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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28224853/don-t-take-the-nhs-for-granted
#1
Christopher Maguire
In my final year of training I undertook an elective placement in Nepal, where I spent three weeks in an emergency department in Kathmandu.
February 22, 2017: Nursing Standard
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222809/indigenous-knowledge-and-use-of-lichens-by-the-lichenophilic-communities-of-the-nepal-himalaya
#2
Shiva Devkota, Ram Prasad Chaudhary, Silke Werth, Christoph Scheidegger
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to document the prevailing indigenous knowledge and various uses of lichens among the lichenophilic communities in the hills and mountainous settlements of Nepal. METHODS: Ethnic uses were recorded during twelve field trips, each of roughly 15 days in three consecutive years, through direct questionnaires administered to 190 respondents. Lichen samples were identified applying microscopic observation and thin layer chromatography (TLC)...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219425/factors-associated-with-low-birth-weight-in-nepal-using-multiple-imputation
#3
Usha Singh, Attachai Ueranantasun, Metta Kuning
BACKGROUND: Survey data from low income countries on birth weight usually pose a persistent problem. The studies conducted on birth weight have acknowledged missing data on birth weight, but they are not included in the analysis. Furthermore, other missing data presented on determinants of birth weight are not addressed. Thus, this study tries to identify determinants that are associated with low birth weight (LBW) using multiple imputation to handle missing data on birth weight and its determinants...
February 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214223/evaluation-of-a-field-test-for-antibodies-against-chlamydia-trachomatis-during-trachoma-surveillance-in-nepal
#4
Michelle J Sun, Andrea I Zambrano, Laura Dize, Beatriz Munoz, Sarah Gwyn, Sailesh Mishra, Diana L Martin, Shekhar Sharma, Sheila K West
PURPOSE: Testing for antibodies to Chlamydia trachomatis has potential as a surveillance tool. Our evaluation compares lateral flow assays (LFAs) during surveillance surveys in Nepal with Multiplex bead array (MBA). Fifty children were randomly sampled from each of 15 random clusters in two districts of Nepal. Finger prick blood samples were collected from 1509 children and tested onsite for anti-Pgp3 antibodies by LFA. The LFA was read at 30min as negative, positive, or invalid. Tests results were also rated as difficult to read ("equivocal")...
January 17, 2017: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212598/essential-newborn-care-after-home-delivery-in-nepal
#5
Mats Målqvist, Asha Pun, Ashish Kc
AIMS: Postnatal care of the newborn is essential in order to reduce neonatal mortality. Nepal has made great efforts to improve maternal and child health by focusing on accessibility and outreach over the past decades. This study aims to examine trends, over the past decade, in levels and equity of facility delivery rates and the provision of newborn care after home delivery in Nepal. METHODS: Household-level data from the Demographic Health Surveys (DHS) 2006 and 2011 and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) from 2014 performed in Nepal was sourced for the study...
March 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212415/aflatoxin-exposure-during-the-first-36-months-of-life-was-not-associated-with-impaired-growth-in-nepalese-children-an-extension-of-the-mal-ed-study
#6
Nicole J Mitchell, Hui-Husan Hsu, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Binob Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Yun Gong, Patricia A Egner, Manjeswori Ulak, John D Groopman, Felicia Wu
Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202145/who-kills-whom-the-micro-dynamics-of-civilian-targeting-in-civil-war
#7
Madhav Joshi, Jason Michael Quinn
Prior research on civilian targeting in civil war has focused on characteristics of either the government or rebel group that make them more or less likely to target civilians. However, no government or rebel group targets a population, but rather individuals within it. To date, no study has explored the issue of why particular civilians would be chosen by one actor versus the other. This study examines the divergent civilian-targeting strategies of governments and rebel groups. We argue that unique identification problems facing each political actor in civil war leads the parties to resort to social stereotypes based on data derived from known enemy subjects killed in combat...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202089/suicidal-ideation-and-behaviour-among-community-and-health-care-seeking-populations-in-five-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-cross-sectional-study
#8
M Jordans, S Rathod, A Fekadu, G Medhin, F Kigozi, B Kohrt, N Luitel, I Petersen, R Shidhaye, J Ssebunnya, V Patel, C Lund
: Aims Suicidal behaviour is an under-reported and hidden cause of death in most low- and middle-income countries (LMIC) due to lack of national systematic reporting for cause-specific mortality, high levels of stigma and religious or cultural sanctions. The lack of information on non-fatal suicidal behaviour (ideation, plans and attempts) in LMIC is a major barrier to design and implementation of prevention strategies. This study aims to determine the prevalence of non-fatal suicidal behaviour within community- and health facility-based populations in LMIC...
