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Anal cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212258/factors-influencing-difficulty-of-laparoscopic-abdominoperineal-resection-for-ultra-low-rectal-cancer
#1
Qiken Li, Dechuan Li, Lai Jiang, Pengnian Qiu, Zhixuan Fu, Lilong Tang, Weiping Chen
PURPOSE: Our current study was conducted to identify patients' anatomic, pathologic, and clinical factors to predict difficulty of performing laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for ultra-low rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of 117 consecutive patients with rectal cancer 2 to 5 cm from the anal verge were retrospectively reviewed. Using univariate and multivariate linear or logistic regression models, standardized operative time and blood loss, as well as postoperative morbidity were utilized as endpoints to screen patients' multiple variables to predict operative difficulty...
February 16, 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206939/the-ferguson-operating-anoscope-for-resection-of-t1-rectal-cancer
#2
Kristin C Turza, Thomas Brien, Steven Porbunderwala, Christopher M Bell, Shauna Lorenzo-Rivero, Richard A Moore, Eric C Nelson, J Daniel Stanley
The Ferguson Operating Anoscope (FOA) is a surgical instrument, which can facilitate transanal excision of appropriate rectal tumors within 15 cm of the anal verge. Previous work showed low recurrence (4.3%) for favorable T1 tumors (no lymphovascular invasion, well/moderate differentiation, negative margins). This follow-up study evaluates outcomes in rectal cancer excised with FOA at a tertiary care center. T1 rectal cancer patients were identified in a prospectively maintained database. Tumor pathology and patient characteristics were reviewed...
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203173/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anal-transitional-zone-after-ileal-pouch-surgery-for-ulcerative-colitis-systematic-review-and-treatment-perspectives
#3
Gianluca Pellino, Christos Kontovounisios, Diana Tait, John Nicholls, Paris P Tekkis
BACKGROUND: Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. RESULTS: Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194687/fecal-incontinence-and-radiation-dose-on-anal-sphincter-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-larc-treated-with-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-a-retrospective-single-institutional-study
#4
F Arias, C Eito, G Asín, I Mora, K Cambra, F Mañeru, B Ibáñez, L Arbea, A Viudez, I Hernández, J I Arrarás, M Errasti, M Barrado, M Campo, I Visus, S Flamarique, M A Ciga
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to determine the correlations among the variables of dose and the sphincter function (SF) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative capecitabine/radiotherapy followed by low anterior resection (LAR) + TME. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 92 consecutive patients with LARC treated at our center with LAR from 2006 and more than 2 years free from disease. We re-contoured the anal sphincters (AS) of patients with the help of the radiologist...
February 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152894/engaging-managing-physicians-in-clinical-staging-prior-to-the-initiation-of-cancer-treatment
#5
Carol Huibregtse, Marija Bjegovich-Weidman, James L Weese
: 143 Background: Managing physicians (medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, surgeons) have a responsibility to clinically stage patients prior to the initiation of cancer treatment. Clinical staging not only directs the treatment plan, but identifies appropriate clinical trials and estimates prognosis. We sought to determine whether engagement of managing physicians would result in increased clinical staging for various types of cancer. METHODS: Baseline data on clinical staging for breast, colorectal (colon, rectal, anal, rectosigmoid junction)*, thoracic (lung esophageal)†, genitourinary (prostate, penis, testes)‡, and pancreatic primary cancers were obtained...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139076/gamma-knife-radiosurgery-for-brain-metastases-from-gastrointestinal-primary
#6
Brandi R Page, Edina C Wang, Lance White, Emory McTyre, Ann Peiffer, Angela Alistar, Frank Mu, Amritraj Loganathan, John Daniel Bourland, Adrian W Laxton, Stephen B Tatter, Michael D Chan
INTRODUCTION: In this study, we assessed clinical outcomes of patients with brain metastases from a gastrointestinal (GI) primary cancer and patterns of failure after stereotactic radiosurgery including failure within the radiosurgical volume, distant failure and leptomeningeal failure (LMF). We also assessed other factors associated with the patients' neurologic and extraneuraxial disease that may affect clinical outcomes. METHODS: We reviewed our institutional series of 62 consecutive patients with brain metastases treated with stereotactic radiosurgery, which included 17 patients with oesophageal, 44 patients with colorectal and one patient with anal canal primary...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055110/survivorship-after-lower-gastrointestinal-cancer-patient-reported-outcomes-and-planning-for-care
#7
Melissa A Frick, Carolyn C Vachani, Margaret K Hampshire, Christina Bach, Karen Arnold-Korzeniowski, James M Metz, Christine E Hill-Kayser
BACKGROUND: There is significant need for quality follow-up care to optimize long-term outcomes for the growing population of lower gastrointestinal (GI) cancer survivors. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) provide valuable information regarding late and long-term effects (LLTEs). METHODS: A convenience sample from 1129 colon, rectal, and anal cancer survivors (n = 792; 218, and 119, respectively) who participated in an Internet-based survivorship care plan (SCP) tool between May 2010 and October 2014 was used to examine patient-reported demographics, treatment, and toxicity data...
