattarai
Renal involvement and acute kidney injury (AKI) are common clinical manifestations seen in scrub typhus, a vector-borne tropical disease. There are no data on renal manifestation in scrub typhus in Nepal. We conducted a prospective study to analyze the incidence, urinary abnormalities, course, severity, outcome, and the predictors of AKI in patients with scrub typhus during a major outbreak in Central Nepal. Total 1398 patients admitted with acute febrile illness were subjected for Scrub Typhus Detect™ Immunoglobulin M (IgM) enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test, of which 502 (35...
November 2017: Indian Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216906/detection-of-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamases-encoding-genes-among-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital-kathmandu-nepal
#5
Mahesh Acharya, Prabhu R Joshi, Kamal Thapa, Rajan Aryal, Trishna Kakshapati, Supriya Sharma
OBJECTIVES: This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs) producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa in imipenem-nonsusceptible isolates and to detect MBL-encoding genes among MBLs-positive isolates. RESULTS: Metallo-β-lactamases production was detected in 68.6% isolates of P. aeruginosa with reduced susceptibility to imipenem. The bla VIM-2 gene was detected in 75% isolates and bla IMP-1 was detected in 25% isolates. All MBLs-positive isolates were multidrug resistant with a high level of resistance to imipenem (MIC 16 to ≥ 32 µg/ml), meropenem (MIC 16 to ≥ 32 µg/ml), and ceftazidime (MIC 64 to ≥ 512 µg/ml)...
December 8, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207554/the-synergetic-effect-of-cash-transfers-for-families-child-sensitive-social-protection-programs-and-capacity-building-for-effective-social-protection-on-children-s-nutritional-status-in-nepal
#6
Andre M N Renzaho, Stanley Chitekwe, Wen Chen, Sanjay Rijal, Thakur Dhakal, Pradiumna Dahal
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the synergetic effect of child sensitive social protection programs, augmented by a capacity building for social protection and embedded within existing government's targeted resource transfers for families on child nutritional status. DESIGN: A repeat cross-sectional quasi-experimental design with measures taken pre- (October-December 2009) and post- (December 2014-February 2015) intervention in the intervention and comparison district...
December 4, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206992/seroprevalence-of-lymphatic-filariasis-among-migrant-workers-in-peninsular-malaysia
#7
Rahmah Noordin, Siti Nursheena Mohd Zain, Muhammad Hafiznur Yunus, Norhidayu Sahimin
Background: Malaysia aims to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (LF) by the year 2020, thus the potential threat of LF from migrant workers needs to be investigated. Methods: Brugian and bancroftian filariasis among 484 migrant workers from six countries were investigated using rapid tests based on detection of specific IgG4 antibodies against BmR1 (Brugia Rapid) and BmSXP recombinant antigens. Results: The seroprevalence of brugian filariasis was very low; however, bancroftian filariasis was notable among workers from India, Nepal and Myanmar...
December 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29206833/effects-of-women-s-groups-practising-participatory-learning-and-action-on-preventive-and-care-seeking-behaviours-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-cluster-randomised-trials
#8
Nadine Seward, Melissa Neuman, Tim Colbourn, David Osrin, Sonia Lewycka, Kishwar Azad, Anthony Costello, Sushmita Das, Edward Fottrell, Abdul Kuddus, Dharma Manandhar, Nirmala Nair, Bejoy Nambiar, Neena Shah More, Tambosi Phiri, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends participatory learning and action (PLA) in women's groups to improve maternal and newborn health, particularly in rural settings with low access to health services. There have been calls to understand the pathways through which this community intervention may affect neonatal mortality. We examined the effect of women's groups on key antenatal, delivery, and postnatal behaviours in order to understand pathways to mortality reduction...
