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Jonna Brenninkmeijer, Hub Zwart
Since the 1990's, the debate concerning the ethical, legal and societal aspects of 'neuro-enhancement' has evolved into a massive discourse, both in the public realm and in the academic arena. This ethical debate, however, tends to repeat the same sets of arguments over and over again. Normative disagreements between transhumanists and bioconservatives on invasive or radical brain stimulators, and uncertainties regarding the use and effectivity of nootropic pharmaceuticals dominate the field. Building on the results of an extensive European project on responsible research and innovation in neuro-enhancement (NERRI), we observe and encourage that the debate is now entering a new and, as we will argue, more realistic and societally relevant stage...
2017: Neuroethics
Allen Porter
Transhumanism is a "technoprogressive" socio-political and intellectual movement that advocates for the use of technology in order to transform the human organism radically, with the ultimate goal of becoming "posthuman." To this end, transhumanists focus on and encourage the use of new and emerging technologies, such as genetic engineering and brain-machine interfaces. In support of their vision for humanity, and as a way of reassuring those "bioconservatives" who may balk at the radical nature of that vision, transhumanists claim common ground with a number of esteemed thinkers and traditions, from the ancient philosophy of Plato and Aristotle to the postmodern philosophy of Nietzsche...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
César Palacios-González
Jürgen Habermas is regarded as a central bioconservative commentator in the debate on the ethics of human prenatal genetic manipulations. While his main work on this topic, The Future of Human Nature, has been widely examined in regard to his position on prenatal genetic enhancement, his arguments regarding prenatal genetic therapeutic interventions have for the most part been overlooked. In this work I do two things. First, I present the three necessary conditions that Habermas establishes for a prenatal genetic manipulation to be regarded as morally permissible...
January 2017: Bioethics
Y M Alvarez-Cisneros, F J Fernández, T Sainz-Espuñez, E Ponce-Alquicira
Enterococcus faecium MXVK29 has the ability to produce an antimicrobial compound that belongs to Class IIa of the Klaenhammer classification, and could be used as part of a biopreservation technology through direct inoculation of the strain as a starter or protective culture. However, Enterococcus is considered as an opportunistic pathogen, hence, the purpose of this work was to study the food safety determinants of E. faecium MXVK29. The strain was sensitive to all of the antibiotics tested (penicillin, tetracycline, vancomycin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, kanamycin and netilmicin) and did not demonstrate histamine, cadaverine or putrescine formation...
February 2017: Letters in Applied Microbiology
Guglielmina Chimienti, Roberta Piredda, Gabriella Pepe, Inez Dorothé van der Werf, Luigia Sabbatini, Carmine Crecchio, Patrizia Ricciuti, Anna Maria D'Erchia, Caterina Manzari, Graziano Pesole
Comprehensive studies of the biodiversity of the microbial epilithic community on monuments may provide critical insights for clarifying factors involved in the colonization processes. We carried out a high-throughput investigation of the communities colonizing the medieval church of San Leonardo di Siponto (Italy) by Illumina-based deep sequencing. The metagenomic analysis of sequences revealed the presence of Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. Bacteria were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes and Candidatus Saccharibacteria...
October 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Russell Powell
Liberal proponents of genetic engineering maintain that developing human germline modification technologies is morally desirable because it will result in a net improvement in human health and well-being. Skeptics of germline modification, in contrast, fear evolutionary harms that could flow from intervening in the human germline, and worry that such programs, even if well intentioned, could lead to a recapitulation of the scientifically and morally discredited projects of the old eugenics. Some bioconservatives have appealed as well to the value of retaining our "given" human biological nature as a reason for restraining the development and use of human genetic modification technologies even where they would tend to increase well-being...
December 2015: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
Alberto Giubilini
According to human enhancement advocates, it is morally permissible (and sometimes obligatory) to use biomedical means to modulate or select certain biological traits in order to increase people's welfare, even when there is no pathology to be treated or prevented. Some authors have recently proposed to extend the use of biomedical means to modulate lust, attraction, and attachment. I focus on some conceptual implications of this proposal, particularly with regard to bioconservatives' understanding of the notions of therapy and enhancement I first explain what makes the proposal of medicalizing love interesting and unique, compared to the other forms of bioenhancement usually advocated...
