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Perivascular macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630137/the-cardiovascular-macrophage-a-missing-link-between-gut-microbiota-and-cardiovascular-diseases
#1
X Chen, L Zheng, Y-Q Zheng, Q-G Yang, Y Lin, F-H Ni, Z-H Li
The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases is on the rise. Interventions that would aid prevention or treatment of these diseases are essential. The microbes residing in the gut, collectively called "gut microbiota", produce a plethora of compounds that enter the bloodstream and affect the cardiovascular system. Signals ascending from gut microbiome are believed to modulate differentiation and functional activity of macrophages residing in perivascular tissue, atherosclerotic plaques, and perivascular areas of the brain...
March 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625180/a%C3%AE-oligomer-uptake-and-the-resulting-inflammatory-response-in-adult-human-astrocytes-are-precluded-by-an-anti-a%C3%AE-single-chain-variable-fragment-in-combination-with-an-apoe-mimetic-peptide
#2
Laia Montoliu-Gaya, Sandra D Mulder, Maaike A C Herrebout, Johannes C Baayen, Sandra Villegas, Robert Veerhuis
An imbalance between production and clearance of soluble amyloid-β (Aβ) initiates the pathological process in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Aβ-specific antibodies seemed promising as therapeutic option in AD mouse models. In patients, however, vascular side-effects and Aβ-antibody complex-induced microglial and/or perivascular macrophage inflammatory responses were encountered. To prevent inflammatory reactions, we designed a single chain variable fragment (scFv-h3D6), based on monoclonal antibody bapineuzumab (mAb-h3D6), but lacking the Fc region...
April 3, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609523/the-contribution-of-fibrinogen-to-inflammation-and-neuronal-density-in-human-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Damian Robert Jenkins, Matthew J Craner, Margaret M Esiri, Gabriele C DeLuca
Traumatic brain injury is a leading cause of death and disability, particularly among the young. Despite this, no disease-specific treatments exist. Recently, descriptions of BBB disruption and parenchymal fibrinogen deposition have been reported in acute traumatic brain injury and in long-term survival; however, their contribution to the neuropathology of TBI remains unknown. 1, 2 The presence of fibrinogen - a well-documented activator of microglia/macrophages - may be associated with neuroinflammation, and neuronal/axonal injury...
April 2, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594984/in-vivo-characterization-of-macrophage-tropic-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-molecular-clones-in-rhesus-macaques
#4
Sanjeev Gumber, Praveen Kumar Amancha, Po-Jen Yen, Francois Villinger, Dana Gabuzda, Siddappa N Byrareddy
Macrophages are a major target of HIV/SIV infection and play an important role in pathogenesis by serving as viral reservoirs in the central nervous system. Previously, a unique early SIVmac251 envelope (Env) variant, deSIV147 was cloned from blood of a rhesus macaque with rapid disease progression and SIV-associated encephalitis. Here, we show that infectious molecular clone deSIV147 caused systemic infection in rhesus macaques following intravenous or intrarectal exposure. Next, we inoculated deSIV147 into macaques depleted of CD4+ T cells and found that animals were SIV-positive, with high plasma and CSF viral loads...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29566608/coxiella-burnetii-in-infertile-dairy-cattle-with-chronic-endometritis
#5
Davide De Biase, Alessandro Costagliola, Fabio Del Piero, Rossella Di Palo, Domenico Coronati, Giorgio Galiero, Barbara Degli Uberti, Maria Gabriella Lucibelli, Annalisa Fabbiano, Bernard Davoust, Didier Raoult, Orlando Paciello
Coxiella burnetii is an obligate intracellular pathogen and the cause of Q fever in many animal species and humans. Several studies have reported the association between C. burnetii and abortion, premature delivery, stillbirth, and weak offspring. However, no solid evidence indicates that C. burnetii causes endometritis, subfertility, and retained fetal membranes. For this study, histopathological and PCR evaluation were performed on 40 uterine biopsies from dairy cattle with poor fertility. Uterine swabs were concurrently tested with microbiology assays...
