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Wanli Zhou, Guohong Wang, Chunmei Wang, Fazheng Ren, Yanling Hao
Upon exposure to exogenous pediocin-like bacteriocins, immunity proteins specifically bind to the target receptor of the mannose phosphotransferase system components (man-PTS IIC and IID), therefore preventing bacterial cell death. However, the specific recognition of immunity proteins and its associated target receptors remains poorly understood. In this study, we constructed hybrid receptors to identify the domains of IIC and/or IID recognized by the immunity protein PedB, which confers immunity to pediocin PA-1...
2016: PloS One
Julieta Bonacina, Nadia Suárez, Ricardo Hormigo, Silvina Fadda, Marcus Lechner, Lucila Saavedra
The study of enterococcal genomes has grown considerably in recent years. While special attention is paid to comparative genomic analysis among clinical relevant isolates, in this study we performed an exhaustive comparative analysis of enterococcal genomes of food origin and/or with potential to be used as probiotics. Beyond common genetic features, we especially aimed to identify those that are specific to enterococcal strains isolated from a certain food-related source as well as features present in a species-specific manner...
October 23, 2016: DNA Research: An International Journal for Rapid Publication of Reports on Genes and Genomes
Varish Ahmad, Mohd Sajid Khan, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Mohammad A Alzohairy, Mohammad A Al Karaawi, Mughees Uddin Siddiqui
Due to the appearance of antibiotic resistance and the toxicity associated with currently used antibiotics, peptide antibiotics are the need of the hour. Thus, demand for new antimicrobial agents has brought great interest in new technologies to enhance safety. One such antimicrobial molecule is bacteriocin, synthesised by various micro-organisms. Bacteriocins are widely used in agriculture, veterinary medicine as a therapeutic, and as a food preservative agent to control various infectious and food-borne pathogens...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Tianpei Huang, Xiaojuan Zhang, Jieru Pan, Xiaoyu Su, Xin Jin, Xiong Guan
Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), one of the most successful biopesticides, may expand its potential by producing bacteriocins (thuricins). The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial potential of a novel Bt bacteriocin, thuricin BtCspB, produced by Bt BRC-ZYR2. The results showed that this bacteriocin has a high similarity with cold-shock protein B (CspB). BtCspB lost its activity after proteinase K treatment; however it was active at 60 °C for 30 min and was stable in the pH range 5-7. The partial loss of activity after the treatments of lipase II and catalase were likely due to the change in BtCspB structure and the partial degradation of BtCspB, respectively...
October 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
Luca Mogna, Francesca Deidda, Stefania Nicola, Angela Amoruso, Mario Del Piano, Giovanni Mogna
GOALS: To determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of selected Lactobacillus strains isolated from the feces of healthy humans against Klebsiella pneumoniae. BACKGROUND: Klebsiella is ubiquitous in nature and may colonize the skin, the pharynx, or the gastrointestinal tract of humans. Despite the widespread use of antibiotic molecules with a broad spectrum in hospitalized patients, an increased overall load of klebsiellae as well as the subsequent development of multidrug-resistant strains able to synthesize extended-spectrum beta-lactamase have been registered...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Benoît Remenant, Frédéric Borges, Catherine Cailliez-Grimal, Anne-Marie Revol-Junelles, Laurent Marché, Aurélie Lajus, Claudine Médigue, Marie-France Pilet, Hervé Prévost, Monique Zagorec
In this study, we present the draft genome sequence of Carnobacterium divergens V41. This strain was previously reported as producing divercin V41, a bacteriocin of interest for food biopreservation. Its genome revealed also the presence of a gene cluster putatively involved in polyketide production, which is unique in lactic acid bacteria.
October 13, 2016: Genome Announcements
Kristin Ciezki, Kristen Murfin, Heidi Goodrich-Blair, S Patricia Stock, Steven Forst
R-type bacteriocins are contractile phage-tail-like structures that are bactericidal towards related bacterial species. The C-terminal region of the phage tail fiber protein determines target-binding specificity. The mutualistic bacteria Xenorhabdus nematophila and Xenorhabdus bovienii produce R-type bacteriocins (xenorhabdicins) that are selectively active against different Xenorhabdus species. We analyzed the P2-type remnant prophage clusters in draft sequences of nine strains of X. bovienii The C-terminal tail fiber region in each of the respective strains was unique and consisted of mosaics of modular units...
