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Perivascular macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323268/ontogeny-and-homeostasis-of-cns-myeloid-cells
#1
REVIEW
Marco Prinz, Daniel Erny, Nora Hagemeyer
Myeloid cells in the central nervous system (CNS) represent a heterogeneous class of innate immune cells that contribute to the maintenance of tissue homeostasis differentially during development and adulthood. The subsets of CNS myeloid cells identified so far, including parenchymal microglia and non-parenchymal meningeal, perivascular and choroid-plexus macrophages, as well as disease-associated monocytes, have classically been distinguished on the basis of their surface epitope expression, localization and morphology...
March 22, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317919/scavenger-receptor-collectin-placenta-1-is-a-novel-receptor-involved-in-the-uptake-of-myelin-by-phagocytes
#2
Jeroen F J Bogie, Jo Mailleux, Elien Wouters, Winde Jorissen, Elien Grajchen, Jasmine Vanmol, Kristiaan Wouters, Niels Hellings, Jack Van Horsen, Tim Vanmierlo, Jerome J A Hendriks
Myelin-containing macrophages and microglia are the most abundant immune cells in active multiple sclerosis (MS) lesions. Our recent transcriptomic analysis demonstrated that collectin placenta 1 (CL-P1) is one of the most potently induced genes in macrophages after uptake of myelin. CL-P1 is a type II transmembrane protein with both a collagen-like and carbohydrate recognition domain, which plays a key role in host defense. In this study we sought to determine the dynamics of CL-P1 expression on myelin-containing phagocytes and define the role that it plays in MS lesion development...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288670/histological-and-parasitological-distinctive-findings-in-clinically-lesioned-and-normal-looking-skin-of-dogs-with-different-clinical-stages-of-leishmaniosis
#3
Laura Ordeix, Annabel Dalmau, Montsant Osso, Joan Llull, Sara Montserrat-Sangrà, Laia Solano-Gallego
BACKGROUND: Normal-looking skin of dogs with leishmaniosis frequently shows microscopic lesions along with the presence of Leishmania amastigotes. However, histological lesions with or without detection of amastigotes might not occur in less severe clinical cases. In addition, comparative studies between paired clinically-lesioned and normal-looking skin samples from dogs with different disease severity are lacking. The objective of this study was to compare histological and parasitological findings by Leishmania immunohistochemistry (IHC) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) on paired clinically-lesioned and normal-looking skin biopsies from 25 dogs with different clinical stages of leishmaniosis, 11 with stage I-mild disease (papular dermatitis) and 14 with stage II-III (ulcerative or exfoliative dermatitis)...
March 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279759/what-do-we-know-about-the-structure-of-human-thymic-hassall-s-corpuscles-a-histochemical-immunohistochemical-and-electron-microscopic-study
#4
Renáta Mikušová, Veronika Mešťanová, Štefan Polák, Ivan Varga
Hassall's corpuscles are the most prominent structures in the human thymus. However, relatively few analyses have been performed to determine their function and cellular origins during development. In this study, we evaluated the cellular microenvironment of human thymic Hassall's corpuscles using histochemistry, immunohistochemistry, and transmission electron microscopy. We examined 95 human thymic tissue samples, which were perioperatively obtained from children undergoing cardiac surgery. To characterize the complex cellular microenvironment of human thymic corpuscles, we used a panel of 14 different antibodies to identify discrete cell types...
March 6, 2017: Annals of Anatomy, Anatomischer Anzeiger: Official Organ of the Anatomische Gesellschaft
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246454/molecular-identification-and-histopathological-study-of-natural-streptococcus-agalactiae-infection-in-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-niloticus
#5
A A Laith, Mohd Azmi Ambak, Marina Hassan, Shahreza Md Sheriff, Musa Nadirah, Ahmad Shuhaimi Draman, Wahidah Wahab, Wan Nurhafizah Wan Ibrahim, Alia Syafiqah Aznan, Amina Jabar, Musa Najiah
AIM: The main objective of this study was to emphasize on histopathological examinations and molecular identification of Streptococcus agalactiae isolated from natural infections in hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Temerloh Pahang, Malaysia, as well as to determine the susceptibility of the pathogen strains to various currently available antimicrobial agents. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The diseased fishes were observed for variable clinical signs including fin hemorrhages, alterations in behavior associated with erratic swimming, exophthalmia, and mortality...
