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Anal cancer review

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432678/anal-metastasis-of-rectal-cancer-adenocarcinoma-of-squamous-cells-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#1
Shun Sasaki, Masahiko Sugiyama, Yu Nakaji, Ryota Nakanishi, Yuichiro Nakashima, Hiroshi Saeki, Eiji Oki, Yoshinao Oda, Yoshihiko Maehara
Anal metastasis of colorectal cancer is very rare and is usually associated with a history of anal disease, including anal fistula, fissure, hemorrhoidectomy, and anastomotic injury. We report a case of rectal cancer with a synchronous anal metastasis consisting of adenocarcinoma of squamous cells without a history of anal disease. A 60-year-old woman had a chief complaint of melena. She had a 1.5-cm anal tumor on the perianal skin, and a Bollman type 2 rectal tumor on the Ra portion was found on colonoscopy...
December 2017: Surgical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395054/anal-high-grade-squamous-intraepithelial-lesions-in-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infected-men-a-study-of-100-cases-with-emphasis-on-cytohistologic-correlation
#2
Yuxin Liu, Xiaofei Wang, Tamara Kalir, David Chhieng, Keith Sigel, Michael M Gaisa
Objectives: Anorectal cytology (ARC) is a widely used screening tool for anal cancer in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected men who have sex with men (MSM). Its diagnostic accuracy needs to be improved, especially for high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). Methods: Using 100 HIV+ MSM with biopsy-proven anal HSILs, we correlated histologic/cytologic findings. Results: Upon review, HSIL cells were present in 58 cytology samples and absent in 42...
March 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379306/anal-neoplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-classification-proposal-epidemiology-carcinogenesis-and-risk-management-perspectives
#3
Andrew Wisniewski, Jean-Francois Fléjou, Laurent Siproudhis, Laurent Abramowitz, Magali Svrcek, Laurent Beaugerie
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease [IBD] may develop, similarly to individuals from general population, rare cases of human papilloma virus [HPV]-related anal canal squamous cell carcinoma [SCC] and intra-epithelial precursor lesions, as well as very rare cases of anal canal adenocarcinoma. Patients with chronic perianal Crohn's disease [CD] are at substantial risk of developing SCC or adenocarcinoma from the fistula-lining epithelium, as well as SCC or adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal ulcerations or strictures...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374259/anorectal-complications-after-robotic-intersphincteric-resection-for-low-rectal-cancer
#4
Li-Jen Kuo, James Chi-Yong Ngu, Yan-Jiun Huang, Yen-Kuang Lin, Chia-Che Chen, Yiu-Shun Tong, Szu-Chia Huang, Chia-Chen Hu, Shu-Hwa Tan
BACKGROUND: Robotic intersphincteric resection (ISR) has been introduced for sphincter-preservation in the treatment of low rectal cancer. However, many patients experience anorectal symptoms and defecatory dysfunction after ISR. This study aims to evaluate the anorectal complications that develop after ISR. METHODS: The medical records of 108 patients who underwent robotic ISR at Taipei Medical University Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan between December 2011 and June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed...
April 3, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368260/clinical-endpoints-in-trials-of-chemoradiation-for-patients-with-anal-cancer
#5
REVIEW
Robert Glynne-Jones, Richard Adams, Andre Lopes, Helen Meadows
This Review examines the reporting of endpoints in randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of radical chemoradiation for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the anus. The types, frequency, and definitions of clinical primary and secondary endpoints, and patient-reported outcome measures, reported in the methods and results sections of papers (and protocols, if available) were examined. Only six published RCTs comprising 2877 patients were identified. Primary outcome measures varied across the trials analysed: two used disease-free survival, one used progression-free survival, two used local failure, and one used colostomy-free survival...
April 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353363/does-chronomodulated-radiotherapy-improve-pathological-response-in-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer
#6
Tim Squire, Grant Buchanan, David Rangiah, Ian Davis, Desmond Yip, Yu Jo Chua, Tyvin Rich, Hany Elsaleh
The predominant mode of radiation-induced cell death for solid tumours is mitotic catastrophe, which is in part dependent on sublethal damage repair being complete at around 6 h. Circadian variation appears to play a role in normal cellular division, and this could influence tumour response of radiation treatment depending on the time of treatment delivery. We tested the hypothesis that radiation treatment later in the day may improve tumour response and nodal downstaging in rectal cancer patients treated neoadjuvantly with radiation therapy...
2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333258/anal-neoplasia-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-classification-proposal-epidemiology-carcinogenesis-and-risk-management-perspectives
#7
Andrew Wisniewski, Jean-Francois Fléjou, Laurent Siproudhis, Laurent Abramowitz, Magali Svrcek, Laurent Beaugerie
Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) may develop, similarly to individuals from general population, rare cases of HPV-related anal canal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and their intra-epithelial precursor lesions, as well as very rare cases of anal canal adenocarcinoma. Patients with chronic perianal Crohn's disease (CD) are at substantial risk of developing SCC or adenocarcinoma from the fistula-lining epithelium, as well as SCC or adenocarcinoma arising from chronic anorectal ulcerations or strictures...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316766/colonic-laterally-spreading-tumor-diagnosed-as-an-early-cancer-and-treated-with-endoscopic-mucosal-resection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#8
Mohamad Abdelaziz, Motaz Sayed
Laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) are generally defined as superficial lesions ≥10 mm in diameter that typically extend laterally rather than vertically along the colonic wall. Such lesions are now increasingly reported because of increased awareness and the introduction of chromo and magnifying colonoscopy. Although the clinicopathological characteristics and the efficacy of endoscopic management of LSTs have been defined in Japanese cohorts, reports from the Middle East are lacking where surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment...
