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Anal cancer review

M K L Poon, J P H Wong, A T W Li, M Manuba, A Bisignano, M Owino, M Vahabi
Human papillomavirus (hpv) infection is the cause of anal squamous cell cancer (ascc) in 80% of cases. Available research has also shown high prevalence of anal hpv infection among men who have sex with men (msm). However, hpv vaccination is low among msm in Canada. In light of this information, we conducted a scoping review with the aim of exploring (1) the knowledge of hpv and anal cancer among hiv-positive msm and (2) the acceptability of hpv and anal cancer self-sampling in this population. In conducting the review, we searched five electronic databases for peer-reviewed articles and abstracts published in English, between 2007 and 2017...
February 2018: Current Oncology
L Ottria, V Candotto, F Cura, L Baggi, C Arcuri, M Nardone, R M Gaudio, R Gatto, F Spadari, F Carinci
The aim of this paper is to describe the efficacy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) vaccines for preventing oral cancer. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to describe the state of the art about HPV vaccines for preventing oral cancer. The aspects of prevention and control of infection by administering vaccines and the diffusion of sexual education campaigns are discussed also. In recent years there has been a growing interest in HPV in dentistry, suggesting a role of such a family of viruses in the development of oral cancers as well as of the uterine cervix...
January 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Knut M Augestad, Deborah S Keller, Paul M Bakaki, Johnie Rose, Siran M Koroukian, Tom Øresland, Conor P Delaney
BACKGROUND: The impact of rectal cancer tumor height on local recurrence and metastatic spread is unknown. The objective was to evaluate the impact of rectal cancer tumor height from the anal verge on metastatic spread and local recurrence patterns. METHODS: The Norwegian nationwide surgical quality registry was reviewed for curative rectal cancer resections from 1/1/1996-12/15/2006. Cancers were stratified into five height groups: 0-3 cm, >3-5 cm, >5-9 cm, >9-12 cm, 12 cm-HI...
January 30, 2018: Cancer Epidemiology
Harunobu Sato, Yoshikazu Koide, Miho Shiota, Masahiro Mizuno, Zenichi Morise, Ichiro Uyama
We reviewed the clinical records of 14 cases who received neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy(CRT)to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the CRT for T4b rectal cancer. The preoperative radiotherapy consisted of 40-50 Gy delivered in fractions of 1.8-2.0 Gy per day, 5 days per week. A treatment with intravenous 5-fluorouracil, or oral tegafur-uracil(UFT)with l-leucovorin, or oral S-1, or capecitabine or intravenous irinotecan with oral S-1, was administered during radiotherapy. One patient died due to pelvic abscess at 69 days after CRT...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Daniel Boda, Anca Oana Docea, Daniela Calina, Mihaela Adriana Ilie, Constantin Caruntu, Sabina Zurac, Monica Neagu, Carolina Constantin, Daciana Elena Branisteanu, Vlad Voiculescu, Charalampos Mamoulakis, George Tzanakakis, Demetrios A Spandidos, Nikolaos Drakoulis, Aristides M Tsatsakis
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are a small group of non‑enveloped viruses belonging to the Papillomaviridae family with strong similarities to polyoma viruses. The viral particles consist of a genome in the form of a circular double‑stranded DNA, encompassing eight open reading frames, as well as a non‑enveloped icosahedral capsid. HPV infection is considered the most common sexually transmitted disease in both sexes and is strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of different types of cancer. 'High‑risk' mucosal HPV types, predominantly types 16, 18, 31, 33 and 35, are associated with most cervical, penile, vulvar, vaginal, anal, oropharyngeal cancers and pre‑cancers...
January 29, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jing Sun, Sen Zhang, Minhua Zheng
Clinical investigation in minimally invasive gastrointestinal surgery has been developed by leaps and bounds in 2017. Standardizations of port placement, surgical approaches, lymphadenectomy, reconstruction, total laparoscopic surgery, incision-free technique, 3D laparoscope, as well as robotic surgeries, have been established. In the treatment for gastric cancer, the first-hand data of the laparoscopic technique for advanced gastric cancer will be released soon. Therefore, the research hotspots have been moved forward to lymphadenectomy, resection range, and reconstruction in laparoscopic advanced gastric cancer surgery...