January 1, 2018: Veterinary Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558307/cerebral-microbleeds-imaging-and-clinical-significance
#6
Sven Haller, Meike W Vernooij, Joost P A Kuijer, Elna-Marie Larsson, Hans Rolf Jäger, Frederik Barkhof
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), also referred to as microhemorrhages, appear on magnetic resonance (MR) images as hypointense foci notably at T2*-weighted or susceptibility-weighted (SW) imaging. CMBs are detected with increasing frequency because of the more widespread use of high magnetic field strength and of newer dedicated MR imaging techniques such as three-dimensional gradient-echo T2*-weighted and SW imaging. The imaging appearance of CMBs is mainly because of changes in local magnetic susceptibility and reflects the pathologic iron accumulation, most often in perivascular macrophages, because of vasculopathy...
April 2018: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547435/lentiviral-infection-of-proliferating-brain-macrophages-in-siv-and-hiv-encephalitis-despite-samhd1-expression
#7
Allison A Lindgren, Adam R Filipowicz, Julian B Hattler, Soon Ok Kim, Hye Kyung Chung, Marcelo J Kuroda, Edward M Johnson, Woong-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE: HIV-1 infection of the brain and related cognitive impairment remain prevalent in HIV-1-infected subjects despite combination antiretroviral therapy. Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartate domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) is a newly identified host restriction factor that blocks the replication of HIV-1 and other retroviruses in myeloid cells. Cell-cycle-regulated phosphorylation at residue Thr592 and viral protein X (Vpx)-mediated degradation of SAMHD1 have been shown to bypass SAMHD1 restriction in vitro...
March 15, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533975/the-role-of-macrophages-in-neuroinflammatory-and-neurodegenerative-pathways-of-alzheimer-s-disease-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-multiple-sclerosis-pathogenetic-cellular-effectors-and-potential-therapeutic-targets
#8
REVIEW
Santa Mammana, Paolo Fagone, Eugenio Cavalli, Maria Sofia Basile, Maria Cristina Petralia, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
In physiological conditions, different types of macrophages can be found within the central nervous system (CNS), i.e., microglia, meningeal macrophages, and perivascular (blood-brain barrier) and choroid plexus (blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier) macrophages. Microglia and tissue-resident macrophages, as well as blood-borne monocytes, have different origins, as the former derive from yolk sac erythromyeloid precursors and the latter from the fetal liver or bone marrow. Accordingly, specific phenotypic patterns characterize each population...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29506186/chondroitin-sulfate-proteoglycans-as-novel-drivers-of-leucocyte-infiltration-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Erin L Stephenson, Manoj K Mishra, Daniel Moussienko, Nataly Laflamme, Serge Rivest, Chang-Chun Ling, V Wee Yong
Multiple sclerosis presents with profound changes in the network of molecules involved in maintaining central nervous system architecture, the extracellular matrix. The extracellular matrix components, particularly the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, have functions beyond structural support including their potential interaction with, and regulation of, inflammatory molecules. To investigate the roles of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans in multiple sclerosis, we used the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis model in a time course study...
April 1, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29504090/some-peculiarities-of-local-distribution-of-multipotent-mesenchymal-stromal-cells-after-their-injection-into-intact-muscle-tissue-in-experiment
#10
I V Maiborodin, V V Morozov, A A Anikeev, R V Maslov, N F Figurenko, V A Matveeva, V I Maiborodina
Changes in the muscular tissue after subcutaneous injection of autologous bone marrow multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells transfected with GFP gene and additionally stained with cell membrane dye Vybrant CM-Dil in the projection of ligated femoral vein were studied by light microscopy with luminescence. Stromal cells injected through the skin can appear not only in the damaged tissue where acceleration of regeneration processes is required, but also in intact structures located in superficial or deeper layers...
