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Perivascular macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#1
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#2
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#3
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
January 2, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052367/morphoea-with-prominent-plasma-cell-endoneuritis
#4
M Singh, N Farquharson, C Owen, A J Howat, S Singh, N Francis, E Calonje
Morphoea (localized scleroderma) is a cutaneous inflammatory condition characterized by the development of indurated and discoloured plaques. The histological features of morphoea typically include a superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal chronic inflammatory infiltrate associated with variable degrees of dermal and/or subcutaneous sclerosis. The infiltrate is typically composed of lymphocytes, macrophages and conspicuous plasma cells. The early stages of morphoea may have a very prominent inflammatory infiltrate associated with subtle sclerosis...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049898/developmental-toxicity-of-nanoparticles-on-the-brain
#5
Masakazu Umezawa, Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda
 The toxicity of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is being investigated to understand both the health impacts of atmospheric ultrafine particles-the size of which is a fraction (<0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) of that of PM2.5 (<2.5 μm diameter)-and the safer use of engineered nanomaterials. Developmental toxicity of nanoparticles has been studied since their transfer from pregnant body to fetal circulation and offspring body was first reported. Here we reviewed the developmental toxicity of nanoparticles on the brain, one of the most important organs in maintenance of mental health and high quality of life...
2017: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012941/age-related-arterial-immune-cell-infiltration-in-mice-is-attenuated-by-caloric-restriction-or-voluntary-exercise
#6
Daniel W Trott, Grant D Henson, Mi H T Ho, Sheilah A Allison, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Age-related arterial inflammation is associated with dysfunction of the arteries and increased risk for cardiovascular disease. To determine if aging increases arterial immune cell infiltration as well as the populations of immune cells principally involved, we tested the hypothesis that large elastic and resistance arteries in old mice would exhibit increased immune cell infiltration compared to young controls. Additionally, we hypothesized that vasoprotective lifestyle interventions such as lifelong caloric restriction or 8weeks of voluntary wheel running would attenuate age-related arterial immune cell infiltration...
December 22, 2016: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011042/glial-changes-and-evidence-for-apoptosis-in-the-brain-of-cats-infected-by-cytauxzoon-felis
#7
L L Clarke, P M Krimer, D R Rissi
Ischaemic neuropathological changes associated with Cytauxzoon felis infection in cats have been reported recently. This paper describes the associated glial changes and the evidence for apoptosis in the brain of cats infected naturally by C. felis. Sections of brain from eight affected cats and eight age- and sex-matched control cats were evaluated by immunohistochemistry for expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, CD18 and cleaved caspase-3. Vascular changes in the leptomeninges and parenchyma, the number of positive astrocytes and phagocytic cells (microglia or macrophages) and the average astrocytic cytoplasmic area and number and length of astrocytic processes were quantified, and a mean value for the grey and white matter in both groups was generated...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005953/pathophysiological-consequences-of-a-break-in-s1p1-dependent-homeostasis-of-vascular-permeability-revealed-by-s1p1-competitive-antagonism
#8
Marc Bigaud, Zuhal Dincer, Birgit Bollbuck, Janet Dawson, Nicolau Beckmann, Christian Beerli, Gina Fishli-Cavelti, Michaela Nahler, Daniela Angst, Philipp Janser, Heike Otto, Elisabeth Rosner, Rene Hersperger, Christian Bruns, Jean Quancard
RATIONAL: Homeostasis of vascular barriers depends upon sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling via the S1P1 receptor. Accordingly, S1P1 competitive antagonism is known to reduce vascular barrier integrity with still unclear pathophysiological consequences. This was explored in the present study using NIBR-0213, a potent and selective S1P1 competitive antagonist. RESULTS: NIBR-0213 was tolerated at the efficacious oral dose of 30 mg/kg BID in the rat adjuvant-induced arthritis (AiA) model, with no sign of labored breathing...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004071/-n-acetyl-l-cysteine-reduces-the-ozone-induced-lung-inflammation-response-in-mice
#9
Qing-Zi Chen, Zhao-Di Fu, Yu-Bo Zhou, Li-Fen Zhou, Chun-Tao Yang, Jian-Hua Li
In this study, we investigated the protective effect of the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) on the lung inflammation caused by ozone (O3) exposure in mice. Thirty-two C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into control group, O3 group, O3+NAC group and NAC group. Mice were exposed to O3 (1.0 ppm) or fresh air for 3 h on the day 1, day 3 and day 5, respectively. NAC (100 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally applied to the mice 1 h before each exposure. At 24 h after the 3-time exposure, the alveolar wall structure was severely damaged and the infiltrated inflammatory cells were apparent perivascularly and peribronchiolarly...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974594/complement-mediated-inhibition-of-adiponectin-regulates-perivascular-inflammation-and-vascular-injury-in-hypertension
#10
Cheng-Chao Ruan, Yu Ma, Qian Ge, Yan Li, Li-Min Zhu, Ying Zhang, Ling-Ran Kong, Qi-Hong Wu, Fanghong Li, Lixian Cheng, Allan Z Zhao, Ding-Liang Zhu, Ping-Jin Gao
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT)-derived adiponectin (APN) is a secreted adipokine that protects against hypertension-related cardiovascular injury. However, the regulation of APN expression in hypertension remains to be explored. In this study, we demonstrated that down-regulation of APN was associated with complement activation in the PVAT of desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice. Complement 3-deficient hypertensive mice were protected from ANP decrease in the PVAT. APN deficiency blockaded the protective effects of complement inhibition against hypertensive vascular injury...