January 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235764/cellular-and-molecular-identity-of-tumor-associated-macrophages-in-glioblastoma
#6
Zhihong Chen, Xi Feng, Cameron J Herting, Virginia Alvarez Garcia, Kai Nie, Winnie W Pong, Rikke Rasmussen, Bhakti Dwivedi, Sandra Seby, Susanne A Wolf, David H Gutmann, Dolores Hambardzumyan
In glioblastoma (GBM), tumor--associated macrophages (TAM) represent up to one half of the cells of the tumor mass, including both infiltrating macrophages and resident brain microglia. In an effort to delineate the temporal and spatial dynamics of TAM composition during gliomagenesis, we employed two genetically engineered mouse models where oncogenic drivers and fluorescent reporters were expressed coordinately under the control of the monocyte/microglia--selective Cx3cr1 or Ccr2 promoters, respectively. Using this approach, we demonstrated that CX3CR1LoCCR2Hi monocytes were recruited to the glioblastoma, where they transitioned to CX3CR1HiCCR2Lo macrophages and CX3CR1HiCCR2- microglia--like cells...
February 24, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235052/multiple-functional-therapeutic-effects-of-tnp-a-small-stable-synthetic-peptide-derived-from-fish-venom-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#7
Evilin Naname Komegae, Tais Aparecida Matozo Souza, Lidiane Zito Grund, Carla Lima, Monica Lopes-Ferreira
The pathological condition of multiple sclerosis (MS) relies on innate and adaptive immunity. New types of agents that beneficially modify the course of MS, stopping the progression and repairing the damage appear promising. Here, we studied TnP, a small stable synthetic peptide derived from fish venom in the control of inflammation and demyelination in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis as prophylactic treatment. TnP decreased the number of the perivascular infiltrates in spinal cord, and the activity of MMP-9 by F4/80+ macrophages were decreased after different regimen treatments...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28234672/vascular-smooth-muscle-cell-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-protects-against-endothelin-1-induced-oxidative-stress-and-inflammation
#8
Noureddine Idris-Khodja, Sofiane Ouerd, Michelle Trindade, Jordan Gornitsky, Asia Rehman, Tlili Barhoumi, Stefan Offermanns, Frank J Gonzalez, Mario F Neves, Pierre Paradis, Ernesto L Schiffrin
AIMS: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists reduce blood pressure and vascular injury in hypertensive rodents. Pparγ inactivation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) enhances vascular injury. Transgenic mice overexpressing endothelin (ET)-1 selectively in the endothelium (eET-1) exhibit endothelial dysfunction, increased oxidative stress and inflammation. We hypothesized that inactivation of the Pparγ gene in VSMC (smPparγ) would exaggerate ET-1-induced vascular injury...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194443/sustained-inflammation-after-pericyte-depletion-induces-irreversible-blood-retina-barrier-breakdown
#9
Shuntaro Ogura, Kaori Kurata, Yuki Hattori, Hiroshi Takase, Toshina Ishiguro-Oonuma, Yoonha Hwang, Soyeon Ahn, Inwon Park, Wataru Ikeda, Sentaro Kusuhara, Yoko Fukushima, Hiromi Nara, Hideto Sakai, Takashi Fujiwara, Jun Matsushita, Masatsugu Ema, Masanori Hirashima, Takashi Minami, Masabumi Shibuya, Nobuyuki Takakura, Pilhan Kim, Takaki Miyata, Yuichiro Ogura, Akiyoshi Uemura
In the central nervous system, endothelial cells (ECs) and pericytes (PCs) of blood vessel walls cooperatively form a physical and chemical barrier to maintain neural homeostasis. However, in diabetic retinopathy (DR), the loss of PCs from vessel walls is assumed to cause breakdown of the blood-retina barrier (BRB) and subsequent vision-threatening vascular dysfunctions. Nonetheless, the lack of adequate DR animal models has precluded disease understanding and drug discovery. Here, by using an anti-PDGFRβ antibody, we show that transient inhibition of the PC recruitment to developing retinal vessels sustained EC-PC dissociations and BRB breakdown in adult mouse retinas, reproducing characteristic features of DR such as hyperpermeability, hypoperfusion, and neoangiogenesis...