March 4, 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29487598/macrophages-in-the-human-cochlea-saviors-or-predators-a-study-using-super-resolution-immunohistochemistry
#11
Wei Liu, Matyas Molnar, Carolyn Garnham, Heval Benav, Helge Rask-Andersen
The human inner ear, which is segregated by a blood/labyrinth barrier, contains resident macrophages [CD163, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1 (IBA1)-, and CD68-positive cells] within the connective tissue, neurons, and supporting cells. In the lateral wall of the cochlea, these cells frequently lie close to blood vessels as perivascular macrophages. Macrophages are also shown to be recruited from blood-borne monocytes to damaged and dying hair cells induced by noise, ototoxic drugs, aging, and diphtheria toxin-induced hair cell degeneration...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480191/alzheimer-s-disease-recent-concepts-on-the-relation-of-mitochondrial-disturbances-excitotoxicity-neuroinflammation-and-kynurenines
#12
Dénes Zádori, Gábor Veres, Levente Szalárdy, Péter Klivényi, László Vécsei
The pathomechanism of Alzheimer's disease (AD) certainly involves mitochondrial disturbances, glutamate excitotoxicity, and neuroinflammation. The three main aspects of mitochondrial dysfunction in AD, i.e., the defects in dynamics, altered bioenergetics, and the deficient transport, act synergistically. In addition, glutamatergic neurotransmission is affected in several ways. The balance between synaptic and extrasynaptic glutamatergic transmission is shifted toward the extrasynaptic site contributing to glutamate excitotoxicity, a phenomenon augmented by increased glutamate release and decreased glutamate uptake...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479319/high-fat-diet-attenuates-the-anticontractile-activity-of-aortic-pvat-via-a-mechanism-involving-ampk-and-reduced-adiponectin-secretion
#13
Tarek A M Almabrouk, Anna D White, Azizah B Ugusman, Dominik S Skiba, Omar J Katwan, Husam Alganga, Tomasz J Guzik, Rhian M Touyz, Ian P Salt, Simon Kennedy
Background and aim: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) positively regulates vascular function through production of factors such as adiponectin but this effect is attenuated in obesity. The enzyme AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is present in PVAT and is implicated in mediating the vascular effects of adiponectin. In this study, we investigated the effect of an obesogenic high fat diet (HFD) on aortic PVAT and whether any changes involved AMPK. Methods: Wild type Sv129 (WT) and AMPKα1 knockout (KO) mice aged 8 weeks were fed normal diet (ND) or HFD (42% kcal fat) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29464937/vascular-dysfunction-elicited-by-a-crosstalk-between-periaortic-adipose-tissue-and-the-vascular-wall-is-reversed-by-pioglitazone
#14
Isabel Quesada, Jimena Cejas, Rodrigo García, Beatriz Cannizzo, Analía Redondo, Claudia Castro
AIM: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is in intimate contact with the vessel wall and extravascular PVAT-derived inflammatory mediators may adversely influence atherosclerotic plaque formation and stability through outside-to-inside signalling. We sought to investigate the role of PVAT on the atheroma development in an experimental animal model of Metabolic Syndrome (MS) associated with oxidative stress and low-grade inflammatory state. We also studied the effect of Pioglitazone an insulin sensitizer, on the aortic wall and its surrounding PVAT, considering a bi-directional communication between both layers...
February 21, 2018: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437578/tissue-factor-an-essential-mediator-of-hemostasis-and-trigger-of-thrombosis
#15
REVIEW
Steven P Grover, Nigel Mackman
Tissue factor (TF) is the high-affinity receptor and cofactor for FVII/VIIa. The TF-FVIIa complex is the primary initiator of blood coagulation and plays an essential role in hemostasis. TF is expressed on perivascular and epithelial cells at organ and body surfaces where it forms a hemostatic barrier. TF also provides additional hemostatic protection to vital organs, such as the brain, lung, and heart. Under pathological conditions, TF can trigger both arterial and venous thrombosis. For instance, atherosclerosis plaques contain high levels of TF on macrophage foam cells and microvesicles that drives thrombus formation after plaque rupture...
