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Ramesh Sharma Poudel, Shakti Shrestha, Santosh Thapa, Bhupendra Kumar Poudel, Muniraj Chhetri
Background: Appropriate labeling of marketed medicines is necessary to fulfill the regulatory provisions and ensure patient medication safety. This study aimed to assess the primary labeling of medicines manufactured and marketed by Nepalese pharmaceutical industries. Methods: We assessed the primary labeling of all medicines available at the pharmacy of Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital (CMCTH), Chitwan, Nepal, between November 2017 to December 2017. Medicines were assessed as required by Drug Standard Regulation, 2043 (1986 AD) of Nepal...
2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical Policy and Practice
Binit Vaidya, Manisha Bhochhibhoya, Shweta Nakarmi
Examination of urate crystal in synovial fluid (SF) remains the gold standard for diagnosis of gout, but is not universally available. SF uric acid (UA) level may be measured by the uricase method with an automated analyzer. The present study aimed to evaluate the utility of SF to serum UA ratio (SSR) for diagnosis of gout. A cross-sectional study was conducted at the National Center for Rheumatic Diseases, Nepal. Patients presenting with acute (<1 day) joint pain and/or swelling were included. Aspiration was performed in all patients and fluid was subjected to testing for urate level, pH and cell counts and microscopy...
July 2018: Biomedical Reports
Manoj Nepal, Chi Ma, Guoxiang Xie, Wei Jia, Peiwen Fei
Given importance of 22-Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins together to act in a signaling pathway in preventing deleterious clinical symptoms, e.g. severe bone marrow failure, congenital defects, an early onset of aging and cancer, studies on each FA protein become increasingly attractive. However, an unbiased and systematic investigation of cellular effects resulting from each FA protein is missing. Here, we report roles of FA complementation C group protein (FANCC) in the protection from metabolic disorders. This study was prompted by the diabetes-prone feature displayed in FANCC knockout mice, which is not typically shown in patients with FA...
June 21, 2018: Aging
Shanta Pandey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Home deliveries increase the risk of maternal and child mortality. To increase institutional deliveries, South Asian countries have introduced various forms of Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) schemes that offer women cash if they come to deliver at a health facility. In 2005, Nepal introduced its Safe Delivery Incentive Programme (SDIP)-a cash incentive program nationwide to boost the rate of institutional delivery and care from health professionals at childbirth...
2018: PloS One
D V Phanikumar, Ajeet K Maurya, Kondapalli Niranjan Kumar, K Venkatesham, Rajesh Singh, S Sharma, M Naja
The subject of pre-earthquake ionospheric signatures has always been contentious and debatable. Some of the previous reports have documented unforeseen and unusual variations in some of the atmospheric and ionospheric parameters well before an earthquake. Here, we analyze the ionospheric response from the Indian Subcontinent to Nepal Gorkha Earthquakes occurred between April and May 2015, which were the most powerful and disastrous natural calamities in past ~80 years over the Himalayan region left ~9000 causalities and more than ~20000 people injured with the property damage of the order of several billion dollars...
June 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Rajani Shah, Eva A Rehfuess, Deepak Paudel, Mahesh K Maskey, Maria Delius
BACKGROUND: Giving birth assisted by skilled care in a health facility plays a vital role in preventing maternal deaths. In Nepal, delivery services are free and a cash incentive is provided to women giving birth at a health facility. Nevertheless, about half of women still deliver at home. This study explores socio-cultural and health service-related barriers to and facilitators of institutional delivery. METHODS: Six village development committees in hill and plain areas were selected in Chitwan district...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Health
Uday Narayan Yadav, Man Kumar Tamang, Grish Paudel, Bharat Kafle, Suresh Mehta, Varalakshmi Chandra Sekaran, Jeroen R J H Gruiskens
BACKGROUND: Elder mistreatment is a well-recognized public health issue with complex underlying factors. The current study hypothesized that there is no effect of any of the following factors on any type of elder mistreatment: ethnicity, age group, education status, gender, living arrangement, concentration problems, medication for any disease, income level of caregiver, use of alcohol and tobacco products, and dependence on family or caregivers for daily activities. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of 339 elders adults aged 60 or above residing in a rural part of eastern Nepal between August and November 2016...