February 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196115/nutritional-assessment-of-community-dwelling-older-adults-in-rural-nepal
#9
Saruna Ghimire, Binaya Kumar Baral, Karen Callahan
BACKGROUND: Demographic transition in Nepal, like in many developing countries, has resulted in a burgeoning elderly population whose health status is not currently monitored. One pillar of health is adequate nutrition. Yet, little is known about the nutritional health status of the elderly in Nepal. The financial, material, and personnel limitations in Nepal's health delivery services necessitate health screening instruments that require minimal clinical staff and resources. To our knowledge, no such nutritional assessment tool has been validated in Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193550/genetic-characterization-molecular-epidemiology-and-phylogenetic-relationships-of-insect-specific-viruses-in-the-taxon-negevirus
#10
Marcio R T Nunes, María Angélica Contreras-Gutierrez, Hilda Guzman, Livia C Martins, Mayla Feitoza Barbirato, Chelsea Savit, Victoria Balta, Sandra Uribe, Rafael Vivero, Juan David Suaza, Hamilton Oliveira, Joaquin P Nunes Neto, Valeria L Carvalho, Sandro Patroca da Silva, Jedson F Cardoso, Rodrigo Santo de Oliveira, Poliana da Silva Lemos, Thomas G Wood, Steven G Widen, Pedro F C Vasconcelos, Durland Fish, Nikos Vasilakis, Robert B Tesh
The recently described taxon Negevirus is comprised of a diverse group of insect-specific viruses isolated from mosquitoes and phlebotomine sandflies. In this study, a comprehensive genetic characterization, molecular, epidemiological and evolutionary analyses were conducted on nearly full-length sequences of 91 new negevirus isolates obtained in Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Panama, USA and Nepal. We demonstrated that these arthropod restricted viruses are clustered in two major phylogenetic groups with origins related to three plant virus genera (Cilevirus, Higrevirus and Blunevirus)...
February 10, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193261/prevalence-of-dengue-and-diversity-of-cultivable-bacteria-in-vector-aedes-aegypti-l-from-two-dengue-endemic-districts-kanchanpur-and-parsa-of-nepal
#11
Srinivas Thapa, Narayan Dutt Pant, Rojina Shrestha, Ganga Gc, Bidya Shrestha, Basu Dev Pandey, Ishan Gautam
BACKGROUND: Dengue fever, an endemic arboviral disease, represents one of the major public health concerns in Nepal. It is transmitted by bites of infected Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, the former being primary vector. The bacterial community plays a significant role in biology of mosquitoes; however, the bacterial communities of primary vector A. aegypti remain unstudied in Nepal. The study was designed to determine the rate of dengue seropositivity and to explore the bacterial diversity of A...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191309/co-existence-of-blaoxa-23-and-blandm-1-genes-of-acinetobacter-baumannii-isolated-from-nepal-antimicrobial-resistance-and-clinical-significance
#12
Prabhu Raj Joshi, Mahesh Acharya, Trishna Kakshapati, Udomluk Leungtongkam, Rapee Thummeepak, Sutthirat Sitthisak
BACKGROUND: Molecular analysis of carbapenem-resistant genes in Acinetobacter baumannii, an emerging pathogen, is less commonly reported from Nepal. In this study we determined the antibiotic susceptibility profile and genetic mechanism of carbapenem resistance in clinical isolates of A. baumannii. METHODS: A. baumannii were isolated from various clinical specimens and identified based on Gram staining, biochemical tests, and PCR amplification of organism specific 16S rRNA and blaOXA-51 genes...
2017: Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28189072/modeling-the-intraurban-variation-in-nitrogen-dioxide-in-urban-areas-in-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#13
Anobha Gurung, Jonathan I Levy, Michelle L Bell
BACKGROUND: With growing urbanization, traffic has become one of the main sources of air pollution in Nepal. Understanding the impact of air pollution on health requires estimation of exposure. Land use regression (LUR) modeling is widely used to investigate intraurban variation in air pollution for Western cities, but LUR models are relatively scarce in developing countries. In this study, we developed LUR models to characterize intraurban variation of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) in urban areas of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal, one of the fastest urbanizing areas in South Asia...
February 8, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187553/-i-phthinia-i-winnertz-diptera-mycetophilidae-new-species-and-records-from-the-neotropical-and-oriental-regions
#14
Scott J Fitzgerald
Three new species of Phthinia Winnertz are described; P. amorimi n. sp. (Chile), P. oliveirae n. sp. (Chile), and P. nepalensis n. sp. (Nepal). Based on male terminalia, P. amorimi shows greater affinity to species previously described from Brazil whereas P. oliveirae is more similar to other Chilean species. Phthinia nepalensis is the first species of the genus described from the Oriental region. Distribution records for other Neotropical species are also given.