February 8, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434227/the-nlrp3-inflammasome-may-contribute-to-pathologic-neovascularization-in-the-advanced-stages-of-diabetic-retinopathy
#16
Shyam S Chaurasia, Rayne R Lim, Bhav H Parikh, Yeo Sia Wey, Bo Bo Tun, Tien Yin Wong, Chi D Luu, Rupesh Agrawal, Arkasubhra Ghosh, Alessandra Mortellaro, Elizabeth Rackoczy, Rajiv R Mohan, Veluchamy A Barathi
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a retinal microvascular disease characterized by inflammatory and angiogenic pathways. In this study, we evaluated NLRP3 inflammasome in a double transgenic mouse model, Akimba (Ins2 Akita xVEGF +/- ), which demonstrates hyperglycemia, vascular hyperpermeability and neovascularization seen in the proliferative DR. Retinal structural integrity, vascular leakage and function were examined by fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, optical coherence tomography, retinal flat mounts, laser speckle flowgraphy (LSFG), and electroretinography in Akimba and its parental strains, Akita (Ins2 Akita ) and Kimba (trVEGF029) mice...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422316/histological-and-immunological-description-of-the-leishmanin-skin-test-in-ibizan-hounds
#17
L Ordeix, J E Dos S Silva, J Llull, P Quirola, S Montserrat-Sangrà, P Martínez-Orellana, L Solano-Gallego
The leishmanin skin test (LST), a delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) reaction to Leishmania infantum, can specifically identify dogs that have made a cell-mediated immune response to L. infantum infection. The Ibizan hound appears to be more resistant to L. infantum infection than other breeds of dog. The aim of this study was to describe the histological and immunohistochemical changes induced by the LST in Ibizan hounds living in an area highly endemic for leishmaniosis. The majority of dogs were apparently healthy, lacked serum antibody to L...
January 2018: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29399411/monocytes-macrophages-promote-vascular-cxcr4-expression-via-the-erk-pathway-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#18
Ya-Ming Meng, Jing Liang, Chong Wu, Jing Xu, Dan-Ni Zeng, Xing-Juan Yu, Huiheng Ning, Li Xu, Limin Zheng
We recently identified CXCR4 as a novel vascular marker for vessel sprouting in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues. Thus, CXCR4+ endothelial cells (ECs) could serve as a potential predictor for patients who may benefit from sorafenib treatment; however, the mechanism that regulates vascular CXCR4 expression in HCC remains largely unknown. Here, we revealed a large number of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Mϕ) to be selectively enriched in the perivascular areas of CXCR4+ vessels in HCC samples. The depletion of Mo/Mϕ with gadolinium chloride (GdCl3) or zoledronic acid (ZA) treatment significantly reduced vascular CXCR4 expression in HCC tumors...
2018: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29377691/identification-of-a-novel-hybridization-from-isosorbide-5-mononitrate-and-bardoxolone-methyl-with-dual-activities-of-pulmonary-vasodilation-and-vascular-remodeling-inhibition-on-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-rats
#19
Yusheng Cheng, Yan Gong, Shuai Qian, Yi Mou, Hanrui Li, Xijing Chen, Hui Kong, Weiping Xie, Hong Wang, Yihua Zhang, Zhangjian Huang
Given that the clinical therapeutic efficacy of oral-dosed bardoxolone methyl (1) and the selective vasodilatory effect caused by inhalation of nitric oxide (NO) on pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients, a new hybrid (CDDO-NO, 2) from 1 and NO donor isosorbide 5-mononitrate (3) was designed and synthesized. This hybrid could liberate 1 and NO in the lungs of rats after trachea injection. Significantly, 2 lowered mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP), decreased right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as attenuated pulmonary artery medial thickness (PAMT) and vascular muscularization in monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH rats...
January 29, 2018: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29374313/-importance-of-virchow-robin-spaces
#20
REVIEW
W Reith, A Haußmann
Virchow-Robin spaces are perivascular fluid-filled cavities that surround perforating arteries and veins in the brain parenchyma. As a rule in healthy people they are approximately 5 mm in diameter. Typical localizations are brainstem ganglia, mesencephalon and the white matter of the brain. Morphological imaging characteristics of Virchow-Robin spaces are round or tubular, smoothly bordered areas which are hyperintense in T2-weighted sequences. Virchow-Robin spaces represent a physiological structure in normal brain parenchyma...
January 26, 2018: Der Radiologe
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