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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020281/association-of-walking-pace-and-handgrip-strength-with-all-cause-cardiovascular-and-cancer-mortality-a-uk-biobank-observational-study
#1
Thomas Yates, Francesco Zaccardi, Nafeesa N Dhalwani, Melanie J Davies, Kishan Bakrania, Carlos A Celis-Morales, Jason M R Gill, Paul W Franks, Kamlesh Khunti
Aims: To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. Methods and results: A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer. Cox-proportional hazard models were adjusted for social deprivation, ethnicity, employment, medications, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and television viewing time...
August 21, 2017: European Heart Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992036/associations-between-sedentary-behaviours-and-cognitive-function-cross-sectional-and-prospective-findings-from-the-uk-biobank
#2
Kishan Bakrania, Charlotte L Edwardson, Kamlesh Khunti, Stephan Bandelow, Melanie J Davies, Thomas Yates
We investigate the cross-sectional and prospective associations between different sedentary behaviours and cognitive function in a large sample of UK Biobank adults. Baseline data were available on 502,643 participants (years 2006-2010). Cognitive tests included prospective memory [n = 171,585 (baseline only)], visual-spatial memory [round 1 (n = 483,832); round 2 (n = 482,762)], fluid intelligence [n = 165,492], and short-term numeric memory [n = 50,370]. After a mean period of 5.3-years, between 12,091 and 114,373 participants also provided follow-up cognitive data...
July 13, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989886/comparative-evaluation-of-safety-and-efficacy-of-glimepiride-and-sitagliptin-in-combination-with-metformin-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-indian-multicentric-randomized-trial-start-study
#3
T V Devarajan, S Venkataraman, Narayanan Kandasamy, Abraham Oomman, Hari Kishan Boorugu, S K P Karuppiah, Dushyant Balat
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Modern sulfonylureas like glimepiride offer effective glycemic control with extrapancreatic benefits and good tolerability. The objective of the present study was to evaluate and compare safety and efficacy of glimepiride and sitagliptin in combination with metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). METHODS: In this open-label, randomized, comparative, multicenter study, a total of 305 T2DM patients who were either drug naïve or uncontrolled on metformin were randomized to glimepiride 1 or 2 mg/sustained-release metformin 1000 mg once daily (glimepiride group, n = 202) or sitagliptin 50 mg/metformin 500 mg twice daily (sitagliptin group, n = 103) for 12 weeks...
September 2017: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975475/pharmacogenomics-of-bucindolol-in-atrial-fibrillation-and-heart-failure
#4
REVIEW
Kishan S Parikh, Jonathan P Piccini
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We explore the pharmacogenomics of the beta-blocker bucindolol by discussing relevant beta-1 adrenergic receptor (ADRB1) polymorphisms and recent beta-blocker studies. Through this, we will understand how bucindolol may help patients with atrial fibrillation and heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (AF-HFrEF), which carries poor prognosis. RECENT FINDINGS: Retrospective study of the Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training trial revealed the interaction between the optimal beta-blocker dose and the ADRB1 Arg389 genotype for HFrEF clinical outcomes...
October 3, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973784/peanuts-that-keep-aflatoxin-at-bay-a-threshold-that-matters
#5
Kiran K Sharma, Arunima Pothana, Kalyani Prasad, Dilip Shah, Jagdeep Kaur, Deepak Bhatnagar, Zhi-Yuan Chen, Yenjit Raruang, Jeffrey W Cary, Kanniah Rajasekaran, Hari Kishan Sudini, Pooja Bhatnagar-Mathur
Aflatoxin contamination in peanuts poses major challenges for vulnerable populations of sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Developing peanut varieties to combat pre-harvest Aspergillus flavus infection and resulting aflatoxin contamination has thus far remained a major challenge, confounded by highly complex peanut-Aspergilli pathosystem. Our study reports achieving high level of resistance in peanut by over expressing (OE) antifungal plant defensins MsDef1 and MtDef4.2, and through host-induced gene silencing (HIGS) of aflM and aflP genes from the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway...