January 2017: Middle East Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293746/long-standing-crohn-s-disease-and-its-implication-on-anal-squamous-cell-cancer-management
#9
Amy L Lightner, Sara B Moncrief, Thomas C Smyrk, John H Pemberton, Michael G Haddock, David W Larson, Eric J Dozois, Kellie L Mathis
BACKGROUND: Anal squamous cell carcinoma (ASCC) is rare, accounting for only 1% of gastrointestinal malignancies. We sought to better understand management strategies for ASCC in the setting of Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS: A retrospective chart review from 2001 to 2016 was conducted using ICD-9/10 codes for CD (555.9/K50) and ASCC (154.3/C44.520). Adult patients with a diagnosis of CD at the time of ASCC diagnosis were included. RESULTS: Seven patients (five female) were included with a median age of 50 years...
May 2017: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291401/pelvic-insufficiency-fracture-pif-incidence-in-patients-treated-with-intensity-modulated-radiation-therapy-imrt-for-gynaecological-or-anal-cancer-single-institution-experience-and-review-of-the-literature
#10
REVIEW
Louis Bazire, Haoping Xu, Jean-Philippe Foy, Malika Amessis, Caroline Malhaire, Kim Cao, Anne De La Rochefordiere, Youlia M Kirova
OBJECTIVE: To summarize the results of pelvic insufficiency fracture (PIF) incidence in patients with anal or gynaecological cancer treated by pelvic intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). METHODS: The clinical and morphological (CT and/or pelvic MRI) characteristics of patients treated by IMRT at our institution between 2007 and 2014 were analyzed. The global incidence of PIF after external beam radiotherapy and the impact of tumour site (gynaecological or anal cancer) were determined...
May 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289834/the-impact-of-anastomotic-leakage-on-anal-function-following-intersphincteric-resection
#11
Mitsuru Yokota, Masaaki Ito, Yuji Nishizawa, Akihiro Kobayashi, Norio Saito
BACKGROUND: Data regarding anastomotic leakage (AL) following intersphincteric resection (ISR) are lacking. We aimed to evaluate the effect of AL on anal function in a retrospective review of patients who developed AL following ISR. METHODS: We evaluated 341 consecutive patients who underwent ISR between 2000 and 2012. Patients were classified into three groups: anastomotic dehiscence (AD), major AL (Clavien-Dindo grade III+), or control (<grade III or no AL)...
March 13, 2017: World Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277833/capecitabine-in-locally-advanced-anal-cancer-do-we-need-randomised-evidence
#12
Li Chia Chong, Tabitha Healey, Tony Michele, Timothy J Price
Standard treatment for locally advanced anal cancer is chemoradiotherapy with mitomycin C and fluorouracil. However, infusional fluorouracil requires central venous catheter placement potentiating risk of infection and thrombosis. Capecitabine which is an oral tumor activated fluoropyrimidine carbamate is an established treatment alternative to infusional fluorouracil for patients with gastrointestinal cancers. Areas covered: This review examines and discusses the current evidence for substitution of Capecitabine for infusional fluorouracil in locally advanced anal cancer...
May 2017: Expert Review of Anticancer Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255426/anal-intraepithelial-neoplasia-a-review-of-diagnosis-and-management
#13
REVIEW
Joseph R Roberts, Lacey L Siekas, Andrew M Kaz
Anal intraepithelial neoplasia (AIN) is a premalignant lesion of the anal mucosa that is a precursor to anal cancer. Although anal cancer is relatively uncommon, rates of this malignancy are steadily rising in the United States, and among certain high risk populations the incidence of anal cancer may exceed that of colon cancer. Risk factors for AIN and anal cancer consist of clinical factors and behaviors that are associated with the acquisition and persistence of human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. The strongest HPV-associated risk factors are HIV infection, receptive anal intercourse, and high risk sexual behavior...
February 15, 2017: World Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230017/comparison-of-perioperative-outcomes-between-laparoscopic-and-open-surgery-for-mid-low-rectal-cancer-with-total-mesorectal-excision-following-neoadjuvant-chemoradiotherapy
#14
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Weiping Chen, Qiken Li, Pengnian Qiu, Lai Jiang, Zhixuan Fu, Yongtian Fan, Dechuan Li, Peng Liu, Lilong Tang
OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to determine the feasibility and safety of laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) for mid-low rectal cancer following neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT). METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 172 patients with locally advanced rectal cancer who underwent laparoscopic (n = 75) or conventional open (n = 97) surgery with TME following nCRT from June 2009 to October 2015. Perioperative outcomes and related clinical variables were collected and statistically analyzed...