January 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
Muhammad Masab, Muhammad W Saif
Patients who are immunocompromised by diseases such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone to develop some malignancies such as Kaposi's sarcoma and central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. Historically, anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) was also included on the list as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDs)-defining cancer.  Similarly, compromised immune disorders including severe immunosuppression, haematologic malignancies, and solid organ transplantation have been identified as important risk factors for the development of anal SCC...
November 15, 2017: Curēus
Justin M Hintze, James P O'Neill
PURPOSE: The purpose of this review is to highlight the benefits of gender-neutral and the nonavalent human papillomavirus vaccination. Human papillomavirus infection is the most commonly sexually transmitted disease and is known to cause several types of cancers, including cervical, vulvar, vaginal, penile, oropharyngeal, anal, and rectal. 5% of cancers every year are attributable to human papillomavirus infection, with cervical cancer the most common and oropharyngeal cancer estimated to surpass the incidence of cervical cancer by 2020...
April 2018: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Benny Johnson, Cathy Eng
An estimated 8200 men and women in the United States will receive a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) in 2017. Although SCCA is rare, accounting for 2.6% of gastrointestinal cancers, its incidence rate has been steadily increasing over the last few decades in the United States and around the world. More than 90% of cases of SCCA occur in the context of prior human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. To date, preventive vaccinations against HPV remain markedly underutilized. Most patients who have SCCA present with locoregional disease that is cured with chemoradiation...
December 2017: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
O A Lavryk, T L Hull, L C Duraes, L Stocchi, J H Ashburn, D Liska, E Gorgun, H Kessler
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to assess the short-term and long-term consequences of diverting loop ileostomy (DLI) omission in ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) surgery complicated by postoperative pelvic sepsis. METHODS: This was a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database. Of 4031 patients who underwent IPAA in 1983-2014, 357 developed IPAA-related pelvic sepsis with or without anastomotic dehiscence. Patients with Crohn's disease or cancer were excluded...
December 28, 2017: Techniques in Coloproctology
V Candotto, D Lauritano, M Nardone, L Baggi, C Arcuri, R Gatto, R M Gaudio, F Spadari, F Carinci
Purpose: The aim of this paper is to describe epidemiology and clinical manifestations of oral infection by Human papillomavirus (HPV), with particular attention to potential malignant lesions. Materials and methods: A systematic review of the literature was conducted to describe the state of the art about HPV infection in oropharyngeal mucosa and its modalities of transmission, with particular attention to possible simultaneous infection in multiple anatomic sites...
July 2017: Oral & Implantology
Bong-Hyeon Kye, Jun-Gi Kim, Hyeon-Min Cho, Hyung-Jin Kim, Chung-Soo Chun
PURPOSE: We intended to identify the oncological outcome for rectal cancer over the past 20 years and whether or not sphincter-preserving surgery is an appropriate approach for low-lying rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The oncological outcomes from a total of 418 patients who electively underwent rectal cancer surgery for a lesion located within 8 cm of the anal verge by a single colorectal surgeon were reviewed retrospectively. RESULTS: Of 418 patients, 175 patients underwent low anterior resection (LAR), 172 laparoscopic abdominal transanal proctocolectomy with coloanal anastomosis (LATA), and 71 abdominoperineal resection (APR)...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Samantha C Sodergren, Colin D Johnson, Alexandra Gilbert, Krzysztof A Tomaszewski, William Chu, Hans T Chung, Kristopher Dennis, Isacco Desideri, Robert Glynne-Jones, Marianne Grønlie Guren, Dimitrios Kardamakis, Karen Nugent, Heike Schmidt, David Sebag-Montefiore, Vassilios Vassiliou
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is currently no health-related quality of life (HRQoL) measure specific to anal cancer. Our objective was to develop an anal cancer HRQoL module to supplement the EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire using EORTC Quality of Life Group Guidelines. MATERIALS AND METHOD: In order to generate a list of HRQoL issues facing anal cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy (CRT), we systematically reviewed the literature and conducted semi-structured interviews with patients and health care professionals (HCPs)...