October 3, 2017: Plant Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969107/intracarotid-sodium-nitroprusside-on-fifth-post-ischemic-stroke-day-in-middle-cerebral-artery-occlusion-rat-model
#6
Vinod Kumar Tewari, Vivek Bhosale, Rakesh Shukla, Hari Kishan Das Gupta, Sheeba
INTRODUCTION: Ischemic stroke at later stages (>4.5 hour) have very few treatment options left. In those cases Nitric Oxide (NO) may provide promising results. NO is active in signaling pathways. Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP), a NO donor was tested earlier in rat Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion (MCAO) model in early stages (5-60 minutes) and found useful but in delayed stroke cases (60-120 minutes) found useless. This was due to local inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Enzyme (iNOS) and superoxide (causes destructive effect) formation which was skipped...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958659/risk-factors-for-repeat-debridement-spacer-retention-amputation-arthrodesis-and-mortality-after-removal-of-an-infected-total-knee-arthroplasty-with-spacer-placement
#7
Jourdan M Cancienne, Victor A Granadillo, Kishan J Patel, Brian C Werner, James A Browne
BACKGROUND: Chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is most commonly addressed with a 2-stage exchange procedure. The purpose of this study is to examine the natural history of patients who have undergone prosthesis removal and spacer placement and evaluate risk factors for outcomes other than reimplantation. METHODS: Patients who underwent removal of an infected TKA and placement of an antibiotic spacer for PJI were identified in a Medicare database...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923060/vitamin-d-status-and-neurodevelopment-and-growth-in-young-north-indian-children-a-secondary-data-analysis
#8
Ranadip Chowdhury, Sunita Taneja, Nita Bhandari, Ingrid Kvestad, Tor A Strand, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
BACKGROUND: Vitamin-D deficiency has been linked with impaired development in animal studies; however, the evidence from human studies is scanty. Evidence as to whether vitamin-D deficiency during early childhood affects growth is also limited and conflicting. We examined the extent to which vitamin-D deficiency (<10 ng/ml) is associated with neurodevelopment and physical growth in young children. METHODS: We used data from a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of daily folic acid and/ or vitamin B12 supplementation for six months in children aged 6 to 30 months conducted in Delhi, India...
September 18, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916318/matrix-metalloproteinases-2-and-9-in-campylobacter-jejuni-induced-paralytic-neuropathy-resembling-guillain-barr%C3%A3-syndrome-in-chickens
#9
Kishan Kumar Nyati, Kashi Nath Prasad, Vinita Agrawal, Nuzhat Husain
Inflammation in Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is manifested by changes in matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression. We investigated the expression of MMP-2, -9 and TNF-α and correlated it with pathological changes in sciatic nerve tissue from Campylobacter jejuni-induced chicken model for GBS. Campylobacter jejuni and placebo were fed to chickens and assessed for disease symptoms. Sciatic nerves were examined by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Expressions of MMPs and TNF-α, were determined by real-time PCR, and activities of MMPs by zymography...
October 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905684/distinctive-role-of-income-in-the-all-cause-mortality-among-working-age-migrants-and-the-settled-population-in-finland-a-follow-up-study-from-2001-to-2014
#10
Kishan Patel, Anne Kouvonen, Aki Koskinen, Lauri Kokkinen, Michael Donnelly, Dermot O'Reilly, Ari Vaananen
BACKGROUND: Although income level may play a significant part in mortality among migrants, previous research has not focused on the relationship between income, migration and mortality risk. The aim of this register study was to compare all-cause mortality by income level between different migrant groups and the majority settled population of Finland. METHODS: A random sample was drawn of 1,058,391 working age people (age range 18-64 years; 50.4% men) living in Finland in 2000 and linked to mortality data from 2001 to 2014...
