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Anal cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736635/immunotherapy-in-gastrointestinal-cancers
#1
REVIEW
Patrick Grierson, Kian-Huat Lim, Manik Amin
Gastrointestinal (GI) cancers such as gastric, esophageal, pancreas, hepatobiliary, colorectal and anal cancers are a major cause of cancer related mortality worldwide. Traditional treatment options such as chemotherapy, surgery, radiation therapy, monoclonal antibodies and anti-angiogenic agents have been the backbone of treatment of GI cancers in various stages. Current cancer research is moving forward to incorporate immunotherapies in the treatment of GI cancers either as single agent or in combination with current available treatment modalities...
June 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726144/anastomotic-stricture-after-ultralow-anterior-resection-or-intersphincteric-resection-for-very-low-lying-rectal-cancer
#2
Soo Young Lee, Chang Hyun Kim, Young Jin Kim, Hyeong Rok Kim
BACKGROUND: Anastomotic stricture following colorectal cancer surgery is not a rare complication, but proper management of anastomotic stricture located close to the anal verge is uncertain. This study aimed to investigate risk factors and management strategies for anastomotic stricture after ultralow anterior resection (ULAR). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a database of patients with rectal cancer who underwent surgery between January 2007 and June 2015, and included patients with an anastomosis within 4 cm from the anal verge...
July 19, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723723/sociodemographic-predictors-of-anal-cancer-screening-and-follow-up-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-individuals
#3
Jessica S Wells, Marcia M Holstad, Deborah Watkins Bruner
BACKGROUND: Anal cancer in the United States is generally rare; however, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals are 28 times more likely to be given a diagnosis of anal cancer than the general population. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the rates and sociodemographic predictors of anal cancer screening and follow-up anoscopy in a sample of HIV-infected individuals. METHODS: Data for this study (n = 200) were derived from a retrospective chart review of randomly selected HIV-infected individuals...
July 14, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721892/capecitabine-with-mitomycin-reduces-acute-hematologic-toxicity-and-treatment-delays-in-patients-undergoing-definitive-chemoradiation-using-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-for-anal-cancer
#4
Karyn A Goodman, Diana Julie, Andrea Cercek, Lajhem Cambridge, Kaitlin M Woo, Zhigang Zhang, Abraham J Wu, Diane L Reidy, Neil H Segal, Zsofia K Stadler, Leonard B Saltz
PURPOSE: To assess the impact on acute toxicity of replacing 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) with capecitabine in definitive chemoradiation for patients with anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 107 consecutive patients with nonmetastatic ASCC treated with definitive chemoradiation from January 2009 to May 2014. In 2011, based on the noninferiority of capecitabine versus 5-FU, our institutional practice shifted to use capecitabine instead of 5-FU for ASCC...
August 1, 2017: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720448/the-feminization-of-hpv-how-science-politics-economics-and-gender-norms-shaped-u-s-hpv-vaccine-implementation
#5
Ellen M Daley, Cheryl A Vamos, Erika L Thompson, Gregory D Zimet, Zeev Rosberger, Laura Merrell, Nolan S Kline
Human papillomavirus (HPV) can cause a number of anogenital cancers (i.e., cervical, penile, anal, vaginal, vulvar) and genital warts. A decade ago, the HPV vaccine was approved, and has been shown to be a public health achievement that can reduce the morbidity and mortality for HPV-associated diseases. Yet, the mistaken over-identification of HPV as a female-specific disease has resulted in the feminization of HPV and HPV vaccines. In this critical review, we trace the evolution of the intersection of science, politics, economics and gender norms during the original HPV vaccine approval, marketing era, and implementation...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708804/receptive-anal-intercourse-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-clinical-review
#6
Tracey Martin, Scott M Smukalla, Sunanda Kane, David P Hudesman, Richard Greene, Lisa B Malter
Receptive anal intercourse and its association with sexually transmitted infections and human papillomavirus-related anal dysplasia has been well studied in various at-risk groups including men who have sex with men. However, the relationship between receptive anal intercourse and its potential complications in patients with inflammatory bowel disease is not fully understood. This narrative review discusses sexually transmitted infections and anal dysplasia in patients with inflammatory bowel disease who engage in receptive anal intercourse and the lack of evidence-based data to guide clinical practice...
August 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702861/outcomes-of-a-single-surgeon-based-transanal-total-mesorectal-excision-tatme-for-rectal-cancer
#7
Antonio Caycedo-Marulanda, Henry Y Jiang, Erica L Kohtakangas
BACKGROUND: Several studies have shown the transanal total mesorectal excision (TATME) is emerging as a safe and effective technique for proctectomy. The majority of these studies to date, however, is based on procedures done in centers with teams of two surgeons working simultaneously. Few were performed by single-surgeon teams with sizeable case load. The objective of our study was to identify the feasibility and safety of a single-surgeon TATME. METHODS: Chart review of prospectively collected data on 27 patients who underwent TATME at our institution from June 2015 to September 2016 were included in this study...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690775/value-of-multi-disciplinary-input-into-laparoscopic-management-of-rectal-cancer-an-observational-study
#8
Pawan Kumar Dhruva Rao, Sooriyaratchige Pradeep Manjula Peiris, Seema Safia Arif, Rhodri A Davies, Ashraf Gergies Masoud, Puthucode Narayanan Haray
AIM: To assess the impact of multi-disciplinary teams (MDTs) management in optimising the outcome for rectal cancers. METHODS: We undertook a retrospective review of a prospectively maintained database of patients with rectal cancers (defined as tumours ≤ 15 cm from anal verge) discussed at our MDT between Jan 2008 and Jan 2011. The data was validated against the national database to ensure completeness of dataset. The clinical course and follow-up data was validated using the institution's electronic patient records...