July 2015: Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics: CQ: the International Journal of Healthcare Ethics Committees
Alberto Giubilini
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2015: Hastings Center Report
Claire Verraes, Sigrid Van Boxstael, Eva Van Meervenne, Els Van Coillie, Patrick Butaye, Boudewijn Catry, Marie-Athénaïs de Schaetzen, Xavier Van Huffel, Hein Imberechts, Katelijne Dierick, George Daube, Claude Saegerman, Jan De Block, Jeroen Dewulf, Lieve Herman
Antimicrobial resistant zoonotic pathogens present on food constitute a direct risk to public health. Antimicrobial resistance genes in commensal or pathogenic strains form an indirect risk to public health, as they increase the gene pool from which pathogenic bacteria can pick up resistance traits. Food can be contaminated with antimicrobial resistant bacteria and/or antimicrobial resistance genes in several ways. A first way is the presence of antibiotic resistant bacteria on food selected by the use of antibiotics during agricultural production...
July 2013: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Timothy F Murphy
Bioconservative commentators argue that parents should not take steps to modify the genetics of their children even in the name of enhancement because of the damage they predict for values, identities and relationships. Some commentators have even said that adults should not modify themselves through genetic interventions. One commentator worries that genetic modifications chosen by adults for themselves will undermine moral agency, lead to less valuable experiences and fracture people's sense of self. These worries are not justified, however, since the effects of modification will not undo moral agency as such...
April 2014: Journal of Medical Ethics
Johann A R Roduit, Holger Baumann, Jan-Christoph Heilinger
Both, bioconservatives and bioliberals, should seek a discussion about ideas of human perfection, making explicit their underlying assumptions about what makes for a good human life. This is relevant, because these basic, and often implicit ideas, inform and influence judgements and choices about human enhancement interventions. Both neglect, and polemical but inconsistent use of the complex ideas of perfection are leading to confusion within the ethical debate about human enhancement interventions, that can be avoided by tackling the notion of perfection directly...
October 2013: Journal of Medical Ethics
Laurent Frippiat
The main objective of this article is to suggest a panel of the different positions active in the human enhancement's debate, to analyze their arguments and to point out the dividing zones. The transhumanist movement is therefore presented in order to highlight the principal thematic of its philosophy, its means of action and the plurality of its subgroups. The purpose is to reassess its complexity in an introductory manner far from the usual, excessive simplifications. In a second time, the "bioconservative" movement is also examined in its foundations to emphasize the norms and principles that are undoubtedly shared by the opponents to the human being's modification...
September 2011: Journal International de Bioéthique, International Journal of Bioethics
Fadwa Jroundi, Antonia Fernández-Vivas, Carlos Rodriguez-Navarro, Eulogio J Bedmar, María Teresa González-Muñoz
The deterioration of the stone built and sculptural heritage has prompted the search and development of novel consolidation/protection treatments that can overcome the limitations of traditional ones. Attention has been drawn to bioconservation, particularly bacterial carbonatogenesis (i.e. bacterially induced calcium carbonate precipitation), as a new environmentally friendly effective conservation strategy, especially suitable for carbonate stones. Here, we study the effects of an in situ bacterial bioconsolidation treatment applied on porous limestone (calcarenite) in the sixteenth century San Jeronimo Monastery in Granada, Spain...
July 2010: Microbial Ecology
Maria Beatriz Tassinari Ortolani, Anderson Keizo Yamazi, Paula Mendonça Moraes, Gabriela Nogueira Viçosa, Luís Augusto Nero
This study aimed to characterize the microbiological quality and safety of raw milk and soft cheese, verifying possible associations between microbial populations, and the detection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens. Raw milk (n = 36) and soft cheese (n = 18) samples were collected and submitted for the analysis of mesophilic aerobes, total coliforms, Escherichia coli, LAB, coagulase-positive Staphylococcus (CPS), Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella spp...
