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Perivascular macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222823/dominant-role-of-microglial-and-macrophage-innate-immune-responses-in-human-ischemic-infarcts
#1
Tobias Zrzavy, Joana Machado-Santos, Sheren Christine, Christoph Baumgartner, Howard L Weiner, Oleg Butovsky, Hans Lassmann
Inflammatory mechanisms, involving granulocytes, T-cells, B-cells, macrophages and activated microglia, have been suggested to play a pathogenic role in experimental models of stroke and may be targets for therapeutic intervention. However, knowledge on the inflammatory response in human stroke lesions is limited. Here, we performed a quantitative study on the inflammatory reaction in human ischemic infarct lesions. We found increased numbers of T-lymphocytes, mainly CD8+ cells, but not of B-lymphocytes. Their number was very low in comparison to that seen in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system and they did not show signs of activation...
December 8, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202375/coronary-versus-carotid-artery-plaques-similarities-and-differences-regarding-biomarkers-morphology-and-prognosis
#2
REVIEW
Fragiska Sigala, Evangelos Oikonomou, Alexis S Antonopoulos, George Galyfos, Dimitris Tousoulis
Carotid and coronary artery disease are two major atherosclerotic conditions that have shown an increased prevalence in the last three decades that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Recent data have revealed that the development of the atherosclerotic plaque-the basic entity in both diseases-may share similar characteristics and mechanisms irrespective of the location site. Even though the biology of atherosclerotic process is similar, there are differences in plaque morphology and characteristics...
December 1, 2017: Current Opinion in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197574/endothelial-microparticles-mediated-transfer-of-microrna-19b-promotes-atherosclerosis-via-activating-perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-apoe-mice
#3
Changlong Li, Sufang Li, Feng Zhang, Manyan Wu, Huizhu Liang, Junxian Song, Chongyou Lee, Hong Chen
Microparticles(MPs) are the major carriers of circulating microRNAs. Our previous study has shown that microRNA (miR)-19b in endothelial cell-derived microparticles (EMPs) is significantly increased in patients with unstable angina. However, little is known about the relationship between miR-19b in EMPs and the progression of atherosclerosis. The aim of the present study was to define the role and potential mechanism of miR-19b incorporated in EMPs in the development of atherosclerosis. Western-diet-fed apoE-/- mice were injected with phosphate buffered solution(PBS), EMP carrying microRNA control(EMPcontrol) or miR-19b mimic (EMPmiR19b) intravenously...
November 29, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191361/comparing-the-effects-of-fluticasone-anti-ige-and-anti-tnf-treatments-in-a-chronic-asthma-model
#4
M Y Ozkars, O Keskin, M Tokur, M Ulasli, B Gogebakan, H Ciralik, E Kucukosmanoglu, C Demirel, S Oztuzcu, H Kahraman
BACKGROUND: Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of asthma. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of anti-IgE and anti-TNF alpha as asthma treatments. METHODS: A mouse model of chronic asthma was developed. The fluticasone group was exposed to fluticasone and the anti-IgE and anti-TNF groups were administered anti-IgE or anti-TNF. IL-4, and IgE levels were measured, and histological analysis, pathological analysis and miRNA-126, miRNA-133a analyses were applied...
November 27, 2017: Allergologia et Immunopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173188/innate-immune-surveillance-in-the-central-nervous-system-in-legionella-pneumophila-infection
#5
Pasqualina Lagana, Luca Soraci, Maria Elsa Gambuzza, Santi Delia
Innate immune response represents a common event in many neuroinflammatory diseases. The resident immune cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are capable of sensing and reacting to both infections and sterile trauma. Peripheral immune cell migration into CNS is regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB), although peripheral immune cells can invade CNS through meninges, choroid plexus, perivascular spaces, and cerebrospinal fluid. Consequently, in the brain immune reactions can be mediated by both resident and peripheral immune cells...