September 1, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901350/recent-developments-in-the-synthesis-properties-and-biomedical-applications-of-core-shell-superparamagnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles-with-gold
#11
REVIEW
Sandip Sabale, Priyanka Kandesar, Vidhya Jadhav, Rachel Komorek, Radha Kishan Motkuri, Xiao-Ying Yu
In the last decade, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), especially superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs), have immensely promoted the advancement of diagnostics and theranostics in the biomedical field. The unique properties of the SPIONs-core and the functional gold (Au)-shell together (SPIONS/Au core/shell or CS) have a wide range of biomedical applications including, but not limited to, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), dual modality MRI/computed tomography (CT), photo-induced and magnetic fluid hyperthermia (MFH), drug delivery, biosensors, and bio-separation...
September 13, 2017: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898799/rare-diagnosis-of-intestinal-lipomatosis-complicated-by-intussusception-in-an-adult-a-case-report
#12
Kaitlin Kumar, Mahboub R Noori, Kishan M Patel, William Yuen, Carlos Bello
INTRODUCTION: Intestinal Lipomatosis consists of diffuse lipomas in various regions from the small to large bowel. They can remain asymptomatic or present with complications such as Intussusception. DISCUSSION: Intestinal lipomatosis complicated by Intussusception is a rare occurrence that has not been well documented. Rare condition management is difficult to approach because of the customizability each scenario requires. We hope through sharing our approach this can serve as a rough template to physicians who find themselves in a similar scenario...
September 1, 2017: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892405/to-screen-or-not-to-screen-vitamin-d-deficiency-in-chronic-mental-illness
#13
Ivana Goluza, Jay Borchard, Nalin Wijesinghe, Kishan Wijesinghe, Nagesh Pai
OBJECTIVES: The objective of the current study was to examine the pathology test utilisation of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) within an Australian inpatient psychiatric setting. METHOD: A retrospective audit of 300 random hospital files of those admitted as inpatients between Nov 2014 and Nov 2015 was undertaken. Data was quantitatively analysed and described. RESULTS: The number of inpatients who had a vitamin D determination during their admission was 37/300 (12...
September 1, 2017: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887020/narcotic-use-and-total-knee-arthroplasty
#14
Jourdan M Cancienne, Kishan J Patel, James A Browne, Brian C Werner
BACKGROUND: Although the United States is in the midst of a narcotic epidemic, risk factors for use and the impact of perioperative narcotic use on total knee arthroplasty (TKA) outcomes is ill-defined. METHODS: A national database was queried for patients who underwent primary TKA from 2007 to 2015. Patients taking narcotics in the preoperative, and for a prolonged period of time postoperatively, were identified. The risk factors for prolonged narcotic use were analyzed with a regression analysis, in addition to evaluating preoperative and prolonged postoperative use as independent risk factors for short-term and long-term complications...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Arthroplasty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28858156/comparison-of-efficacy-and-complications-of-cyclophotocoagulation-and-second-glaucoma-drainage-device-after-initial-glaucoma-drainage-device-failure
#15
Margaret Y Wang, Kishan Patel, Lauren S Blieden, Alice Z Chuang, Laura A Baker, Nicholas P Bell, Robert M Feldman
PURPOSE: Compare intraocular pressure (IOP) control and complication rates of a second glaucoma drainage device (GDD) to diode transscleral cyclophotocoagulation (TSCPC) following failure of an initial GDD. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eyes with one GDD that required a second GDD or TSCPC for glaucoma control were included. Exclusion criteria were a cyclodestructive procedure prior to initial GDD, no light perception vision, or follow-up less than one year. Failure was defined as one or more of (1) reoperation for lowering IOP; (2) explantation of second GDD; (3) persistent hypotony; (4) use of oral carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for lowering IOP in the study eye; or (5) loss of light perception...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Glaucoma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28852109/label-free-optical-vibrational-spectroscopy-to-detect-the-metabolic-state-of-m-tuberculosis-cells-at-the-site-of-disease
#16
Vincent O Baron, Mingzhou Chen, Simon O Clark, Ann Williams, Robert J H Hammond, Kishan Dholakia, Stephen H Gillespie
Tuberculosis relapse is a barrier to shorter treatment. It is thought that lipid rich cells, phenotypically resistant to antibiotics, may play a major role. Most studies investigating relapse use sputum samples although tissue bacteria may play an important role. We developed a non-destructive, label-free technique combining wavelength modulated Raman (WMR) spectroscopy and fluorescence detection (Nile Red staining) to interrogate Mycobacterium tuberculosis cell state. This approach could differentiate single "dormant" (lipid rich, LR) and "non-dormant" (lipid poor, LP) cells with high sensitivity and specificity...