December 2016: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223677/-two-cases-of-fournier-s-gangrene-that-occurred-during-chemotherapy-for-rectal-cancer
#15
Makoto Koyama, Masato Kitazawa, Takehito Ehara, Yuta Yamamoto, Akira Suzuki, Yusuke Miyagawa, Shinichi Miyagawa
Two cases of Fournier's gangrene occurred during chemotherapy for advanced rectal cancer. Patients were treated using surgical debridement and antibiotic therapy. Case 1: A 66-year-old man had advanced rectal cancer with para-aortic and inguinal lymph node metastases. He received a sigmoid colostomy and chemotherapy(capecitabine, oxaliplatin, bevacizumab). Due to progression of the rectal mass, we performed radiotherapy(30 Gy)and chemotherapy(irinotecan, S-1, bevacizumab). After 14 days, he was hospitalized with a diagnosis of Fournier's gangrene with anal pain and fever...
February 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212258/factors-influencing-difficulty-of-laparoscopic-abdominoperineal-resection-for-ultra-low-rectal-cancer
#16
Qiken Li, Dechuan Li, Lai Jiang, Pengnian Qiu, Zhixuan Fu, Lilong Tang, Weiping Chen
PURPOSE: Our current study was conducted to identify patients' anatomic, pathologic, and clinical factors to predict difficulty of performing laparoscopic abdominoperineal resection for ultra-low rectal cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Records of 117 consecutive patients with rectal cancer 2 to 5 cm from the anal verge were retrospectively reviewed. Using univariate and multivariate linear or logistic regression models, standardized operative time and blood loss, as well as postoperative morbidity were utilized as endpoints to screen patients' multiple variables to predict operative difficulty...
April 2017: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206939/the-ferguson-operating-anoscope-for-resection-of-t1-rectal-cancer
#17
Kristin C Turza, Thomas Brien, Steven Porbunderwala, Christopher M Bell, Shauna Lorenzo-Rivero, Richard A Moore, Eric C Nelson, J Daniel Stanley
The Ferguson Operating Anoscope (FOA) is a surgical instrument, which can facilitate transanal excision of appropriate rectal tumors within 15 cm of the anal verge. Previous work showed low recurrence (4.3%) for favorable T1 tumors (no lymphovascular invasion, well/moderate differentiation, negative margins). This follow-up study evaluates outcomes in rectal cancer excised with FOA at a tertiary care center. T1 rectal cancer patients were identified in a prospectively maintained database. Tumor pathology and patient characteristics were reviewed...
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203173/squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-anal-transitional-zone-after-ileal-pouch-surgery-for-ulcerative-colitis-systematic-review-and-treatment-perspectives
#18
Gianluca Pellino, Christos Kontovounisios, Diana Tait, John Nicholls, Paris P Tekkis
BACKGROUND: Few cases of pouch-related cancers have been reported in ulcerative colitis (UC), and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is very rare. METHOD: A systematic review of the literature was performed to identify all unequivocal cases of pouch-related SCC in UC patients. RESULTS: Eight cases of SCC developing after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA) have been observed since 1978. Two arose from the pouch mucosa and 6 from below. The pooled cumulative incidence of SCC is below 0...
January 2017: Case Reports in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194687/fecal-incontinence-and-radiation-dose-on-anal-sphincter-in-patients-with-locally-advanced-rectal-cancer-larc-treated-with-preoperative-chemoradiotherapy-a-retrospective-single-institutional-study
#19
F Arias, C Eito, G Asín, I Mora, K Cambra, F Mañeru, B Ibáñez, L Arbea, A Viudez, I Hernández, J I Arrarás, M Errasti, M Barrado, M Campo, I Visus, S Flamarique, M A Ciga
BACKGROUND: The objective of the study is to determine the correlations among the variables of dose and the sphincter function (SF) in patients with locally advanced rectal cancer treated with preoperative capecitabine/radiotherapy followed by low anterior resection (LAR) + TME. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 92 consecutive patients with LARC treated at our center with LAR from 2006 and more than 2 years free from disease. We re-contoured the anal sphincters (AS) of patients with the help of the radiologist...
February 13, 2017: Clinical & Translational Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152894/engaging-managing-physicians-in-clinical-staging-prior-to-the-initiation-of-cancer-treatment
#20
Carol Huibregtse, Marija Bjegovich-Weidman, James L Weese
143 Background: Managing physicians (medical oncologist, radiation oncologist, surgeons) have a responsibility to clinically stage patients prior to the initiation of cancer treatment. Clinical staging not only directs the treatment plan, but identifies appropriate clinical trials and estimates prognosis. We sought to determine whether engagement of managing physicians would result in increased clinical staging for various types of cancer. METHODS: Baseline data on clinical staging for breast, colorectal (colon, rectal, anal, rectosigmoid junction)*, thoracic (lung esophageal)†, genitourinary (prostate, penis, testes)‡, and pancreatic primary cancers were obtained...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
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