October 12, 2016: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Zhizhen Qi, Yujun Cui, Qingwen Zhang, Ruifu Yang
This chapter summarized the taxonomy and typing works of Yersinia pestis since it's firstly identified in Hong Kong in 1894. Phenotyping methods that based on phenotypic characteristics, including biotyping, serotyping, antibiogram analysis, bacteriocin typing, phage typing, and plasmid typing, were firstly applied in classification of Y. pestis in subspecies level. And then, with the advancement of molecular biological technology, the methods based on outer membrane protein profiles, fatty acid composition, and bacterial mass fingerprinting were also used to identify the populations within Y...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Kaberi Gautam, Timothy D Schwinghamer, Donald L Smith
Microbe-to-plant signals can enhance the growth of a wide range of crops. The responses by soybean (Glycine max var. 91M01) to two signal molecules were investigated: Bradyrhizobium japonicum 532C lipo-chitooligosaccharide (Nod Bj V [C:18, MeFuc]) (LCO); and Bacillus thuringiensis strain NEB17 bacteriocin thuricin 17 (Th17). The objective was to assess and quantify the response by soybean, in terms of factors that contribute to yield, to the experimental signal molecules in germination experiments and field experiments...
October 4, 2016: Plant Signaling & Behavior
Luz E Casados-Vázquez, Dennis K Bideshi, José E Barboza-Corona
Thurincin H is a bacteriocin synthesized by some strains of Bacillus thuringiensis. In this study, the thurincin H genetic cassette, which contains ten genes, from a Mexican strain of B. thuringiensis subsp. morrisoni (Btm) was cloned and sequenced. To study the function of the thnR gene component in the cassette, we generated various constructs with or without thnR for expression in Btm. All transformants harboring thnR in recombinant plasmids showed a decrease of ~15 to ~90 % in inhibitory activity against the target strain, Bacillus cereus 183...
October 3, 2016: Archives of Microbiology
Rheinallt M Jones
The results generated from the NIH funded Human Microbiome Project (HMP) are necessarily tied to the overall mission of the agency, which is to foster scientific discoveries as a basis for protecting and improving health. The investment in the HMP phase 1 accomplished many of its goals including the preliminary characterization of the human microbiome and the identification of links between microbiome diversity and disease states. Going forward, the next step in these studies must involve the identification of the functional molecular elements that mediate the positive influence of a eubiotic microbiome on health and disease...
September 2016: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Marcus Lívio Varella Coelho, Andreza Freitas de Souza Duarte, Maria do Carmo de Freire Bastos
One of the biggest challenges faced presently by clinicians is the emergence of multi drug--resistant pathogens that can infect humans and animals.To control the infections caused by such pathogens the development of new drugs is required. Bacteria are a rich source of ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides known as bacteriocins, which are characterized by the presence of a self-defense immunity system. Labionin-containing lantibiotics and sactibiotics are post-translationally modified bacteriocins with peculiar features...
September 30, 2016: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Alexandre Almeida, Cinthia Alves-Barroco, Elisabeth Sauvage, Ricardo Bexiga, Pedro Albuquerque, Fernando Tavares, Ilda Santos-Sanches, Philippe Glaser
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a host-generalist species, most notably causing disease in humans and cattle. However, the differential adaptation of GBS to its two main hosts, and the risk of animal to human infection remain poorly understood. Despite improvements in control measures across Europe, GBS is still one of the main causative agents of bovine mastitis in Portugal. Here, by whole-genome analysis of 150 bovine GBS isolates we discovered that a single CC61 clone is spreading throughout Portuguese herds since at least the early 1990s, having virtually replaced the previous GBS population...