2018: PloS One
Shiva Raj Adhikari, Sanjaya Aryal
Background: The right to health is a fundamental part of human rights. Ensuring right to health is not straightforward; there are several challenges. Factors such as capacity of right holders and duty-bearers and practices of providing and utilizing services among others determine to ensure health rights for the whole population. Objective: The objective of this paper is to analyze whether the health policies and programs follow a human rights-based approach (HRBA) and assess the situation of rights to health among the poor and vulnerable population...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Public Health
Dipika Neupane, Parash Mani Bhandari, Kiran Thapa, Shristi Bhochhibhoya, Shristi Rijal, Ramjee Prasad Pathak
OBJECTIVES: To explore the prevalence, perpetrator characteristics and the correlates of child abuse in Kathmandu, Nepal. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we translated the internationally validated questionnaire developed by the International Society for Prevention of Child Abuse and Neglect, Child Abuse Screening Tool-Child Home into Nepali. We added questions on descriptive information about students and their family to the questionnaire. We recruited students from 20 schools selected randomly-2 from each of the 10 electoral constituencies of Kathmandu district...
June 19, 2018: BMJ Open
Narayan Acharya, Shankar Prasad Poudel, Krishna Prasad Acharya
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine sero-prevalence of Peste des Petits Ruminants (PPR) among goat population of outbreak suspected areas; Kaski and Syangja districts of Nepal. A total of 460 goat serum samples were tested by using c-ELISA for the presence of antibodies against PPR. Out of the 460 samples tested, 380 samples were found positive, giving overall sero-positivity of 82.60%. Significantly higher sero-prevalence was found (* P  < 0.05) in females (87.50%) compared to males (70...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Birendra Prasad Gupta, Mahesh Lamsal, Sudhikshya Chaulagain, Ramanuj Rauniyar, Rajani Malla, Smita Shrestha, Roshan Kurmi, Krishna Das Manandhar
Dengue virus is a major health problem in Nepal. The endogenous dengue appeared in 2006 in the country with reported outbreaks in 2010, 2013 and 2016. Eleven years vertical data show there were sporadic cases in all the years and mostly adults between 25 and 40 years of age were infected with dengue virus. Compared with primary infections, secondary infections were observed in relatively larger numbers during the period of 2008-2016. Most of the cases had symptoms of dengue fever; while 7 and 19 cases demonstrated dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome in 2010 and 2013 respectively...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Sudip Nepal, Pradeep Kumar
Phenotypic switching is one of the mechanisms by which bacteria thrive in ever changing environmental conditions around them. Earlier studies have shown that the application of steady high hydrostatic pressure leads to stochastic switching of mesophilic bacteria from a cellular phenotype having a normal cell cycle to another phenotype lacking cell division. Here, we have studied the dynamics of this phenotypic switching with fluctuating periodic pressure using a set of experiments and a theoretical model. Our results suggest that the phenotypic switching rate from high-pressure phenotype to low-pressure phenotype in the reversible regime is larger as compared to the switching rate from low-pressure phenotype to high-pressure phenotype...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Sauharda Rai, Dristy Gurung, Bonnie N Kaiser, Kathleen J Sikkema, Manoj Dhakal, Anvita Bhardwaj, Cori Tergesen, Brandon A Kohrt
INTRODUCTION: Service users' involvement as cofacilitators of mental health trainings is a nascent endeavor in low- and middle-income countries, and the role of families on service user participation in trainings has received limited attention. This study examined how caregivers perceive and facilitate service user's involvement in an antistigma program that was added to mental health Gap Action Program (mhGAP) trainings for primary care workers in Nepal. METHOD: Service users were trained as cofacilitators for antistigma and mhGAP trainings delivered to primary care workers through the REducing Stigma among HealthcAre ProvidErs (RESHAPE) program...
June 2018: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
Karen T Chang, Luke C Mullany, Subarna K Khatry, Steven C LeClerq, Melinda K Munos, Joanne Katz
Background: Tracking progress towards global newborn health targets depends largely on maternal reported data collected through large, nationally representative surveys. We evaluated the validity, across a range of recall period lengths (1 to 24 months post-delivery), of maternal report of birthweight, birth size and length of pregnancy. Methods: We compared maternal reports to reference standards of birthweights measured within 72 hours of delivery and gestational age generated from reported first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) prospectively collected as part of a population-based study (n = 1502)...
