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Anal cancer review

Eleanor M Osborne, Cathy Eng, John M Skibber, Miguel A Rodriguez-Bigas, George J Chang, Yi-Qian Nancy You, Brian K Bednarski, Bruce D Minsky, Marc E Delclos, Eugene Koay, Sunil Krishnan, Christopher H Crane, Prajnan Das
OBJECTIVES: Although chemoradiation is the standard of care for anal cancer, limited data exist regarding pelvic reirradiation (re-RT) for recurrent disease. We investigated toxicity and outcomes in patients who received prior pelvic radiation therapy (RT), and subsequently underwent hyperfractionated accelerated re-RT to the pelvis for recurrent anal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We reviewed records of 10 patients with recurrent anal squamous cell carcinoma who previously received pelvic RT to at least 30 Gy as a component of their chemoradiation and underwent re-RT in 1...
October 17, 2016: American Journal of Clinical Oncology
Meredith S Shiels, Eric A Engels
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the epidemiology of cancers that occur at an elevated rate among people with HIV infection in the current treatment era, including discussion of the cause of these cancers, as well as changes in cancer incidence and burden over time. RECENT FINDINGS: Rates of Kaposi sarcoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cervical cancer have declined sharply in developed countries during the highly active antiretroviral therapy era, but remain elevated 800-fold, 10-fold and four-fold, respectively, compared with the general population...
October 5, 2016: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Ravinder Kaur Sachdeva, Aman Sharma, Surjit Singh, Subhash Varma
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: There is scarcity of data on the frequency of malignancies in HIV infected individuals from India. The objective of this study was to determine the type and frequency of malignancies in HIV infected individuals attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. METHODS: The study design included retrospective analysis of data of all HIV infected individuals registered in the Immunodeficiency clinic from December 2009 to December 2011 and a prospective analysis of HIV infected individuals registered from January 2012 to April 2013...
May 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
Van Morris, Cathy Eng
Squamous cell carcinoma of the anal canal (SCCA) remains a less common gastrointestinal malignancy despite a continued increase in the annual incidence in the United States and globally. The vast majority of all cases are attributed to persistent infection and integration into host cell DNA by human papillomavirus (HPV). For patients with metastatic anal cancer, there is currently no accepted consensus standard of care. Given the viral etiology associated with the oncogenesis of this tumor, great interest exists for the development of immunotherapy as a novel approach to improving clinical outcomes for patients afflicted with this disease...
October 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Young Seob Shin, Yong Sik Yoon, Seok-Byung Lim, Chang Sik Yu, Tae Won Kim, Heung Moon Chang, Jin-Hong Park, Seung Do Ahn, Sang-Wook Lee, Eun Kyung Choi, Jin Cheon Kim, Jong Hoon Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate whether preoperative chemoradiotherapy (PCRT) followed by local excision (LE) is feasible approach in clinical T2N0 rectal cancer patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients who received PCRT and LE because of clinical T2 rectal cancer within 7 cm from anal verge between January 2006 and June 2014 were retrospectively analyzed. LE was performed in case of a good clinical response after PCRT. Patients' characteristics, treatment record, tumor recurrence, and treatment-related complications were reviewed at a median follow-up of 49 months...
September 2016: Radiation Oncology Journal
Dania Bucchi, Fabrizio Stracci, Nicola Buonora, Giuseppe Masanotti
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is one of the most common sexually transmitted infections worldwide. Exposure to HPV is very common, and an estimated 65%-100% of sexually active adults are exposed to HPV in their lifetime. The majority of HPV infections are asymptomatic, but there is a 10% chance that individuals will develop a persistent infection and have an increased risk of developing a carcinoma. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has found that the following cancer sites have a strong causal relationship with HPV: cervix uteri, penis, vulva, vagina, anus and oropharynx, including the base of the tongue and the tonsils...
