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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041985/simplified-prognostic-model-for-critically-ill-patients-in-resource-limited-settings-in-south-asia
#1
Rashan Haniffa, Mavuto Mukaka, Sithum Bandara Munasinghe, Ambepitiyawaduge Pubudu De Silva, Kosala Saroj Amarasiri Jayasinghe, Abi Beane, Nicolette de Keizer, Arjen M Dondorp
BACKGROUND: Current critical care prognostic models are predominantly developed in high-income countries (HICs) and may not be feasible in intensive care units (ICUs) in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Existing prognostic models cannot be applied without validation in LMICs as the different disease profiles, resource availability, and heterogeneity of the population may limit the transferability of such scores. A major shortcoming in using such models in LMICs is the unavailability of required measurements...
October 17, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038830/a-distance-blended-learning-program-to-upgrade-the-clinical-competence-of-district-non-doctor-anesthesia-providers-in-nepal
#2
Shristi Shah, Stephen Knoble, Oliver Ross, Stephen Pickering
BACKGROUND: Across Nepal, anesthesia at a district level is provided mostly by non-doctor anesthesia providers (anesthesia assistants-AAs). Nepal's Government recognized the need to sustain competence with continuous professional development and to upgrade 6-month trained working AAs to professional equivalence with the new national standard of 12-month training. As they are essential district health workers and AA clinical training sites are full, an innovative distance blended learning, competency-based, upgrade 1-year course was developed and conducted in 2014-2017 for two batches...
October 16, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037576/pertussis-seroepidemiology-in-women-and-their-infants-in-sarlahi-district-nepal
#3
Michelle M Hughes, Janet A Englund, Kathryn Edwards, Sandra Yoder, James M Tielsch, Mark Steinhoff, Subarna K Khatry, Steven C LeClerq, Joanne Katz
BACKGROUND: Infants are at greatest risk for pertussis morbidity and mortality. Maternal vaccination during pregnancy has been shown to prevent pertussis in young infants in high- and middle-income countries. However, data on the levels of maternal pertussis antibodies and the efficiency of transplacental transfer in low-income South Asian settings are limited. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of maternal pertussis antibodies and the efficiency of transplacental transfer in rural southern Nepal...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037267/tracking-of-infant-and-young-child-feeding-practices-among-9-to-24-month-old-children-in-nepal-the-mal-ed-birth-cohort-study
#4
Marianne S Morseth, Liv Elin Torheim, Mekdes K Gebremariam, Ram K Chandyo, Manjeswori Ulak, Sanjaya K Shrestha, Binob Shrestha, Sigrun Henjum
OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to assess infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices and the tracking of dietary diversity score (DDS), intakes of Fe- and vitamin A-rich foods and meal frequency in a peri-urban area in Nepal. Furthermore, to explore whether sociodemographic factors were associated with tracking patterns of these IYCF practices. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. Monthly food intake was measured by 24 h recall. Four time slots were used (9-12, 13-16, 17-20 and 21-24 months)...
October 17, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033055/ambient-endotoxin-in-pm10-and-association-with-inflammatory-activity-air-pollutants-and-meteorology-in-chitwan-nepal
#5
Parth Sarathi Mahapatra, Sumeet Jain, Sujan Shrestha, Shantibhusan Senapati, Siva Praveen Puppala
BACKGROUND: Endotoxin associated with ambient PM (particulate matter) has been linked to adverse respiratory symptoms, but there have been few studies of ambient endotoxin and its association with co-pollutants and inflammation. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to measure endotoxin associated with ambient PM10 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter<10μm) in summer 2016 at four locations in Chitwan, Nepal, and investigate its association with meteorology, co-pollutants, and inflammatory activity...
October 12, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032790/formative-qualitative-research-to-develop-community-based-interventions-addressing-low-birth-weight-in-the-plains-of-nepal
#6
Joanna Morrison, Sophiya Dulal, Helen Harris-Fry, Machhindra Basnet, Neha Sharma, Bhim Shrestha, Dharma Manandhar, Anthony Costello, David Osrin, Naomi Saville
OBJECTIVE: To explore the factors affecting intra-household food allocation practices to inform the development of interventions to prevent low birth weight in rural plains of Nepal. DESIGN: Qualitative methodology using purposive sampling to explore the barriers and facilitating factors to improved maternal nutrition. SETTING: Rural Dhanusha District, Nepal. SUBJECTS: We purposively sampled twenty-five young daughters-in-law from marginalised groups living in extended families and conducted semi-structured interviews with them...