January 5, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28006858/eurogin-2016-roadmap-how-hpv-knowledge-is-changing-screening-practice
#8
REVIEW
Nicolas Wentzensen, Marc Arbyn, Johannes Berkhof, Mark Bower, Karen Canfell, Mark Einstein, Christopher Farley, Joseph Monsonego, Silvia Franceschi
Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are the necessary cause of most cervical cancers, a large proportion of other anogenital cancers, and a subset of oropharyngeal cancers. The knowledge about HPV has led to development of novel HPV-based prevention strategies with important impact on clinical and public health practice. Two complementary reviews have been prepared following the 2015 Eurogin Conference to evaluate how knowledge about HPV is changing practice in HPV infection and disease control through vaccination and screening...
December 22, 2016: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938574/-effects-of-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy-on-the-rates-of-sphincter-preserving-surgery-in-lower-rectal-cancer-and-analysis-of-their-prognostic-factors
#9
X J Wang, P Chi, H M Lin, X R Lu, Y Huang, Z B Xu, S H Huang, Y W Sun, D X Ye
Objectives: To identify independent factors of sphincter preserving surgery, and to evaluated whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (CRT) improves the sphincter preservation rate for lower rectal cancers. Methods: A total of 541 consecutive patients who underwent curative surgery for locally advanced rectal cancer (cT3-4Nx or cTxN+ ) within 6 cm of the anal verge with or without neoadjuvant CRT in Department of Colorectal Surgery, Union Hospital, Fujian Medical University between September 2000 and September 2013 were reviewed...
1, 2016: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923035/biomarkers-in-anal-cancer-from-biological-understanding-to-stratified-treatment
#10
Christopher M Jones, Vicky Goh, David Sebag-Montefiore, Duncan C Gilbert
Squamous cell carcinomas of the anus and anal canal represent a model of a cancer and perhaps the first where level 1 evidence supported primary chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in treating locoregional disease with curative intent. The majority of tumours are associated with infection with oncogenic subtypes of human papilloma virus and this plays a significant role in their sensitivity to treatment. However, not all tumours are cured with CRT and there remain opportunities to improve outcomes in terms of oncological control and also reducing late toxicities...
January 17, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897023/-current-knowledge-about-hpv-infection
#11
A Mladěnka, A Kubečková, J Sláma
OBJECTIVE: Overview of current data on HPV infection. DESIGN: Review article. SETTING: Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University Hospital in Ostrava, Clinic of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University Hospital in Hradec Králové, Clinic of Gynecology and Obstetrics, General University Hospital in Prague. METHODS AND RESULTS: Human papillomavirus is a sexually transmitted pathogen that causes anogenital disorders...
2016: Ceská Gynekologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891533/screening-for-cancer-in-persons-living-with-hiv-infection
#12
James J Goedert, H Dean Hosgood, Robert J Biggar, Howard D Strickler, Charles S Rabkin
Survival with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has greatly improved due to effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). As infectious complications have declined, malignancy now accounts for over one-third of deaths among people living with HIV (PLWH). Based on practices in the general population, cancer screening of PLWH can decrease both morbidity and mortality. In this article, we review and consider directed approaches for colorectal, breast, cervical and lung cancer screening. Furthermore, routine physical examinations may detect lymphomas and skin, anal and oral cancers...
August 2016: Trends in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889040/evolution-and-management-of-treatment-related-toxicity-in-anal-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Ethan B Ludmir, Lisa A Kachnic, Brian G Czito
Over the past several decades, clinical trials have demonstrated improved disease-related outcomes in the definitive treatment of anal cancer. Although treatment with radiation and concurrent chemotherapy results in high rates of cure, significant acute and late toxicities are seen. This review focuses on the evolution of treatment-related toxicity for anal cancer. Management of these adverse effects is reviewed, as are future directions in anal cancer treatment and their impact on toxicity.
January 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881522/prevalence-of-papillomavirus-in-brazil-a-systematic-review-protocol
#14
Verônica Colpani, Augusto Bacelo Bidinotto, Maicon Falavigna, Silvana Pereira Giozza, Adele Schwartz Benzaken, Cristina Pimenta, Ana Goretti Kalume Maranhão, Carla Magda Allan Santos Domingues, Luciano Serpa Hammes, Eliana M Wendland
INTRODUCTION: Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a cause of premalignant and malignant cancer in the lower genital and digestive tracts. In Brazil, there have been no prevalence studies that included a nationwide sample, and the prevalence of HPV has not been determined in many regions. METHODS: We will search the EMBASE, LILACS, MEDLINE, Web of Science and SciELO databases and previously published review articles to identify original research articles assessing HPV prevalence of the perineal (cervical, penile and anal) and oral areas...