October 1, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Hazem A Fahim, Ahmed S Khairalla, Ahmed O El-Gendy
Bacteriocins are proteinaceous antibacterial compounds, produced by diverse bacteria, which have been successfully used as: (i) food biopreservative; (ii) anti-biofilm agents; and (iii) additives or alternatives to the currently existing antibiotics, to minimize the risk of emergence of resistant strains. However, there are several limitations that challenge the use of bacteriocins as biopreservatives/antibacterial agents. One of the most promising avenues to overcome these limitations is the use of nanoformulations...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Özgün C O Umu, Christine Bäuerl, Marije Oostindjer, Phillip B Pope, Pablo E Hernández, Gaspar Pérez-Martínez, Dzung B Diep
Production of bacteriocins is a potential probiotic feature of many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as it can help prevent the growth of pathogens in gut environments. However, knowledge on bacteriocin producers in situ and their function in the gut of healthy animals is still limited. In this study, we investigated five bacteriocin-producing strains of LAB and their isogenic non-producing mutants for probiotic values. The LAB bacteriocins, sakacin A (SakA), pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1), enterocins P, Q and L50 (enterocins), plantaricins EF and JK (plantaricins) and garvicin ML (GarML), are all class II bacteriocins, but they differ greatly from each other in terms of inhibition spectrum and physicochemical properties...
2016: PloS One
Yueying Wang, Jingjing Fu, Qian Zhu, Lei Zhu, Jinshui Zheng, Hualin Liu, Donghai Peng, Lifang Ruan, Ming Sun
Bacillus thuringiensis serovar alesti was used to control caterpillars from 1970s. Here we reported the complete genome of BGSC 4C1, the type strain of this serovar. It has a circular chromosome and six plasmids. The largest plasmid pBMB267 contains five insecticidal crystal protein genes (two copies of cry1Ae, cry1Gb, cry2Ab, and a novel cry1M-type gene) and three vegetative insecticidal protein genes (a novel binary toxin gene operon vip1-vip2 and vip3Aa). Besides, the strain also has many genes encodeing virulence factors, and some secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters involved in synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and bacteriocins...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
Sara Arbulu, Juan J Jiménez, Loreto Gútiez, Cristina Campanero, Rosa Del Campo, Luis M Cintas, Carmen Herranz, Pablo E Hernández
BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are part of the gut microbiota and produce ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides or bacteriocins with interest as natural food preservatives and therapeutic agents. Bacteriocin-producing LAB are also attractive as probiotics. Griffon vultures (Gyps fulvus subspecies fulvus) are scavenger birds that feed almost exclusively on carrion without suffering apparent ill effects. Therefore, griffon vultures might be considered a reservoir of bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with potential biotechnological applications...
September 29, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jayne Manning, Eileen M Dunne, Philip A Wescombe, John D F Hale, E Kim Mulholland, John R Tagg, Roy M Robins-Browne, Catherine Satzke
BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal adherence to the nasopharyngeal epithelium is a critical step in colonisation and disease. The probiotic bacterium, Streptococcus salivarius, can inhibit pneumococcal adherence to epithelial cells in vitro. We investigated the mechanism(s) of inhibition using a human pharyngeal epithelial cell line (Detroit 562) following pre-administration of two different strains of S. salivarius. RESULTS: Whilst the bacteriocin-encoding megaplasmids of S...
September 29, 2016: BMC Microbiology
Jinjin Pei, Tianli Yue, Wengang Jin
Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris is one of the most spoilage-causing bacteria in fruit juices. In this paper, controlling A. acidoterrestris in apple juice by bacteriocin RC20975 was described. Twenty-one strains of A. acidoterrestris were used to investigate the activity spectrum of bacteriocin RC20975 in apple juice with the result that 16 strains were sensitive. The ratio of activity in apple juice to the activity in laboratory medium was 42%. The reduction of antimicrobial activity in apple juice might be due to problems related to its interaction with food components...
September 25, 2016: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Ping Li, Qing Gu, Qingqing Zhou
Lactobacilli strains have been considered as important candidates for manufacturing "natural food", due to their antimicrobial properties and generally regarded as safe (GRAS) status. Lactobacillus plantarum LZ206 is a potential probiotic strain isolated from raw cow milk, with antimicrobial activity against various pathogens, including Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes), Gram-negtive bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella enterica), and fungus Candida albicans. To better understand molecular base for its antimicrobial activity, entire genome of LZ206 was sequenced...
November 20, 2016: Journal of Biotechnology
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