October 16, 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032629/consumption-of-commercially-produced-snack-foods-and-sugar-sweetened-beverages-during-the-complementary-feeding-period-in-four-african-and-asian-urban-contexts
#7
Alissa M Pries, Sandra L Huffman, Mary Champeny, Indu Adhikary, Margaret Benjamin, Aminata Ndeye Coly, El Hadji Issakha Diop, Khin Mengkheang, Ndèye Yaga Sy, Shrid Dhungel, Alison Feeley, Bineti Vitta, Elizabeth Zehner
The availability and consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages have increased across low-income and middle-income countries. This cross-sectional survey assessed consumption of commercially produced foods and beverages among children 6-23 months of age, and mothers' exposure to promotions for these products. Health facility-based interviews were conducted among 218 randomly sampled mothers utilizing child health services in Dakar, Senegal; 229 in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; 228 in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal; and 222 in Phnom Penh, Cambodia...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032435/environmental-factors-associated-with-ocular-morbidity-among-children-in-three-ecological-regions-of-nepal-a-phase-ii-nepal-pediatric-ocular-diseases-study
#8
Srijana Adhikari, Ujjowala Shrestha, Mohan K Shrestha, Manish Paudyal, Bijaya Thapa, Murari Shrestha
PURPOSE: The Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study (NPODS) was a 3-year (January 2012-December 2014) longitudinal study carried out in three ecological regions of Nepal to understand the magnitude of the problems of childhood ocular morbidity and blindness. Based on the results of this study, a second phase of NPODS was undertaken to understand the risk factors associated with childhood ocular diseases. This paper analyzes environmental factors. METHOD: This was a nested case-control study with study population selected from the same cohort of children included in the baseline survey of NPODS...
October 14, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031736/livestock-ownership-and-microbial-contamination-of-drinking-water-evidence-from-nationally-representative-household-surveys-in-ghana-nepal-and-bangladesh
#9
Nicola A Wardrop, Allan G Hill, Mawuli Dzodzomenyo, Genevieve Aryeetey, Jim A Wright
BACKGROUND: Current priorities for diarrhoeal disease prevention include use of sanitation and safe water. There have been few attempts to quantify the importance of animal faeces in drinking-water contamination, despite the presence of potentially water-borne zoonotic pathogens in animal faeces. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to quantify the relationship between livestock ownership and point-of-consumption drinking-water contamination. METHODS: Data from nationally representative household surveys in Nepal, Bangladesh, and Ghana, each with associated water quality assessments, were used...
October 3, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031282/dengue-virus-serotypes-1-and-2-responsible-for-major-dengue-outbreaks-in-nepal-clinical-laboratory-and-epidemiological-features
#10
Shyam Prakash Dumre, Renu Bhandari, Geeta Shakya, Sanjaya Kumar Shrestha, Mahamoud Sama Cherif, Prakash Ghimire, Chonticha Klungthong, In-Kyu Yoon, Kenji Hirayama, Kesara Na-Bangchang, Stefan Fernandez
Dengue virus (DENV) is expanding toward previously nonendemic areas. DENV has recently been introduced in Nepal with limited information. We report the clinical features and serotype distribution of DENV in Nepal during the 2010 outbreaks. A total of 1,215 clinical dengue cases at two major hospitals of central and western Nepal were investigated. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory parameters were recorded. Serum specimens were tested for DENV by IgM/IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
October 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029328/predicting-deaths-in-a-resource-limited-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-in-nepal
#11
Dhruba Shrestha, Bhim G Dhoubhadel, Christopher M Parry, Bina Prajapati, Koya Ariyoshi, Chandeshwar Mahaseth
Background: This study aimed to determine whether the Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP) scoring system (SNAP II) and with perinatal extension (SNAP II PE) can be used to predict neonatal deaths in a resource-limited neonatal intensive care unit in Nepal. Methods: A prospective observational study was conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Kanti Children's Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Data required for the SNAP II and SNAP II PE scores were collected...
September 28, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029159/impact-evaluation-of-free-delivery-care-on-maternal-health-service-utilisation-and-neonatal-health-in-nepal
#12
Prabhat Lamichhane, Anurag Sharma, Ajay Mahal
Nepal introduced free delivery services for births in public facilities in 2005 in 25 districts with the intervention initially restricted to women with less than two living children and/or women with obstetric complications. After November 2007, eligibility conditions were relaxed to include all women, and the programme was later expanded to cover an additional 50 districts in December 2008. We exploit the phased expansion of the free birth delivery programme to identify its impact on place of delivery, the presence of skilled birth attendants (SBAs) and neonatal mortality using difference-in-difference methods, on data for 4457 live-births reported between 2001 and 2008 from Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys for 2006 and 2011...
September 27, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024995/the-equity-impact-of-community-women-s-groups-to-reduce-neonatal-mortality-a-meta-analysis-of-four-cluster-randomized-trials
#13
Tanja A J Houweling, Caspar W N Looman, Kishwar Azad, Sushmita Das, Carina King, Abdul Kuddus, Sonia Lewycka, Dharma S Manandhar, Neena Sah More, Joanna Morrison, Tambosi Phiri, Shibanand Rath, Mikey Rosato, Aman Sen, Prasanta Tripathy, Audrey Prost, David Osrin, Anthony Costello
Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in neonatal mortality are substantial in many developing countries. Little is known about how to address this problem. Trials in Asia and Africa have shown strong impacts on neonatal mortality of a participatory learning and action intervention with women's groups. Whether this intervention also reduces mortality inequalities remains unknown. We describe the equity impact of this women's groups intervention on the neonatal mortality rate (NMR) across socioeconomic strata...