November 22, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849632/malignancies-in-women-with-hiv-infection
#15
Nora T Oliver, Elizabeth Y Chiao
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To review current knowledge of different cancer states affecting women with HIV infection. RECENT FINDINGS: With improved survival of persons with HIV in the post-cART era, the landscape of malignancies in this population has greatly changed with fewer AIDS-defining malignancies (ADM) and a growing number of non-AIDS defining malignancies (NADM). Women, however, continue to represent a vulnerable population at risk for certain ADM and NADM such as cervical, anal, and breast cancer...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830391/robotically-assisted-laparoscopic-ovarian-transposition-in-women-with-lower-gastrointestinal-cancer-undergoing-pelvic-radiotherapy
#16
Vasileios D Sioulas, Soledad Jorge, Jing-Yi Chern, Maria B Schiavone, Martin R Weiser, Joanne F Kelvin, Ginger J Gardner, Yukio Sonoda, Nadeem R Abu-Rustum, Karyn A Goodman, Mario M Leitao
BACKGROUND: Pelvic radiotherapy (RT) is a standard component of the management for patients with locally advanced rectal cancer or squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. Pelvic RT leads to permanent and irreversible ovarian failure in young women. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of robotically assisted laparoscopic ovarian transposition (OT) before RT in women with rectal or anal cancer who wanted to preserve normal ovarian function. METHODS: The study reviewed the medical records of all patients treated at our institution from August 2009 to October 2014 who received robotically assisted laparoscopic OT for rectal or anal cancer before RT...
January 2017: Annals of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27828801/human-papillomavirus-associated-anal-and-cervical-cancers-in-hiv-infected-individuals-incidence-and-prevention-in-the-antiretroviral-therapy-era
#17
Joel M Palefsky
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The incidence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-related cancers has increased (anal cancer) or not declined (cervical cancer) since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This article reviews recent data on incidence and prevention efforts for HPV-related cancers in the ART era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART may confer some benefit with respect to reducing the risk of anal high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion and cancer, but the degree of that benefit appears to be limited...
January 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784002/next-generation-sequencing-and-its-applications-in-hpv-associated-cancers
#18
REVIEW
Musaffe Tuna, Christopher I Amos
Approximately 18% of all human cancers have a viral etiology, and human papillomavirus (HPV) has been identified as one of the most prevalent viruses that plays causative role in nearly all cervical cancers and, in addition, in subset of head and neck, anal, penile and vulvar cancers. The recent introduction of next generation sequencing (NGS) and other 'omics' approaches have resulted in comprehensive knowledge on the pathogenesis of HPV-driven tumors. Specifically, these approaches have provided detailed information on genomic HPV integration sites, disrupted genes and pathways, and common and distinct genetic and epigenetic alterations in different human HPV-associated cancers...
January 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780791/early-dose-dependent-cortical-thinning-of-the-femoral-neck-in-anal-cancer-patients-treated-with-pelvic-radiation-therapy
#19
Catherine Okoukoni, David M Randolph, Emory R McTyre, Andy Kwok, Ashley A Weaver, A William Blackstock, Michael T Munley, Jeffrey S Willey
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Anal cancer patients treated with radiation therapy (RT) have an increased risk of hip fractures after treatment. The mechanism of these fractures is unknown; however, femoral fractures have been correlated with cortical bone thinning. The objective of this study was to assess early changes in cortical bone thickness at common sites of femoral fracture in anal cancer patients treated with intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: RT treatment plans and computed tomography (CT) scans from 23 anal cancer patients who underwent IMRT between November 2012 and December 2014 were retrospectively reviewed...
January 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779994/staging-rectal-cancer-the-utility-of-chest-radiograph-and-chest-computed-tomography
#20
Michael P O'Leary, Aaron B Parrish, Cynthia M Tom, Brian W MacLaughlin, Beverley A Petrie
The National Comprehensive Cancer Network recommends that patients who are newly diagnosed with rectal cancer undergo staging CT scan of the chest. It is unclear whether posteroanterior and lateral chest radiography (X-ray) alone would provide adequate staging for most of these patients. A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had a two-view chest X-ray along with a chest CT for rectal cancer staging from 2007 to 2015. A total of 74 patients had both modalities. Sixty-three (85%) had a normal chest X-ray and 11 (15%) had an abnormal chest X-ray...
October 2016: American Surgeon
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