June 2018: Journal of Global Health
Jitendra Kumar Singh, Rajendra Kadel, Dilaram Acharya, Daniel Lombard, Saval Khanal, Shri Prakash Singh
BACKGROUND: Capacity development of health volunteers and text messaging to pregnant women through mobile phones have shown improved maternal and child health (MCH) outcomes and is associated with increased utilisation of MCH services. However, such interventions are uncommon in Nepal. We aim to carry out an intervention with the hypothesis that capacity building and text messaging intervention will increase the MCH service utilisation. METHOD/DESIGN: MATRI-SUMAN is a 12-month cluster randomized controlled trial (RCT)...
June 14, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Nabin Narayan Munankarmi, Neesha Rana, Tribikram Bhattarai, Ram Lal Shrestha, Bal Krishna Joshi, Bikash Baral, Sangita Shrestha
Acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle) is an important fruit crop, which has high commercial value and is cultivated in 60 out of the 77 districts representing all geographical landscapes of Nepal. A lack of improved high-yielding varieties, infestation with various diseases, and pests, as well as poor management practices might have contributed to its extremely reduced productivity, which necessitates a reliable understanding of genetic diversity in existing cultivars. Hereby, we aim to characterize the genetic diversity of acid lime cultivars cultivated at three different agro-ecological gradients of eastern Nepal, employing PCR-based inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers...
June 12, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Ken Zafren, Anne Brants, Katie Tabner, Andrew Nyberg, Matiram Pun, Buddha Basnyat, Monika Brodmann Maeder
The Nepal Earthquake of 2015 killed over 8000 people and injured over 20,000 in Nepal. Moments after the earthquake, an avalanche of falling ice came down from above Everest Base Camp (EBC). The air blast created by the avalanche flattened the middle part of EBC, killing 15 people and injuring at least 70. The casualties were initially triaged and treated at EBC and then evacuated by air to Kathmandu for definitive care. There were intermediate stops at the villages of Pheriche and Lukla during which the casualties were offloaded, retriaged, treated, and loaded again for further transport...
June 8, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ripu M Kunwar, Maria Fadiman, Mary Cameron, Rainer W Bussmann, Khum B Thapa-Magar, Bhagawat Rimal, Prabhat Sapkota
BACKGROUND: This study seeks to better understand the human-nature interface and to measure the variability of plant use knowledge among cultures, through inter- and intracultural analyses. We compared plant collection, use, and management of two culturally distinct groups (Baitadi and Darchula) of the Nepal Himalaya. They inhabit different physiographic regions, yet share the same ecological landscape, environmental resources, and livelihood challenges. We hypothesized that the elderly, native, and traditional healers living in remote and rural places possess more diverse and detailed knowledge of plant use and conservation than young, non-native, and non-healers...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Bharat Singh Negi, Sunil Kumar Joshi, Minato Nakazawa, Tomohiro Kotaki, Anup Bastola, Masanori Kameoka
INTRODUCTION: The April 2015 Nepal earthquake resulted in more than 8,700 deaths and 22,000 casualties including damage to health facilities. The impact of this situation on chronic conditions such as human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) may become a long-lasting public health threat. Therefore, the objectives of this study were i) to assess the association of antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence with mental health problems, and social behaviors, ii) to examine factors affecting treatment failure, and iii) to investigate changes in ART adherence and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among people living with HIV 6 and 12 months after the disaster...
2018: PloS One
Jamshed Dalal, J C Mohan, S S Iyengar, Jagdish Hiremath, Immaneni Sathyamurthy, Sandeep Bansal, Dhiman Kahali, Arup Dasbiswas
Calcium channel blockers are among the first-line drugs for treatment of hypertension (HTN). S-amlodipine (S-AM), an S-enantiomer of amlodipine, is available in India and in other countries like China, Korea, Russia, Ukraine, and Nepal. Being clinically researched for nearly two decades, we performed in-depth review of S-AM. This review discusses clinical evidence from total 42 studies (26 randomized controlled trials, 14 observational studies, and 2 meta-analyses) corroborating over 7400 patients treated with S-AM...
2018: International Journal of Hypertension
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