February 2010: Foodborne Pathogens and Disease
Rebecca Roache, Steve Clarke
We consider the current debate between bioconservatives and their chief opponents--whom we dub bioliberals--about the moral acceptability of human enhancement and the policy implications of moral debates about enhancement. We argue that this debate has reached an impasse, largely because bioconservatives hold that we should honour intuitions about the special value of being human, even if we cannot identify reasons to ground those intuitions. We argue that although intuitions are often a reliable guide to belief and action, there are circumstances in which they are not reliable...
March 2009: Monash Bioethics Review
Huagui Liu, Jianjun Fang, Ling Jin, Weihong Zhong, Zijuan Ye
A bacterium capable of producing Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, was isolated from soil. Based on analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence, traditional physiological characteristics, and Biolog-GN, the strain was belonging to the genus Sphingomonas and named as Sphingomonas sp. ZUTEO3. The optimum fermentation condition of CoQ10 production was as following: glucose 15 g/L, (NH4)2SO4 10 g/L, original pH 8.0 and at 25 degrees C. The addition of solanesol could improve CoQ10 production. The optimal condition for the bioconservation from solanesol to CoQ10 was as following: adding 0...
February 2008: Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao, Acta Microbiologica Sinica
Fabio Pardi, Nick Goldman
Phylogenetic diversity (PD) is a useful metric for selecting taxa in a range of biological applications, for example, bioconservation and genomics, where the selection is usually constrained by the limited availability of resources. We formalize taxon selection as a conceptually simple optimization problem, aiming to maximize PD subject to resource constraints. This allows us to take into account the different amounts of resources required by the different taxa. Although this is a computationally difficult problem, we present a dynamic programming algorithm that solves it in pseudo-polynomial time...
June 2007: Systematic Biology
N T D Thuy, E Melchinger-Wild, A W Kuss, N V Cuong, H Bartenschlager, H Geldermann
This study characterized autochthonous pig breeds of Vietnam and compared them with breeds from other regions. A total of 343 animals were considered from 5 indigenous pig breeds of Vietnam (Muong Khuong, Co, Meo, Tap Na, and Mong Cai), 2 exotic breeds kept in Vietnam (Landrace and Yorkshire), 3 European commercial breeds (German Land-race, Piétrain, and Large White), the Chinese breed Meishan, and the European Wild Boar. Each individual was genotyped for 20 selected polymorphic microsatellite loci. The Vietnamese autochthonous breeds showed higher degrees of polymorphism, allelic diversity, and heterozygosity than the other pig breeds...
October 2006: Journal of Animal Science
Giancarlo Aldini, Federica Pirrone, Mariangela Albertini, Marica Orioli, Angela Piccoli, Silvia Mazzola, Maria Giovanna Clement, Marina Carini
The aim of this study was to elucidate the vasodilating mechanism of sodium nitroprusside (SNP). To do this, SNP was intravenously infused in pigs (1.67 micromol/kg), and the following paramagnetic metabolites were identified by electron spin resonance: 1) nitrosylhemoglobin [HbFe(II)NO] as an index of the bioconservative pathway; 2) transferrin; 3) [Fe((II))(CN)(5) NO](3-) and [Fe((II))(CN)(4) NO](2-), the reduced penta- and tetracoordinated intermediates of SNP, respectively; and 4) methemoglobin (met-Hb)...
November 2006: Molecular Pharmacology
Nick Bostrom
Positions on the ethics of human enhancement technologies can be (crudely) characterized as ranging from transhumanism to bioconservatism. Transhumanists believe that human enhancement technologies should be made widely available, that individuals should have broad discretion over which of these technologies to apply to themselves, and that parents should normally have the right to choose enhancements for their children-to-be. Bioconservatives (whose ranks include such diverse writers as Leon Kass, Francis Fukuyama, George Annas, Wesley Smith, Jeremy Rifkin, and Bill McKibben) are generally opposed to the use of technology to modify human nature...
June 2005: Bioethics
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