June 27, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687813/cancer-risk-factors-among-people-living-with-hiv-aids-in-china-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
Zi-Yi Jin, Xing Liu, Ying-Ying Ding, Zuo-Feng Zhang, Na He
Cancer is a leading cause of death among people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate prevalence of cancer risk factors among Chinese PLWHA based on 102 articles. Random effects meta-analysis was used to calculate the summary prevalence estimate (sPrev) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for each cancer risk factor by demographic group. Overall, the sPrev for each risk factor among Chinese PLWHA was: 41.1% (95% CI: 35.3-46.9%) for current smoking; 30.3% (95% CI: 23...
July 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655080/-a-retrospective-controlled-clinical-study-of-single-incision-plus-one-port-laparoscopic-surgery-for-sigmoid-colon-and-upper-rectal-cancer
#10
G X Li, J M Li, Y N Wang, H J Deng, T Y Mou, H Liu
Objective: To evaluate the short-term and oncologic outcomes of single-incision plus one port laparoscopic surgery (SILS+ 1) for sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer. Methods: The clinic data of 46 patients with sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer underwent SILS+ 1 at Department of General Surgery, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University from September 2013 to September 2014 were retrospectively reviewed (SILS+ 1 group). After generating 1∶1 ration propensity scores given the covariates of age, gender, body mass index, American Society of Anesthesiologists score, surgeons, tumor location, the distance of tumor from anal, tumor diameter, and pathologic TNM stage, 46 patients with sigmoid colon and upper rectal cancer underwent conventional laparoscopic surgery (CLS) in the same time were matched as CLS group...
July 1, 2017: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652291/talking-about-human-papillomavirus-and-cancer-development-of-consultation-guides-through-lay-and-professional-stakeholder-coproduction-using-qualitative-quantitative-and-secondary-data
#11
Maggie Hendry, Diana Pasterfield, Simon Gollins, Richard Adams, Mererid Evans, Alison Fiander, Michael Robling, Christine Campbell, Marie-Jet Bekkers, Julia Hiscock, Sadia Nafees, Janice Rose, Margaret Stanley, Olwen Williams, Matthew Makin, Clare Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) cause all cervical cancer and the majority of vulvar, vaginal, anal, penile and oropharyngeal cancers. Although HPV is the most common sexually transmitted infection, public awareness of this is poor. In addition, many clinicians lack adequate knowledge or confidence to discuss sexual transmission and related sensitive issues. Complex science needs to be communicated in a clear, digestible, honest and salient way. Therefore, the aim of this study was to coproduce with patients who have cancer appropriate resources to guide these highly sensitive and difficult consultations...
June 26, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651012/the-economic-burden-of-human-papillomavirus-related-precancers-and-cancers-in-sweden
#12
Ellinor Östensson, Maria Silfverschiöld, Lennart Greiff, Christine Asciutto, Johan Wennerberg, Marie-Louise Lydryp, Ulf Håkansson, Pär Sparén, Christer Borgfeldt
BACKGROUND: High-risk (HR) human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is an established cause of malignant disease. We used a societal perspective to estimate the cost of HR HPV-related cervical, vulvar, vaginal, anal, and penile precancer and cancer, and oropharyngeal cancer in Sweden in 2006, 1 year before HPV vaccination became available in the country. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prevalence-based cost-of-illness study used diagnosis-specific data from national registries to determine the number of HR HPV-related precancers and cancers...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610935/prone-positioning-reduces-perineal-infections-when-performing-the-miles-procedure
#13
Anne M Dinaux, Ramzi Amri, David L Berger
BACKGROUND: Abdominoperineal resection (APR) remains the cornerstone treatment for rectal cancers less than 5 cm from the anal verge. The perineal portion of an APR can be done with the patient in lithotomy or repositioned to prone jack-knife position, which influences accessibility, visualization and ability to close the wound. This paper analyses the effect of patient positioning on perineal wound dehiscence and infections. METHODS: A retrospective review of all rectal cancer patients who underwent an APR at Massachusetts General Hospital between 2004 and 2014 (n = 149)...