February 2018: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Katarzyna Zabielska-Koczywąs, Roman Lechowski
BACKGROUND: Cancer remains a leading cause of death in companion animals. In human medicine, liposomes and nanoparticles have been extensively investigated as drug delivery systems (DDS) for anticancer agents due to their ability to target cancerous cells and reduce the negative side effects of free cytostatic drugs. In this review, the authors discuss the results of clinical trials using liposomes and polymer-based nanoparticles as DDS to improve cancer treatment in dogs and cats, indicating which ones seem worth further evaluation...
December 7, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Elisha T Fredman, May Abdel-Wahab, Aryavarta M S Kumar
Objective: Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) has largely supplanted three-dimensional conformal radiation (3D-CRT) for definitive anal cancer treatment due to decreased toxicity and potentially improved outcomes. Convincing data demonstrating its advantages, however, remain limited. We compared outcomes and toxicity with concurrent chemotherapy and IMRT vs 3D-CRT for anal cancer. Methods: We performed a single-institution retrospective review of patients treated with IMRT or 3D-CRT as part of definitive mitomycin-C/5-fluorouricil-based chemoradiation for anal cancer from January 2003 to December 2012...
2017: Journal of Radiation Oncology
Sivakumar Mahalingam, Ramakrishnan Ayloor Seshadri, Surendran Veeraiah
Surgery for low rectal cancer often involves a permanent stoma. Intersphincteric resection (ISR) with colo-anal anastomosis is a valuable sphincter sparing surgical procedure that avoids the need for permanent stoma in patients with low rectal cancer. The aim of this study was to analyze the long-term functional and oncological outcomes following ISR. This was a retrospective analysis of patients with low rectal cancer who underwent ISR with colo-anal anastomosis in our institution between 2007 and 2015. All patients had a diversion stoma...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
Antonio Caycedo-Marulanda, Henry Y Jiang, Erica L Kohtakangas
BACKGROUND: Transanal minimally invasive surgery (TAMIS) has emerged as a relatively new technique in treating early cancer and benign lesion of the rectum. The technique is likely to be widely adopted, surpassing other comparable techniques owing to its simple setup and cost-effectiveness. We assessed the outcomes of TAMIS at our centre. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed prospectively collected data on 50 patients who underwent TAMIS for benign, malignant T1 or T2 cancers that were unfit for radical surgery over a 4-year period...
December 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
Rebecca Fish, Caroline Sanders, Paula R Williamson, Andrew G Renehan
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) has increased threefold in the last 30 years. Initial treatment is chemoradiotherapy, associated with short-term and long-term side effects. Future therapy innovations aim to reduce morbidity in treatment of early tumours while maintaining treatment efficacy, and to escalate treatment intensity in locally advanced tumours with acceptable quality of life (QoL). However, all phase III randomised controlled trials to-date have utilised different primary outcomes, which hinders evidence synthesis and presents challenges to the selection of optimal outcomes in future trials...
November 22, 2017: BMJ Open
Chunqing Lin, Silvia Franceschi, Gary M Clifford
BACKGROUND: Data on carcinogenicity of human papillomavirus (HPV) types in the anus are needed to inform anal cancer prevention through vaccination and screening. This is particularly the case for people infected with HIV, who are at an increased risk of anal cancer. METHODS: We did a systematic review of studies published from January, 1986, to July, 2017, in MEDLINE, Embase, and the Cochrane Library on anal HPV infection, without any language restrictions. Eligible studies reported type-specific HPV prevalence by strata of cytopathological or histopathological anal diagnosis, sex, and HIV status...
February 2018: Lancet Infectious Diseases
Bridget K M Lekoane, Tivani P Mashamba-Thompson, Themba G Ginindza
BACKGROUND: Despite the introduction of HPV vaccines, the incidence of HPV-related cancers (cervical, penile, anal, vulvar, vagina, head, and neck) in sub-Saharan Africa has been rising. The increasing incidence of these HPV-related cancers has been attributed to changes in lifestyle-related risk factors, most notably sexual behavior. The main objective of this study is to map evidence on the distribution of HIV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will conduct a scoping review to explore, describe, and map literature on the distribution of HPV-related cancers in sub-Saharan Africa...
November 17, 2017: Systematic Reviews
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