November 23, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141888/lung-cancer-associated-pulmonary-hypertension-role-of-microenvironmental-inflammation-based-on-tumor-cell-immune-cell-cross-talk
#6
Soni Savai Pullamsetti, Baktybek Kojonazarov, Samantha Storn, Henning Gall, Ylia Salazar, Janine Wolf, Andreas Weigert, Nefertiti El-Nikhely, Hossein Ardeschir Ghofrani, Gabriele A Krombach, Ludger Fink, Stefan Gattenlöhner, Ulf R Rapp, Ralph Theo Schermuly, Friedrich Grimminger, Werner Seeger, Rajkumar Savai
Dyspnea is a frequent, devastating, and poorly understood symptom of advanced lung cancer. In our cohort, among 519 patients who underwent a computed tomography scan for the diagnosis of lung cancer, 250 had a mean pulmonary artery diameter of >28 mm, indicating pulmonary hypertension (PH). In human lung cancer tissue, we consistently observed increased vascular remodeling and perivascular inflammatory cell accumulation (macrophages/lymphocytes). Vascular remodeling, PH, and perivascular inflammatory cell accumulation were mimicked in three mouse models of lung cancer (LLC1, KRasLA2 , and cRaf-BxB)...
November 15, 2017: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138019/a-patient-with-severe-fever-with-thrombocytopenia-syndrome-and-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-associated-involvement-of-the-central-nervous-system
#7
Kaneko Masahiko, Shikata Hisaharu, Matsukage Shoichi, Maruta Masaki, Shinomiya Hiroto, Suzuki Tadaki, Hasegawa Hideki, Shimojima Masayuki, Saijo Masayuki
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS), a severe infectious disease caused by novel bunyavirus, SFTS virus (SFTSV), is endemic to China, Korea, and Japan. Most SFTS patients show abnormalities in consciousness. Pathological findings in the central nervous system (CNS) of SFTS patients are not reported. A 53-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Uwajima City Hospital with an 8-day history of fever and diarrhea. Laboratory tests revealed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and liver enzyme elevation. He was diagnosed as having severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) following detection of the SFTSV genome in his blood...
November 11, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133362/three-month-endothelial-human-endothelin-1-overexpression-causes-blood-pressure-elevation-and-vascular-and-kidney-injury
#8
Suellen C Coelho, Olga Berillo, Antoine Caillon, Sofiane Ouerd, Júlio C Fraulob-Aquino, Tlili Barhoumi, Stefan Offermanns, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Endothelium-derived endothelin (ET)-1 has been implicated in the development of hypertension and end-organ damage, but its exact role remains unclear. We have shown that tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpressing (ieET-1) mice exhibited blood pressure rise after a 3-week induction in an ET type A (ETA) receptor-dependent manner, in absence of vascular and renal injury. It is unknown whether long-term ET-1 overexpression results in sustained blood pressure elevation and vascular and renal injury...
November 13, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096831/endothelial-function-and-gene-expression-in-perivascular-adipose-tissue-from-internal-mammary-arteries-of-obese-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#9
Maria Cybularz, Heike Langbein, Birgit Zatschler, Coy Brunssen, Andreas Deussen, Klaus Matschke, Henning Morawietz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Obesity is a risk factor for endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. However, perivascular adipose tissue can release adipokines and other unknown adipose-derived relaxing factors. Therefore, we investigated the impact of obesity on vascular function and expression of genes in perivascular adipose tissue from internal mammary arteries of patients with coronary artery disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. METHODS: The vessel function was compared between groups of patients with a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 and 30 kg/m(2)...
November 2017: Atherosclerosis. Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067721/the-perivascular-microenvironment-in-epstein-barr-virus-positive-primary-central-nervous-system-lymphoma-the-role-of-programmed-cell-death-1-and-programmed-cell-death-ligand-1
#10
Yasuo Sugita, Takuya Furuta, Koichi Ohshima, Satoru Komaki, Junko Miyoshi, Motohiro Morioka, Hideyuki Abe, Takanori Nozawa, Yukihiko Fujii, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita
It has been shown that high expression of certain immune checkpoint molecules, including those of the programmed death protein 1/programmed death ligand 1 (PD-1/PD-L1) axis, can be utilized to regulate immunosuppression in the microenvironment of malignant neoplasms. For the purpose of clarifying the immune-escape mechanism of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNSLs), particularly in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive cases, markers for PD-1, PD-L1, tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in 39 surgical specimens of PCNSLs (17 EBV-positive, 22 EBV-negative) were investigated by immunohistochemistry...