August 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840655/low-birthweight-infants-born-to-short-stature-mothers-are-at-additional-risk-of-stunting-and-poor-growth-velocity-evidence-from-secondary-data-analyses
#17
Bireshwar Sinha, Sunita Taneja, Ranadip Chowdhury, Sarmila Mazumder, Temsunaro Rongsen-Chandola, Ravi Prakash Upadhyay, Jose Martines, Nita Bhandari, Maharaj Kishan Bhan
Low-birthweight (LBW) infants are at an increased risk of stunting and poor linear growth. The risk might be additionally higher in these infants when born to short mothers. However, this hypothesis has been less explored. The objective of this secondary data analysis was to determine the risk of linear growth faltering and difference in linear growth velocity in LBW infants born to short mothers (<150 cm) compared to those born to mothers with height ≥150 cm during the first year of life. This analysis uses data from a community-based randomized controlled trial of 2,052 hospital-born term infants with birthweight ≤2,500g from urban low-middle socioeconomic neighbourhoods in Delhi, India...
August 25, 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831059/modal-beam-splitter-determination-of-the-transversal-components-of-an-electromagnetic-light-field
#18
Michael Mazilu, Tom Vettenburg, Martin Ploschner, Ewan M Wright, Kishan Dholakia
The transversal profile of beams can always be defined as a superposition of orthogonal fields, such as optical eigenmodes. Here, we describe a generic method to separate the individual components in a laser beam and map each mode onto its designated detector with low crosstalk. We demonstrate this with the decomposition into Laguerre-Gaussian beams and introduce a distribution over the integer numbers corresponding to the discrete orbital and radial momentum components of the light field. The method is based on determining an eigenmask filter transforming the incident optical eigenmodes to position eigenmodes enabling the detection of the state of the light field using single detectors while minimizing cross talk with respect to the set of filter masks considered...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816607/investigation-of-a-green-process-for-the-polymerization-of-catechin
#19
Ayşe Ezgi Ünlü, Brinda Prasad, Kishan Anavekar, Paul Bubenheim, Andreas Liese
Flavonoids are polyphenolic secondary plant metabolites which possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Besides, they have been shown to exhibit increased antioxidant properties in their polymerized form. Catechins are one of the attractive class of flavonoids which belong to the group of flavan-3-ols. Polymerization of catechins have been investigated in numerous studies indicating the requirement of certain amount of organic solvent to provide the solubility of the monomer. However, many research projects have been conducted recently in order to replace toxic organic contaminants of the processes with environmentally friendly solvents...
August 17, 2017: Preparative Biochemistry & Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807747/pretreatment-3t-multiparametric-mri-staging-predicts-for-biochemical-failure-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer-treated-with-combination-high-dose-rate-brachytherapy-and-external-beam-radiotherapy
#20
John V Hegde, D Jeffrey Demanes, Darlene Veruttipong, Jagdeep Raince, Sang-June Park, Steven S Raman, Nicholas G Nickols, Christopher R King, Amar U Kishan, Michael L Steinberg, Mitchell Kamrava
PURPOSE: To determine whether pretreatment 3T multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) staging impacts biochemical recurrence-free survival (BRFS) or distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) for men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with combination high-dose-rate (HDR) brachytherapy and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective study included a cohort of 37 men with high-risk prostate cancer treated with HDR brachytherapy and EBRT after 3T mpMRI...
August 11, 2017: Brachytherapy
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