February 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28193684/an-agonist-of-the-protective-factor-sirt1-improves-functional-recovery-and-promotes-neuronal-survival-by-attenuating-inflammation-after-spinal-cord-injury
#10
Haihong Chen, Hao Ji, Ming Zhang, Zude Liu, Lifeng Lao, Chao Deng, Jianwei Chen, Guibin Zhong
Targeting posttraumatic inflammation is crucial for improving locomotor function. SIRT1 has been shown to play a critical role in disease processes such as hepatic inflammation, rheumatoid arthritis and acute lung inflammation by regulating inflammation. However, the role of SIRT1 in spinal cord injury (SCI) is unknown. We hypothesized that SIRT1 plays an important role in improving locomotor function after SCI by regulating neuroinflammation. In this study, we investigated the effect of SIRT1 in SCI using pharmacological intervention (SRT1720) and the Mx1-Cre/loxP recombination system to knock out target genes...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179107/pro-inflammatory-immune-to-brain-signaling-is-involved-in-neuroendocrine-responses-to-acute-emotional-stress
#11
Jordi Serrats, Jan-Sebastian Grigoleit, Elena Alvarez-Salas, Paul E Sawchenko
Activation of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis by inflammatory stressors (e.g., bacterial lipopolysaccharide) is thought to involve vascular transduction of circulating cytokines, with perivascular macrophages (PVMs) along with endothelia, effecting activation of HPA control circuitry via inducible (cyclooxygenase-2- or COX-2- dependent) prostaglandin synthesis. To test the stressor-specificity of this mechanism, we examined whether ablation of PVMs or pharmacologic blockade of COX activity affected HPA responses to a representative emotional stressor, restraint...
February 4, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148272/dose-dependent-induction-of-astrocyte-activation-and-reactive-astrogliosis-in-mouse-brain-following-maternal-exposure-to-carbon-black-nanoparticle
#12
Atsuto Onoda, Ken Takeda, Masakazu Umezawa
BACKGROUND: Recent studies indicate that maternal exposure to ambient ultrafine particles and nanoparticles has adverse effects of on the central nervous system. Quantitative dose-response data is required to better understand the developmental neurotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present study investigated dose-dependent effects of maternal exposure to carbon black nanoparticle (CB-NP) on astrocyte in the brains of mouse offspring. METHODS: A CB-NP suspension (2...
February 2, 2017: Particle and Fibre Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125278/roles-for-the-cx3cl1-cx3cr1-and-ccl2-ccr2-chemokine-systems-in-hypoxic-pulmonary-hypertension
#13
Valérie Amsellem, Shariq Abid, Lucie Poupel, Aurélien Parpaleix, Mathieu Rodero, Guillaume Gary-Bobo, Mehdi Latiri, Jean-Luc Dubois-Rande, Larissa Lipskaia, Christophe Combadiere, Serge Adnot
Monocytes/macrophages are major effectors of lung inflammation associated with various forms of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Interactions between the CCL2/CCR2 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 chemokine systems that guide phagocyte infiltration are incompletely understood. Our objective was to explore the individual and combined actions of CCL2/CCR2 and CX3CL1/CX3CR1 in hypoxia-induced PH in mice, particularly their roles in monocyte trafficking, macrophage polarization, and pulmonary vascular remodeling. The development of hypoxia-induced PH was associated with marked increases in lung levels of CX3CR1, CCR2, and their respective ligands CX3CL1 and CCL2...
January 26, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28121875/advanced-imaging-techniques-for-investigation-of-acellular-dermal-matrix-biointegration
#14
Brent R DeGeorge, Bo Ning, Lisa S Salopek, Angela Pineros-Fernandez, George T Rodeheaver, Shayn Peirce-Cottler, Song Hu, Patrick S Cottler, Christopher A Campbell
BACKGROUND: Biointegration, a concept involving a dynamic interplay among three processes-inflammation, cellular infiltration, and angiogenesis-is key to understanding the interaction between acellular dermal matrices and the host. The current standard for evaluating acellular dermal matrix biointegration involves histologic analysis at fixed time points; however, the authors' approach uses advanced imaging techniques to serially assess biointegration in real time. METHODS: The authors have adapted two advanced imaging techniques-two-photon microscopy and photoacoustic microscopy-to investigate biointegration in a murine deepithelialized dorsal skin-fold window chamber model, specifically engineered to recapitulate the host microenvironment of acellular dermal matrix-assisted breast reconstruction...