August 25, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022955/demographic-pattern-and-clinical-characteristics-of-optic-neuritis-in-a-tertiary-eye-care-centre
#14
Manita Sunam Godar, Ananda Kumar Sharma, Madhu Thapa, Sanjeeta Sitaula, Shanti Gurung
PURPOSE: To study the demographic pattern and clinical characteristics of optic neuritis cases in a tertiary eye care centre in Nepal. DESIGN: Descriptive, cross-sectional study. METHODOLOGY: Complete ocular examination was done in all the newly diagnosed cases of optic neuritis presenting from January 1st 2012 to June 30th 2013. Demographic pattern, clinical features, visual acuity, colour vision, contrast sensitivity and visual field defects were studied...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022954/agreement-on-diabetic-retinopathy-grading-in-fundus-photographs-by-allied-ophthalmic-personnel-as-compared-to-ophthalmologist-at-a-community-setting-in-nepal
#15
Raba Thapa, Sanyam Bajimaya, Eli Pradhan, Govinda Paudyal
INTRODUCTION: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the emerging cause of blindness in the developing world. Timely detection of DR could save vision from its avoidable blinding condition. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of DR grading in fundus photographs by the allied ophthalmic personnel (AOP) as compared to ophthalmologist at a community setting in Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fundus photographs of known diabetes subjects attending for DR screening were graded by two groups of AOP and ophthalmologist...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022953/pattern-of-corneal-diseases-in-paediatric-age-group-at-a-tertiary-eye-care-center-in-nepal
#16
A Shah, M Chaudhary, J K Shrestha
OBJECTIVE: It is to study the pattern of corneal diseases (including injuries) in paediatric population in a tertiary eye care center. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A descriptive, cross sectional study was carried out in a tertiary eye care center which included 176 cases. RESULTS: Out of 176 cases studied, 6 cases (3.4%) presented with congenital causes, 4 cases (2.27%) were of dystrophy and ectasia, 63 cases (35.79%) had infective origin, 17 cases (9...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022952/ocular-morbidity-among-porters-at-high-altitudes
#17
Subodh Gnyawali, Gauri Shankar Shrestha, Safal Khanal, Talisa Dennis, John C Spencer
INTRODUCTION: High altitude, often characterized by settings over 2400m, can be detrimental to the human body and pose a significant risk to ocular health. Reports concerning various ocular morbidities occurring as a consequence of high altitude are limited in the current literature. OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed at evaluating the ocular health of porters working at high altitudesof Himalayas in Nepal. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A mobile eye clinic was set up in Ghat and patient data were collected from its out- patient unit by a team of seven optometrists which was run for five days...
January 2017: Nepalese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020047/correlates-of-institutional-deliveries-among-teenage-and-non-teenage-mothers-in-nepal
#18
Pawan Acharya, Tara Ballav Adhikari, Dipika Neupane, Kiran Thapa, Parash Mani Bhandari
INTRODUCTION: Globally, maternal age is identified as an important predictor of institutional service utilization during delivery. This study aims to assess the correlates of institutional delivery among teenage and non-teenage mothers in Nepal by using the data from Nepal Demographic and Health Survey 2011. METHODS: The study population consisted of 5391 women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who had given birth to a child within five years before the survey. Out of them, 381 (7...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020020/distribution-and-habitat-use-of-red-panda-in-the-chitwan-annapurna-landscape-of-nepal
#19
Damber Bista, Saroj Shrestha, Peema Sherpa, Gokarna Jung Thapa, Manish Kokh, Sonam Tashi Lama, Kapil Khanal, Arjun Thapa, Shant Raj Jnawali
In Nepal, the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) has been sparsely studied, although its range covers a wide area. The present study was carried out in the previously untapped Chitwan-Annapurna Landscape (CHAL) situated in central Nepal with an aim to explore current distributional status and identify key habitat use. Extensive field surveys conducted in 10 red panda range districts were used to estimate species distribution by presence-absence occupancy modeling and to predict distribution by presence-only modeling...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018810/renaissance-of-conventional-first-line-antibiotics-in-salmonella-enterica-clinical-isolates-assessment-of-mics-for-therapeutic-antimicrobials-in-enteric-fever-cases-from-nepal
#20
Puspa Raj Khanal, Deepa Satyal, Anjeela Bhetwal, Anjila Maharjan, Shreena Shakya, Snehika Tandukar, Narayan Prasad Parajuli
Enteric fever caused by Salmonella enterica is a life-threatening systemic illness of gastrointestinal tract especially in tropical countries. Antimicrobial therapy is generally indicated but resistance towards commonly used antibiotics has limited their therapeutic usefulness. Therefore, we aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern by minimum inhibitory concentration method of common therapeutic regimens against Salmonella enterica from enteric fever clinical cases. Salmonella enterica clinical isolates recovered from the patients with suspected enteric fever whose blood samples were submitted to microbiology laboratory of Manmohan Memorial Community Hospital, Kathmandu, from March 2016 to August 2016, were studied...
2017: BioMed Research International
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