December 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205125/sphingopyxis-nepalensis-sp-nov-isolated-from-oil-contaminated-soil
#9
Dhiraj Kumar Chaudhary, Jaisoo Kim
During a study of oil-degrading bacteria, three yellow-coloured, Gram-stain-negative, non-motile and rod-shaped bacteria, designated strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18, were isolated from oil-contaminated soil of Biratnagar, Morang, Nepal. The strains were able to grow at 15-37 °C, pH 4.5-10.0 and 0-2 % (w/v) NaCl concentration. Strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18 were characterized by multiple taxonomic approaches. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strains Ktm-14T, Ktm-17 and Ktm-18 belonged to the genus Sphingopyxis and shared highest sequence similarity with Sphingopyxis ginsengisoliGsoil 250T (98...
December 5, 2017: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204183/evaluation-of-outcomes-for-psychosis-and-epilepsy-treatment-delivered-by-primary-health-care-workers-in-nepal-a-cohort-study
#10
M J D Jordans, L Aldridge, N P Luitel, F Baingana, B A Kohrt
Background: Most evaluations of task-shifting have focused on common mental disorders. Much less work has been done on severe mental neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders, such as chronic psychosis and epilepsy. Given the high burden associated with severe MNS and the lack of mental health professionals in low and middle income countries, evaluations on the impact of task-shifting for these disorders are important. Methods: In a rural district of Nepal, a community mental health program, based on World Health Organization's Mental Health Gap Action Programme guidelines, was evaluated using a cohort study design...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204020/predictors-of-in-hospital-mortality-of-acute-ischemic-stroke-in-adult-population
#11
Bhupendra Shah, Bijay Bartaula, Janak Adhikari, Hari Shankar Neupane, Birendra Prasad Shah, Gunaraj Poudel
Introduction: Stroke is the second most common cause of mortality worldwide. Data regarding the predictors of mortality of acute ischemic stroke are widely discordant. Identifying the predictors and providing the utmost care to a high-risk patient is still an unmet need in middle- to low-income countries. We did this study to identify the predictor of in-hospital mortality of acute ischemic stroke. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective study of patients with acute ischemic stroke presented to the tertiary care center in eastern Nepal from January 2012 to December 2016...
October 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202423/suicide-and-self-harm-in-nepal-a-scoping-review
#12
REVIEW
Suresh Thapaliya, Pawan Sharma, Kapil Upadhyaya
BACKGROUND: Suicide and self harm behavior has become a major public health issue in recent years in Nepal. This small south Asian country was ranked 7th by suicide rate globally by the 2014 World Health Organization report with an estimated 6,840 suicides annually, or 24.9 suicides per 100,000 people. We decided to explore the epidemiology of suicidal behaviour and self harm, modes of attempt, associated risk factors and trends in specific population. METHODOLOGY: Two researchers independently reviewed 47 studies published in the US National Library of Medicine's PubMed electronic Database and Google Scholar till December 2016...
December 1, 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202082/assessment-of-the-availability-and-rationality-of-unregistered-fixed-dose-drug-combinations-in-nepal-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study
#13
Arjun Poudel, Mohamed Izham Mohamed Ibrahim, Pranaya Mishra, Subish Palaian
Background: The medications that are registered and available in a country are meant for the prevention and treatment of ailments and diseases. However, a lack of effective regulatory bodies and operative control mechanisms, especially in developing countries, promotes irrational and inappropriate use of medicines. This study aims to evaluate the availability and rationality of unregistered fixed-dose drug combinations (FDCs) in Nepal. Methods: A snowball sampling method with visits to 20 retail pharmacies in each of five major cities in Nepal was used to assess the availability of unregistered FDCs...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201418/factors-associated-with-contraceptive-use-among-sexually-active-nepalese-youths-in-the-kathmandu-valley
#14
Laxmi Tamang, Camille Raynes-Greenow, Kevin McGeechan, Kirsten Black
Background: In Nepal, evidence is sparse regarding the use of contraception at first and current relationships among sexually active young people. This study examined the factors associated with modern contraceptive use at first and current sexual relationships. Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional household survey conducted amongst young Nepalese men and women living in the urban areas of the Kathmandu valley. We used logistic regression to model the relationship between selected independent variables and outcome variables (use at first sexual intercourse and current use of modern contraception) among 492 ever sexually active youth aged 15-24 years...