October 24, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059867/spatial-targeting-of-tumor-associated-macrophage-and-tumor-cells-with-a-designer-nanocarrier-for-cancer-chemo-immunotherapy
#11
Jun Wang
form only given. Chemo-immunotherapy which combines chemotherapeutics with immune-modulating agents represents an appealing approach to improving cancer therapy [1, 2]. To maximize its efficacy, differential and precise targeting of the multiple therapeutics into corresponding cells is desirable. Here we develop an immunostimulatory nanocarrier that simultaneously loads platinum (Pt)-based chemotherapeutic prodrug and BLZ-945, a small molecule inhibitor of colony stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF-1R) of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) [3], to spatially target tumor cells and TAMs for cancer chemo-immunotherapy...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050399/diagnostic-criteria-for-chronic-lymphocytic-inflammation-with-pontine-perivascular-enhancement-responsive-to-steroids-clippers
#12
W Oliver Tobin, Yong Guo, Karl N Krecke, Joseph E Parisi, Claudia F Lucchinetti, Sean J Pittock, Jay Mandrekar, Divyanshu Dubey, Jan Debruyne, B Mark Keegan
Chronic lymphocytic inflammation with pontine perivascular enhancement responsive to steroids (CLIPPERS) is a central nervous system inflammatory syndrome predominantly affecting the brainstem, cerebellum, and spinal cord. Following its initial description, the salient features of CLIPPERS have been confirmed and expanded upon, but the lack of formalized diagnostic criteria has led to reports of patients with dissimilar features purported to have CLIPPERS. We evaluated clinical, radiological and pathological features of patients referred for suspected CLIPPERS and propose diagnostic criteria to discriminate CLIPPERS from non-CLIPPERS aetiologies...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038312/dynamic-stroma-reorganization-drives-blood-vessel-dysmorphia-during-glioma-growth
#13
Thomas Mathivet, Claire Bouleti, Matthias Van Woensel, Fabio Stanchi, Tina Verschuere, Li-Kun Phng, Joost Dejaegher, Marly Balcer, Ken Matsumoto, Petya B Georgieva, Jochen Belmans, Raf Sciot, Christian Stockmann, Massimiliano Mazzone, Steven De Vleeschouwer, Holger Gerhardt
Glioma growth and progression are characterized by abundant development of blood vessels that are highly aberrant and poorly functional, with detrimental consequences for drug delivery efficacy. The mechanisms driving this vessel dysmorphia during tumor progression are poorly understood. Using longitudinal intravital imaging in a mouse glioma model, we identify that dynamic sprouting and functional morphogenesis of a highly branched vessel network characterize the initial tumor growth, dramatically changing to vessel expansion, leakage, and loss of branching complexity in the later stages...
October 16, 2017: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030904/development-and-maintenance-of-the-brain-s-immune-toolkit-microglia-and-non-parenchymal-brain-macrophages
#14
REVIEW
Jose P Lopez-Atalaya, Katharine E Askew K, Amanda Sierra, Diego Gomez-Nicola
Microglia and non-parenchymal macrophages located in the perivascular space, the meninges and the choroid plexus are independent immune populations that play vital roles in brain development, homeostasis, and tissue healing. Resident macrophages account for a significant proportion of cells in the brain and their density remains stable throughout the lifespan thanks to constant turnover. Microglia develop from yolk sac progenitors, later evolving through intermediate progenitors in a fine-tuned process in which intrinsic factors and external stimuli combine to progressively sculpt their cell-type specific transcriptional profiles...
October 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016715/matrix-metalloproteinase-2-knockout-prevents-angiotensin-ii-induced-vascular-injury
#15
Tlili Barhoumi, Julio C Fraulob-Aquino, Muhammad Oneeb Rehman Mian, Sofiane Ouerd, Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Ku-Geng Huo, Asia Rehman, Antoine Caillon, Bianca Dancose-Giambattisto, Talin Ebrahimian, Stéphanie Lehoux, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
Aims: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) have been implicated in the development of hypertension in animal models and humans. Mmp2 deletion did not change Ang II-induced blood pressure (BP) rise. However, whether Mmp2 knockout affects angiotensin (Ang) II-induced vascular injury has not been tested. We sought to determine whether Mmp2 knockout will prevent Ang II-induced vascular injury. Methods and results: A fourteen-day Ang II infusion (1000 ng/kg/min, SC) increased systolic BP, decreased vasodilatory responses to acetylcholine, induced mesenteric artery (MA) hypertrophic remodelling, and enhanced MA stiffness in wild-type (WT) mice...