December 14, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943116/cellular-players-of-hematopoietic-stem-cell-mobilization-in-the-bone-marrow-niche
#11
REVIEW
Joshua Tay, Jean-Pierre Levesque, Ingrid G Winkler
Hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) reside in perivascular regions of the bone marrow (BM) embedded within a complex regulatory unit called the niche. Cellular components of HSC niches include vascular endothelial cells, mesenchymal stromal progenitor cells and a variety of mature hematopoietic cells such as macrophages, neutrophils, and megakaryocytes-further regulated by sympathetic nerves and complement components as described in this review. Three decades ago the discovery that cytokines induce a large number of HSC to mobilize from the BM into the blood where they are easily harvested, revolutionised the field of HSC transplantation-curative for immune-deficiencies and some malignancies...
December 10, 2016: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939504/anti-inflammatory-effects-on-ischemia-reperfusion-injured-lung-transplants-by-the-cluster-of-differentiation-26-dipeptidylpeptidase-4-cd26-dpp4-inhibitor-vildagliptin
#12
Jae-Hwi Jang, Yoshito Yamada, Florian Janker, Ingrid De Meester, Lesley Baerts, Gwendolyn Vliegen, Ilhan Inci, Shampa Chatterjee, Walter Weder, Wolfgang Jungraithmayr
OBJECTIVES: We showed previously that stromal cell-derived factor 1 (SDF-1) is a substrate of cluster of differentiation 26/dipeptidylpeptidase 4 (CD26/DPP4) and exerts regenerative properties on acute lung ischemia-reperfusion injury on CD26/DPP4 inhibition. Here, we extend our studies to test whether an intermediate recovery of lung transplants from ischemia/reperfusion injury by CD26/DPP4 inhibition can be achieved for up to 14 days. METHODS: Syngeneic mouse lung transplantation (Tx) was performed in C57BL/6 and in CD26-/- mice by applying 18 hours of cold ischemia...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939067/decreased-synovial-inflammation-in-atraumatic-hip-microinstability-compared-with-femoroacetabular-impingement
#13
Geoffrey D Abrams, Ayala Luria, Joshua Sampson, Rachel A Madding, William H Robinson, Marc R Safran, Jeremy Sokolove
PURPOSE: To compare the inflammatory profile of hip synovial tissue in those with atraumatic microinstability to patients with femoroacetabular impingement (FAI). METHODS: Patients with cam and mixed-type FAI (FAI group) and patients with hip instability underwent sampling of the anterolateral synovium. Demographic data, intraoperative measurements, and functional outcome scores (International Hip Outcomes Tool and Short Form-12) were recorded. Cryosections were stained and examined under light microscopy as well as confocal fluorescent microscopy for anti-CD45 (common leukocyte antigen), anti-CD31 (endothelial), and anti-CD68 (macrophage) cell surface markers...
December 8, 2016: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935825/microglia-activation-in-a-pediatric-rabbit-model-of-tuberculous-meningitis
#14
Elizabeth W Tucker, Supriya Pokkali, Zhi Zhang, Vincent P DeMarco, Mariah Klunk, Elizabeth S Smith, Alvaro A Ordonez, Marie-France Penet, Zaver Bhujwalla, Sanjay K Jain, Sujatha Kannan
Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB) is the most severe form of extra-pulmonary TB and disproportionately affects young children where the developing brain has a unique host response. New Zealand white rabbits were infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis via subarachnoid inoculation at postnatal day 4-8 and evaluated until 4-6 weeks post-infection. Control and infected rabbit kits were assessed for the development of neurological deficits, bacterial burden, and postmortem microbiologic and pathologic changes...