2017: Contraception and Reproductive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201366/survey-on-the-availability-price-and-affordability-of-selected-essential-medicines-for-non-communicable-diseases-in-community-pharmacies-of-kathmandu-valley
#15
Rajeev Shrestha, Anish Ghale, Bijay Raj Chapagain, Mahasagar Gyawali, Trishna Acharya
Background: The access to essential medicines for non-communicable disease treatment is unacceptably low worldwide. The fundamental right to health cannot be fulfilled without equitable access to essential medicines. Methodology: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 94 community pharmacies of Kathmandu valley. Non-probability quota sampling method was adopted for the purpose. Village Development Committees with more than 5000 populations were included in the study...
2017: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200552/self-inflicted-cut-injury-as-common-method-of-deliberate-self-harm-a-retrospective-study-from-nepal
#16
Shakya Rabi, Joshi Sulochana, Sharma Pawan
Context: Deliberate self-injury, a fairly common condition is present across all culture. It is defined as intentional, direct injuring of body tissue without suicidal intent. We continue to lack a sufficient understanding of this behavior in the context of South East Asian region. Aims: This study aims to explore the characteristics of self-cutting, and gender differences in homologous group of youth applying for foreign employment in Nepal. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional, single interview method in an out-patient setting...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198440/fanconi-anemia-signaling-and-cancer
#17
REVIEW
Manoj Nepal, Raymond Che, Jun Zhang, Chi Ma, Peiwen Fei
The extremely high cancer incidence associated with patients suffering from a rare human genetic disease, Fanconi anemia (FA), demonstrates the importance of FA genes. Over the course of human tumor development, FA genes perform critical tumor-suppression roles. In doing so, FA provides researchers with a unique genetic model system to study cancer etiology. Here, we review how aberrant function of the 22 FA genes and their signaling network contributes to malignancy. From this perspective, we will also discuss how the knowledge discovered from FA research serves basic and translational cancer research...
December 2017: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196960/synergizing-community-based-forest-monitoring-with-remote-sensing-a-path-to-an-effective-redd-%C3%A2-mrv-system
#18
M S R Murthy, Hammad Gilani, Bhaskar Singh Karky, Eklabya Sharma, Marieke Sandker, Upama Ashish Koju, Shiva Khanal, Mohan Poudel
BACKGROUND: The reliable monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of carbon emissions and removals from the forest sector is an important part of the efforts on reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+). Forest-dependent local communities are engaged to contribute to MRV through community-based monitoring systems. The efficiency of such monitoring systems could be improved through the rational integration of the studies at permanent plots with the geospatial technologies...
December 1, 2017: Carbon Balance and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195634/choice-of-contraceptive-methods-by-women-s-status-evidence-from-large-scale-microdata-in-nepal
#19
Yuki Yamamoto, Ken'ichi Matsumoto
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate how improvement in women's status affects the choice of contraceptive methods in Nepal. STUDY DESIGN: We regressed the choice of contraceptive methods on women's status and other controlling variables by employing large-scale microdata representing over 12,000 married women aged 15-49 years in Nepal. Years of schooling and literacy were defined as women's status variables. We estimated how educational attainment affects the choice of contraceptive methods...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192371/management-of-horizontal-duodenal-perforation-a-report-of-three-cases-and-review-of-literature
#20
Pramod Nepal, Kosei Maemura, Yuko Mataki, Hiroshi Kurahara, Yota Kawasaki, Kiyokazu Hiwatashi, Satoshi Iino, Masahiko Sakoda, Takaaki Arigami, Sumiya Ishigami, Hiroyuki Shinchi, Shoji Natsugoe
BACKGROUND: Perforation of the horizontal duodenum is very rare due to the presence in retroperitoneal space. It depicts an unusual clinical picture and is difficult to diagnose, leading to increased morbidity and mortality. The treatment strategies are usually varied and based on small series of cases, literature reviews, and expert opinions. CASE PRESENTATION: Here, we presented three cases of horizontal duodenal perforation in three different clinical processes...
December 1, 2017: Surgical Case Reports
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