February 9, 2017: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185207/quantification-and-genotyping-of-aichi-virus-1-in-water-samples-in-the-kathmandu-valley-nepal
#15
Eiji Haramoto, Masaaki Kitajima
Aichi virus 1 genomes were detected by quantitative PCR in groundwater from shallow dug (10/22) and tube wells (1/15), river water (14/14), and sewage (1/1), with the maximum concentration of 4.0 × 10(9) copies/l. Nucleotide sequencing analysis demonstrated the prevalence of genotype B in the virus positive samples.
February 9, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28184170/sexual-risk-behaviors-hiv-and-syphilis-among-female-sex-workers-in-nepal
#16
Sampurna Kakchapati, Dipendra Raman Singh, Bir Bahadhur Rawal, Apiradee Lim
PURPOSE: Female sex workers (FSWs) are a key-affected population susceptible to acquiring HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), as well as transmitting the virus to others. The aim of the study was to assess HIV and syphilis prevalence among FSWs in Nepal and to examine factors associated with it. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was based on Integrated Biological and Behavioral Surveillance (IBBS) surveys among FSWs in Nepal from 2004 to 2015. Statistical analysis used chi-squared test to assess statistically significant risk factors for HIV and syphilis...
2017: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178952/study-of-phytochemical-anti-microbial-anti-oxidant-and-anti-cancer-properties-of-allium-wallichii
#17
Jaya Bhandari, BushraTaj Muhammad, Pratiksha Thapa, Bhupal Govinda Shrestha
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the use of plants for the treatment and prevention of cancer. Medicinal plants are currently being evaluated as source of promising anticancer agents. In this paper, we have investigated the anticancer potential of plant Allium wallichii, a plant native to Nepal and growing at elevations of 2300-4800 m. This is the first study of its kind for the plant mentioned. METHODS: The dried plant was extracted in aqueous ethanol. Phytochemical screening, anti-microbial assay, anti-oxidant assay, cytotoxicity assay and the flow-cytometric analysis were done for analyzing different phytochemicals present, anti-microbial activity, anti-oxidant activity and anti-cancer properties of Allium wallichii...
February 8, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178279/snow-leopard-and-himalayan-wolf-food-habits-and-prey-selection-in-the-central-himalayas-nepal
#18
Madhu Chetri, Morten Odden, Per Wegge
Top carnivores play an important role in maintaining energy flow and functioning of the ecosystem, and a clear understanding of their diets and foraging strategies is essential for developing effective conservation strategies. In this paper, we compared diets and prey selection of snow leopards and wolves based on analyses of genotyped scats (snow leopards n = 182, wolves n = 57), collected within 26 sampling grid cells (5×5 km) that were distributed across a vast landscape of ca 5000 km2 in the Central Himalayas, Nepal...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168002/hepatitis-c-virus-seroprevalence-in-the-general-female-population-of-9-countries-in-europe-asia-and-africa
#19
Gary M Clifford, Tim Waterboer, Bolormaa Dondog, You Lin Qiao, Dimitri Kordzaia, Doudja Hammouda, Namory Keita, Nahid Khodakarami, Syed Ahsan Raza, Ang Tshering Sherpa, Witold Zatonski, Michael Pawlita, Martyn Plummer, Silvia Franceschi
BACKGROUND: New oral treatments with very high cure rates have the potential to revolutionize global management of hepatitis C virus (HCV), but population-based data on HCV infection are missing in many low and middle-income countries (LMIC). METHODS: Between 2004 and 2009, dried blood spots were collected from age-stratified female population samples of 9 countries: China, Mongolia, Poland, Guinea, Nepal, Pakistan, Algeria, Georgia and Iran. HCV antibodies were detected by a multiplex serology assay using bead-based technology...
2017: Infectious Agents and Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167071/on-column-trypsinization-allows-for-re-use-of-matrix-in-modified-multiplexed-inhibitor-beads-assay
#20
Voin Petrovic, Camilla Olaisen, Animesh Sharma, Anala Nepal, Steffen Bugge, Eirik Sundby, Bård Helge Hoff, Geir Slupphaug, Marit Otterlei
The Multiplexed Inhibitor Bead (MIB) assay is a previously published quantitative proteomic MS-based approach to study cellular kinomes. A rather extensive procedure, need for multiple custom-made kinase inhibitors and an inability to re-use the MIB-columns, has limited its applicability. Here we present a modified MIB assay in which elution of bound proteins is facilitated by on-column trypsinization. We tested the modified MIB assay by analyzing extract from three human cancer cell lines treated with the cytotoxic drugs cisplatin or docetaxel...
February 3, 2017: Analytical Biochemistry
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