September 7, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Paul C Mayor, Shashikant Lele
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a treatment modality used in the management of solid tumor malignancies that employs the use of a photosensitizing agent, a light source and oxygen in order to illicit a direct cytotoxic effect. Its use in gynecologic malignancies is somewhat novel and has been used for palliative and curative intent. At the Roswell Park Cancer Institute, the use of PDT in the management of gynecologic cancers began in the mid 1980s and since that time 35 patients have received PDT as a treatment for recurrent or metastatic cutaneous and vulvar, vaginal, anal, and cervical recurrences...
2016: Cancers
James A Chancellor, Sally J Ioannides, James M Elwood
OBJECTIVES: This systematic review identified and evaluated the evidence for the role of sexual behaviours in the development of oropharyngeal cancers (OPCs) and oral cavity cancers (OCCs). METHODS: Following the PRISMA guidelines, we identified observational and interventional studies reporting associations between several different sexual behaviours and OPC or OCC. Study quality was assessed independently by two reviewers using a validated scoring system. RESULTS: From 513 papers identified, 21, reporting on 20 studies, fulfilled the inclusion criteria...
September 19, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
Sunil V Patel, Campbell S Roxburgh, Efsevia Vakiani, Jinru Shia, J Joshua Smith, Larissa K Temple, Philip Paty, Julio Garcia-Aguilar, Garrett Nash, Jose Guillem, Abraham Wu, Marsha Reyngold, Martin R Weiser
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Achieving a pathologic complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant therapy has been associated with better prognosis in rectal cancer patients. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between distance to the anal verge (DTAV) and pCR. METHODS: Review of a prospectively maintained database of patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who received neoadjuvant treatment was completed. Uni- and multivariate analysis assessed the association between DTAV and pCR after neoadjuvant therapy...
October 2016: Journal of Surgical Oncology
A Chau, M Frasson, C Debove, L Maggiori, Y Panis
BACKGROUND: There are no published data concerning management of patients with exteriorized colonic prolapse (CP) after intersphincteric rectal resection (ISR) and side-to-end coloanal manual anastomosis (CAA) for very low rectal cancer. The aim of the present study was to report our experience in 12 consecutive cases of CP following ISR with CAA. METHODS: From 2006 to 2014, all patients with very low rectal cancer who developed CP after ISR and CAA were reviewed...
October 2016: Techniques in Coloproctology
V Libois, M-A Mahé, E Rio, P Maingon
There are very few data on the expansion from the clinical target volume (CTV) to the planning target volume (PTV) in the anal cancer treatment. This article aims to collect the different elements needed for the construction of a PTV from scientific data based on a literature analysis. We reviewed the articles published in the medical literature from the last 20years. They concerned setup errors and internal organ mobility of the different volumes of patients treated by conformational radiotherapy and intensity-modulated radiotherapy (anal canal, meso-rectum, common, intern and extern, inguinal and pre-sacral lymph nodes)...
October 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
Karyn A Goodman
The Oncology Grand Rounds series is designed to place original reports published in the Journal into clinical context. A case presentation is followed by a description of diagnostic and management challenges, a review of the relevant literature, and a summary of the authors' suggested management approaches. The goal of this series is to help readers better understand how to apply the results of key studies, including those published in Journal of Clinical Oncology, to patients seen in their own clinical practice...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Yu Yoshino, Kimihiko Funahashi, Rei Okada, Yasuyuki Miura, Takayuki Suzuki, Takamaru Koda, Kimihiko Yoshida, Junichi Koike, Hiroyuki Shiokawa, Mitsunori Ushigome, Tomoaki Kaneko, Yasuo Nagashima, Mayu Goto, Akiharu Kurihara, Hironori Kaneko
BACKGROUND: Fournier's gangrene in the setting of rectal cancer is rare. Treatment for Fournier's gangrene associated with rectal cancer is more complex than other cases of Fournier's gangrene. We report on a patient with severe Fournier's gangrene in the setting of locally advanced rectal cancer who was treated with a combined modality therapy. CASE PRESENTATION: A 65-year-old man presented with general fatigue and anal pain. The medical and surgical histories were unremarkable...
2016: World Journal of Surgical Oncology
Juanita Crook
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As penile cancer is an uncommon malignancy in the Western society, randomized trials to address the controversies in management have not previously been undertaken. The incorporation of multidisciplinary approaches in the management of advanced penile carcinoma has largely borrowed evidence from analogous malignancies in the anogenital region. This review is being undertaken in preparation for the international launch of InPACT, the International Penile Advanced Cancer Trial, a collaborative effort from European and North American trialists...