February 2017: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28116726/isolation-and-differentiation-of-human-macrophages
#15
Francisco J Rios, Rhian M Touyz, Augusto C Montezano
Macrophage subtypes display protective or pathogenic activities in vascular lesions. They recognize and engulf modified lipids, accumulate in the arterial intima, contributing to the atherosclerosis development. In the heart, vascular tissues and perivascular adipose tissues, there is increasing evidence that macrophages play a role in endothelial dysfunction, vascular inflammation and remodeling. In this chapter we describe protocols to isolate human monocytes from peripheral blood mononuclear cell and how to differentiate them into macrophages by using growth factors (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor-GM-CSF or colony-stimulating factor-M-CSF) or by different cell culture medium concentration...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093272/a-method-for-obtaining-simian-immunodeficiency-virus-rna-sequences-from-laser-capture-microdissected-and-immune-captured-cd68-and-cd163-macrophages-from-frozen-tissue-sections-of-bone-marrow-and-brain
#16
Jaclyn Mallard, Emily Papazian, Caroline Soulas, David J Nolan, Marco Salemi, Kenneth C Williams
Laser capture microdissection (LCM) is used to extract cells or tissue regions for analysis of RNA, DNA or protein. Several methods of LCM are established for different applications, but a protocol for consistently obtaining lentiviral RNA from LCM captured immune cell populations is not described. Obtaining optimal viral RNA for analysis of viral genes from immune-captured cells using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and LCM is challenging. IHC protocols have long antibody incubation times that increase risk of RNA degradation...
March 2017: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087417/culture-media-based-selection-of-endothelial-cells-pericytes-and-perivascular-resident-macrophage-like-melanocytes-from-the-young-mouse-vestibular-system
#17
Jinhui Zhang, Songlin Chen, Jing Cai, Zhiqiang Hou, Xiaohan Wang, Allan Kachelmeier, Xiaorui Shi
The vestibular blood-labyrinth barrier (BLB) is comprised of perivascular-resident macrophage-like melanocytes (PVM/Ms) and pericytes (PCs), in addition to endothelial cells (ECs) and basement membrane (BM), and bears strong resemblance to the cochlear BLB in the stria vascularis. Over the past few decades, in vitro cell-based models have been widely used in blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-retina barrier (BRB) research, and have proved to be powerful tools for studying cell-cell interactions in their respective organs...
March 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063251/perivascular-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-vascular-disease
#18
REVIEW
Ryszard Nosalski, Tomasz J Guzik
Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. In vascular pathologies perivascular adipose tissue increases in volume and becomes dysfunctional, with altered cellular composition and molecular characteristics. PVAT dysfunction is characterized by its inflammatory character, oxidative stress, diminished production of vaso-protective adipocyte derived relaxing factors (ADRFs) and increased production of paracrine factors such as resistin, leptin, cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α) and chemokines (RANTES, MCP-1)...
January 7, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057474/hiv-1-tat-disrupts-blood-brain-barrier-integrity-and-increases-phagocytic-perivascular-macrophages-and-microglia-in-the-dorsal-striatum-of-transgenic-mice
#19
Crystal R Leibrand, Jason J Paris, M Said Ghandour, Pamela E Knapp, Woong-Ki Kim, Kurt F Hauser, MaryPeace McRae
HIV-1 infection results in blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, which acts as a rate-limiting step for HIV-1 entry into the CNS and for subsequent neuroinflammatory/neurotoxic actions. One mechanism by which HIV may destabilize the BBB involves actions of the HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). We utilized a conditional, Tat-expressing transgenic murine model to examine the influence of Tat1-86 expression on BBB integrity and to assess the relative numbers of phagocytic perivascular macrophages and microglia within the CNS in vivo...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052367/morphoea-with-prominent-plasma-cell-endoneuritis
#20
M Singh, N Farquharson, C Owen, A J Howat, S Singh, N Francis, E Calonje
Morphoea (localized scleroderma) is a cutaneous inflammatory condition characterized by the development of indurated and discoloured plaques. The histological features of morphoea typically include a superficial and deep perivascular and periadnexal chronic inflammatory infiltrate associated with variable degrees of dermal and/or subcutaneous sclerosis. The infiltrate is typically composed of lymphocytes, macrophages and conspicuous plasma cells. The early stages of morphoea may have a very prominent inflammatory infiltrate associated with subtle sclerosis...
January 4, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Dermatology
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