July 20, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990052/macrophage-migration-inhibitory-factor-knockdown-inhibit-viability-and-induce-apoptosis-of-pvm-ms
#16
Wenjing Zhang, Jian Zheng, Juan Meng, Lingling Neng, Xiaohua Chen, Zhaobing Qin
Previous studies have suggested that macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) serves an important role in hearing function; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, perivascular‑resident macrophage‑like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) from the stria vascularis of the lateral cochlear wall in young and aged mice were isolated. The mRNA and protein expression levels of MIF were determined using reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis, and western blotting, respectively...
December 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987033/trem2-expression-in-the-human-brain-a-marker-of-monocyte-recruitment
#17
Marie Fahrenhold, Sonja Rakic, John Classey, Carol Brayne, Paul G Ince, James A R Nicoll, Delphine Boche
Mutation in the triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells (TREM) 2 gene has been identified as a risk factor for several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Experimental studies using animal models of AD have highlighted a number of functions associated with TREM2 and its expression by microglial cells. It has therefore been assumed that this is also the case in humans. However, there is very limited information concerning the cellular expression of TREM2 in the human brain. As part of investigations of microglia using post-mortem resources provided by the Medical Research Council Cognitive Function and Ageing Studies (MRC-CFAS), we immunostained the cerebral cortex of 299 participants for TREM2 using the Sigma antibody HPA010917 and compared with the macrophage/microglial markers Iba1 and CD68...
October 7, 2017: Brain Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948650/vegf-as-a-modulator-of-the-innate-immune-response-in-glioblastoma
#18
Kati Turkowski, Susan Brandenburg, Annett Mueller, Irina Kremenetskaia, Alexander D Bungert, Anne Blank, Matthäus Felsenstein, Peter Vajkoczy
VEGF is an important factor in tumor vascularization and used as target for anti-angiogenic treatment strategies in glioma. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that VEGF is a modulator of the innate immune response with suppressive effects on the immunologic and pro-angiogenic function of microglia/macrophages in a glioblastoma rodent model. High level of VEGF led to threefold enlarged tumor volumes and a pronounced remodeling of the vascular structure along with a reduced infiltration of microglia/macrophages by approximately 50%...
January 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942490/susceptibility-of-mice-to-bovine-herpesvirus-type-5-infection-in-the-central-nervous-system
#19
L P Mesquita, R C Costa, M M Fusuma, F R P Bruhn, E Mori, E M Pituco, C M C Mori, R Weiblen, P C Maiorka
Bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5) is an important pathogen that causes meningoencephalitis in cattle. Few studies have used the mouse as a model for BoHV-5 infection. Despite the fact that BoHV-5 can infect mice with immune deficiencies, little is known about viral replication, immune response, and the course of infection in the central nervous system (CNS) of wild-type mice. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the response in the CNS of BALB/c mice acutely infected with BoHV-5 at different days post-inoculation (dpi)...
December 2017: Veterinary Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935667/upregulation-of-human-endogenous-retrovirus-k-is-linked-to-immunity-and-inflammation-in-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension
#20
Toshie Saito, Kazuya Miyagawa, Shih-Yu Chen, Rasa Tamosiuniene, Lingli Wang, Orr Sharpe, Erik Samayoa, Daisuke Harada, Jan-Renier A J Moonen, Aiqin Cao, Pin-I Chen, Jan K Hennigs, Mingxia Gu, Caiyun G Li, Ryan D Leib, Dan Li, Christopher M Adams, Patricia A Del Rosario, Matthew Bill, Francois Haddad, Jose G Montoya, William H Robinson, Wendy J Fantl, Garry P Nolan, Roham T Zamanian, Mark R Nicolls, Charles Y Chiu, Maria E Ariza, Marlene Rabinovitch
BACKGROUND: Immune dysregulation has been linked to occlusive vascular remodeling in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) that is hereditary, idiopathic, or associated with other conditions. Circulating autoantibodies, lung perivascular lymphoid tissue, and elevated cytokines have been related to PAH pathogenesis but without a clear understanding of how these abnormalities are initiated, perpetuated, and connected in the progression of disease. We therefore set out to identify specific target antigens in PAH lung immune complexes as a starting point toward resolving these issues to better inform future application of immunomodulatory therapies...
November 14, 2017: Circulation
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