August 31, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
Renata D'Alpino Peixoto, Dante D Wan, Devin Schellenberg, Howard J Lim
BACKGROUND: There are no randomized phase III trials comparing 5-fluorouracil/mitomycin (FM) versus capecitabine/mitomycin (CM) in combination with radiotherapy (RT) for locally advanced anal cancer. We aim to evaluate the outcomes of patients treated with FM and CM at our institution. METHODS: Patients with stage I-III anal cancer who initiated curative-intent RT (50-54 Gy) with either CM or FM between 1998 and 2013 at the BC Cancer Agency were reviewed. Cox proportional models were used to analyze the impact of regimen on disease-free survival (DFS) and anal cancer-specific survival (ACSS)...
August 2016: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Richard John Hillman, Tamzin Cuming, Teresa Darragh, Mayura Nathan, Michael Berry-Lawthorn, Stephen Goldstone, Carmella Law, Joel Palefsky, Luis F Barroso, Elizabeth A Stier, Céline Bouchard, Justine Almada, Naomi Jay
OBJECTIVES: To define minimum standards for provision of services and clinical practice in the investigation of anal cancer precursors. METHODS: After initial face to face meetings of experts at the International Papillomavirus meeting in Lisbon, September 17 to 21, 2015, a first version was drafted and sent to key stakeholders. A complete draft was reviewed by the Board of the International Anal Neoplasia Society (IANS) and uploaded to the IANS Web site for all members to provide comments...
October 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
G M Volgareva, I N Mikhaylova, D A Golovina
Melanoma is one of the most aggressive human malignant tumors. Its incidence and mortality are growing steadily. Ultraviolet irradiation is the main risk factor for melanoma involved in melanomagenesis. The probability of viral etiology of melanoma has been discussed. Human papillomaviruses (HPV) have been mentioned among candidates for its etiologic agents because some HPV types are the powerful carcinogens causing cervical cancer and other cancers. The review analyses the literature data on the association of melanoma with HPV Several groupsfound HPVin skin melanomas as well as in mucosa; viruses of high oncogenic risk were detected in some cases...
2016: Vestnik Rossiĭskoĭ Akademii Meditsinskikh Nauk
Medha Pradip Kulkarni, Yasmin Altaf Momin, Amitkumar Bapuso Pandav, Kalpana Ranjitsingh Sulhyan
Adenocarcinoma of the anal canal accounts for about 20% of all anal canal cancers. It is subclassified into two types. (1) Colorectal type, which arises from the mucosa above dentate line and (2) extramucosal type, which includes adenocarcinoma arising in anorectal fistulae and adenocarcinoma arising from anal glands. Anal gland adenocarcinomas are extremely rare. In this article, we present two cases of anal adenocarcinoma, one colorectal type, and other anal gland carcinoma along with review of literature...
July 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
Mathieu Gauthé, Marion Richard-Molard, Juliette Fayard, Jean-Louis Alberini, Wulfran Cacheux, Astrid Lièvre
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to confirm the prognostic value of metabolic tumour volume (MTV) at the primary site on initial work-up FDG PET/CT in patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the anal canal. METHODS: Patients with a recent diagnosis of SCC of the anal canal without metastases undergoing PET/CT for initial work-up and treated with (chemo)radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. Computer-aided MTV and SUVmax were determined. Survival rates were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method...
August 9, 2016: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
Lorena Tavano, Rita Muzzalupo
Delivering chemotherapy specifically, effectively and safely to tumor remains a significant challenge in recent years. Although cancer cells are more vulnerable than normal to the effect of anticancer agents, these drugs are non-selective and can cause injury to normal tissues. Different approaches i.e. passive, active and magnetic targeting, smart devices with appropriate stimuli-sensitive properties or drugs combinations, have been already proposed as single methods, contributing to minimize severe side effects and enhancing tumor-targeting efficacy...
November 1, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
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