June 10, 2017: American Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610905/anal-cancer-french-intergroup-clinical-practice-guidelines-for-diagnosis-treatment-and-follow-up-snfge-ffcd-gercor-unicancer-sfcd-sfed-sfro-snfcp
#14
REVIEW
Laurence Moureau-Zabotto, Veronique Vendrely, Laurent Abramowitz, Christophe Borg, Eric Francois, Diane Goere, Florence Huguet, Didier Peiffert, Laurent Siproudhis, Michel Ducreux, Olivier Bouché
INTRODUCTION: This document is a summary of the French Intergroup guidelines regarding the management of anal carcinomas, published in November 2016. METHODS: It is a collaborative work produced under the auspices of the majority of the French medical societies involved in the management of anal cancer. It is based on the previous guidelines published in 2010. Recommendations are graded in three categories, according to the amount of evidence found in the literature...
August 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602545/what-is-the-impact-of-neoadjuvant-chemoradiation-on-outcomes-in-gastro-intestinal-cancer
#15
C Mariette, A Brouquet, D Tzanis, A Laurenzi, A de la Rochefordière, P Mariani, G Piessen, A Sa Cunha, C Penna
Multimodal therapeutic strategies combining chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgery have been shown to be feasible and to have a positive impact on outcomes by decreasing the risk of locoregional recurrence and often by increasing overall survival. The advantages of neoadjuvant chemo(radio)therapy include optimal tumor control combined with better tolerance and compliance to treatment while also increasing the number of candidates for surgery. Whereas indications for neoadjuvant therapy are increasing, its impact on surgical treatment and postoperative outcomes are not well-known...
June 2017: Journal of Visceral Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597183/discrepancies-between-nccn-and-esmo-guidelines-in-the-management-of-anal-cancer-a-qualitative-review
#16
REVIEW
Natalie Johnson, Gianluca Pellino, Constantinos Simillis, Shengyang Qiu, Stella Nikolaou, Daniel L Baird, Shahnawaz Rasheed, Paris P Tekkis, Christos Kontovounisios
There is an ever-growing need, with the ongoing developments in research and the progress towards patient centered care, to delineate standardized protocols of management of anal cancer. However, guidelines from different societies show some degree of disagreement. This is a systematic review of the literature to identify similarities and discrepancies between the guidelines for the management of anal cancer drafted by the European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) and by the National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)...
June 8, 2017: Updates in Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576183/radiotherapy-for-anal-cancer-intensity-modulated-radiotherapy-and-future-directions
#17
REVIEW
Serguei A Castaneda, Lindsay B Romak
The treatment of anal cancer has evolved remarkably in the past 30 years. Definitive chemoradiotherapy is the standard of care, allowing organ preservation and maintenance of continence for most patients. This article reviews recent advances in radiotherapy planning and delivery that have resulted in improvements in treatment-related toxicity. Most notably, the advent and wide adoption of intensity-modulated radiotherapy provides a superior toxicity profile compared with older techniques, while maintaining similar oncologic outcomes...
July 2017: Surgical Oncology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545552/hrhpv-e5-oncoprotein-immune-evasion-and-related-immunotherapies
#18
REVIEW
Antonio Carlos de Freitas, Talita Helena Araújo de Oliveira, Marconi Rego Barros, Aldo Venuti
The immune response is a key factor in the fight against HPV infection and related cancers, and thus, HPV is able to promote immune evasion through the expression of oncogenes. In particular, the E5 oncogene is responsible for modulation of several immune mechanisms, including antigen presentation and inflammatory pathways. Moreover, E5 was suggested as a promising therapeutic target, since there is still no effective medical therapy for the treatment of HPV-related pre-neoplasia and cancer. Indeed, several studies have shown good prospective for E5 immunotherapy, suggesting that it could be applied for the treatment of pre-cancerous lesions...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533803/use-of-ultrasound-in-image-guided-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-enumerations-and-arguments
#19
REVIEW
Susovan Banerjee, Tejinder Kataria, Deepak Gupta, Shikha Goyal, Shyam Singh Bisht, Trinanjan Basu, Ashu Abhishek
Inherently, brachytherapy is the most conformal radiotherapeutic technique. As an aid to brachytherapy, ultrasonography (USG) serves as a portable, inexpensive, and simple to use method allowing for accurate, reproducible, and adaptive treatments. Some newer brachytherapy planning systems have incorporated USG as the sole imaging modality. Ultrasonography has been successfully used to place applicator and dose planning for prostate, cervix, and anal canal cancers. It can guide placement of brachytherapy catheters for all other sites like breast, skin, and head and neck cancers...
April 2017: Journal of Contemporary Brachytherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530494/review-anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-in-hiv-infected-men-who-have-sex-with-men-is-screening-and-treatment-justified
#20
Peter Wasserman, David S Rubin, Glenn Turett
Anal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the fourth most prevalent cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Human papillomavirus (HPV) has been detected in over 90% of anal carcinoma biopsy specimens from MSM, and is considered a necessary, but alone, insufficient factor for carcinogenesis. Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) may be precursive for SCC, and screening cytology with referral of persons with abnormality for high-resolution anoscopy-guided biopsy, and AIN treatment, has been recommended for prevention...
June 2017: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
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