December 1, 2016: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27935022/antiatherosclerotic-effect-of-ang-1-7-non-peptide-mimetic-ave-0991-is-mediated-by-inhibition-of-perivascular-and-plaque-inflammation-in-early-atherosclerosis
#15
D S Skiba, R Nosalski, T P Mikolajczyk, M Siedlinski, F J Rios, A C Montezano, J Jawien, R Olszanecki, R Korbut, M Czesnikiewicz-Guzik, R M Touyz, T J Guzik
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Inflammation plays a key role in atherosclerosis. A protective role of angiotensin-(1-7) in vascular pathologies opened a possibility for therapeutic use of small molecule non-peptide Ang-(1-7) mimetics, such as AVE0991. The mechanisms of these vaso-protective effects of a Mas receptor agonist, AVE0991, remain unclear. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: We investigated the effects of AVE0991 on the spontaneous atherosclerosis in ApoE-/- mice, in the context of vascular inflammation and plaque stability...
December 9, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927914/tryptophan-hydroxylase-1-inhibition-impacts-pulmonary-vascular-remodeling-in-two-rat-models-of-pulmonary-hypertension
#16
Robert J Aiello, Patricia-Ann Bourassa, Qing Zhang, Jeffrey Dubins, Daniel R Goldberg, Stéphane De Lombaert, Marc Humbert, Christophe Guignabert, Maria A Cavasin, Timothy A McKinsey, Vishwas Paralkar
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease defined by a chronic elevation in pulmonary arterial pressure with extensive pulmonary vascular remodeling and perivascular inflammation characterized by an accumulation of macrophages, lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and mast cells. Although the exact etiology of the disease is unknown, clinical as well as preclinical data strongly implicate a role for serotonin (5-HT) in the process. Here, we investigated the chronic effects of pharmacological inhibition of tryptophan hydroxylase 1 (TPH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in peripheral 5-HT biosynthesis, in two preclinical models of pulmonary hypertension (PH), the monocrotaline (MCT) rat and the semaxanib (SUGEN, Medinoah, Suzhou, China)-hypoxia rat...
February 2017: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917173/live-imaging-of-immune-responses-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#17
REVIEW
Barbara Rossi, Gabriela Constantin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal perivascular infiltrates that predominantly comprise lymphocytes and macrophages. During EAE, autoreactive T cells first become active in the secondary lymphoid organs upon contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and then gain access to CNS parenchyma, through a compromised blood-brain barrier, subsequently inducing inflammation and demyelination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887719/leucine-rich-repeat-containing-g-protein-coupled%C3%A2-receptor%C3%A2-5-positive%C3%A2-cells%C3%A2-in-the-endometrial-stem-cell-niche
#18
Irene Cervelló, Claudia Gil-Sanchis, Xavier Santamaría, Amparo Faus, Julia Vallvé-Juanico, Patricia Díaz-Gimeno, Oriana Genolet, Antonio Pellicer, Carlos Simón
OBJECTIVE: To study, isolate and characterize leucine-rich repeat-containing heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding protein-coupled receptor 5 (LGR5)-positive cells from human endometrium to determine their functional relevance. DESIGN: Prospective experimental animal study. SETTING: University research laboratories. ANIMAL(S): Nonobese diabetic mice (NOD-SCID) (strain code 394; NOD.CB17-Prkdc(scid)/NcrCrl). INTERVENTION(S): Human LGR5(+) cells were labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) and injected under the kidney capsule in immunocompromised mice...
November 22, 2016: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881396/involvement-of-infiltrating-macrophage-derived-activin-a-in-the-progression-of-renal-damage-in-mrl-lpr-mice
#19
Anastasie Thilela Kadiombo, Akito Maeshima, Ken Kayakabe, Hidekazu Ikeuchi, Toru Sakairi, Yoriaki Kaneko, Keiju Hiromura, Yoshihisa Nojima
Lupus nephritis is a life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Various growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines are implicated in the development of SLE. However, the pathophysiological processes involved in the development of lupus nephritis still remain unclear. In this study, we examined the involvement of activin A, a member of TGF-β superfamily, in the progression of renal damage in lupus-prone MRL-lpr mice. Activin A was was not expressed in the kidneys of normal C57BL/6 mice but was detectable in perivascular infiltrating CD68-positive cells in the kidneys of MRL-lpr mice...
November 23, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873219/immortalization-of-primary-microglia-a-new-platform-to-study-hiv-regulation-in-the-central-nervous-system
#20
Yoelvis Garcia-Mesa, Taylor R Jay, Mary Ann Checkley, Benjamin Luttge, Curtis Dobrowolski, Saba Valadkhan, Gary E Landreth, Jonathan Karn, David Alvarez-Carbonell
The major reservoirs for HIV in the CNS are in the microglia, perivascular macrophages, and to a lesser extent, astrocytes. To study the molecular events controlling HIV expression in the microglia, we developed a reliable and robust method to immortalize microglial cells from primary glia from fresh CNS tissues and commercially available frozen glial cells. Primary human cells, including cells obtained from adult brain tissue, were transformed with lentiviral vectors expressing SV40 T antigen or a combination of SVR40 T antigen and hTERT...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Neurovirology
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