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Hongyan Lin, Xiaohong Zhang, Nannan Feng, Ruoyang Wang, Weituo Zhang, Xiaobei Deng, Yu Wang, Xiao Yu, Xiaofei Ye, Lei Li, Ying Qian, Herbert Yu, Biyun Qian
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Ecological studies have shown that air pollution and prevalence of cigarette smoking are positively correlated. Evidence also suggests a synergistic effect of cigarette smoking and PM2.5 exposure (Environmental Particulate Matter ≤ 2.5 µm in diameter) on lung cancer risk. We aimed to evaluate the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2.5 pollution in relation to lung cancer mortality and determine its underlying mechanisms in vitro. METHODS: "MOVER" method was used to analyze the interaction between smoking prevalence and PM2...
June 15, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Jameason D Cameron, Éric Doucet, Kristi B Adamo, Mark Walker, Alessandro Tirelli, Joel D Barnes, Kaamel Hafizi, Marisa Murray, Gary S Goldfield
BACKGROUND: Maternal prenatal smoking is associated with downstream childhood obesity. Although animal research suggests reduced resting energy expenditure (REE), decreased physical activity (PA), and increased energy intake as mechanisms, these relationships are unclear in humans. The objectives were to examine the association of prenatal maternal smoking with non-volitional energy expenditure (REE and the thermic effect of feeding [TEF]), child adiposity, energy intake, free-living PA (daily light PA (LPA), daily moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), daily sedentary behavior (SB)), and screen time (television and computer/video game) in children...
June 15, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
Howard K Koh, Alan C Geller
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 18, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Leandro Fórnias Machado de Rezende, Juan Pablo Rey-López, Thiago Hérick de Sá, Nicholas Chartres, Alice Fabbri, Lauren Powell, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Lisa Bero
Reporting bias in the literature occurs when there is selective revealing or suppression of results, influenced by the direction of findings. We assessed the risk of reporting bias in the epidemiological literature on health-related behavior (tobacco, alcohol, diet, physical activity, and sedentary behavior) and cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality and provided a comparative assessment of reporting bias between health-related behavior and statin (in primary prevention) meta-analyses. We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane Methodology Register Database, and Web of Science for systematic reviews synthesizing the associations of health-related behavior and statins with cardiovascular disease mortality and all-cause mortality published between 2010 and 2016...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Biology
Randi Melissa Schuster, Gladys N Pachas, Luke Stoeckel, Corinne Cather, Mireya Nadal, David Mischoulon, David A Schoenfeld, Haiyue Zhang, Christine Ulysse, Elisabeth B Dodds, Sara Sobolewski, Vicenta Hudziak, Ailish Hanly, Maurizio Fava, A Eden Evins
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to determine whether a novel α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist improves cognition during nicotine withdrawal and improves abstinence rates. To do so, the effect of the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor partial agonist, encenicline, on cognition and abstinence was evaluated when given as monotherapy and when combined with transdermal nicotine patch (nicotine replacement therapy [NRT]). METHODS: Adult daily smokers, n = 160, who were motivated to quit smoking completed cognitive testing at satiated baseline and after overnight abstinence and then were randomized to receive a 12-week trial of encenicline 1 mg twice daily or identical placebo the day of the overnight abstinent cognitive testing...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Pierre-François Dancoine, Elodie Gentina
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: This study examines the relationship between social support (from parents and peers) and cigarette use, through the mediating effect of smartphone dependence, among adolescents. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. METHODS: A survey, conducted among 472 adolescents (average age = 16.2 years) attending classes in 3 schools in Lille, France, provides the data. The theoretical model features social support (parental and peer) and cigarette use, with smartphone dependence as a mediator, such that the authors simultaneously examine direct (support → cigarette use) and indirect (eg, peer support → smartphone dependence → cigarette use) paths...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
Hana Hayashi, Andy Tan, Ichiro Kawachi, Sara Minsky, Kasisomayajula Viswanath
We examined the differential impact of exposure to smoking-related graphic health warnings (GHWs) on risk perceptions and intentions to quit among different audience segments characterized by gender, race/ethnic group, and presence of chronic disease condition. Specifically, we sought to test whether GHWs that portray specific groups (in terms of gender, race, and chronic disease conditions) are associated with differences in risk perception and intention to quit among smokers who match the portrayed group...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Health Communication
Sarah Ellen Griffiths, Joanne Parsons, Emily Anne Fulton, Felix Naughton, Ildiko Tombor, Katherine E Brown
Smoking in pregnancy remains a global public health issue due to foetal health risks and potential maternal complications. The aims of this systematic review and meta-analysis were to explore: (1) whether digital interventions for pregnancy smoking cessation are effective, (2) the impact of intervention platform on smoking cessation, (3) the associations between specific Behaviour Change Techniques (BCTs) delivered within interventions and smoking cessation, and (4) the association between the total number of BCTs delivered and smoking cessation...
June 18, 2018: Health Psychology Review
Mesfin Awoke Bekalu, K Viswanath
Considerable research from high-income countries has characterized the amount, nature and effects of movie smoking depiction. However, in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) where tobacco use and tobacco-related diseases are growing, little research has investigated smoking imagery in movies. This study examined the extent and nature of smoking portrayal in locally produced Ethiopian movies, and estimated the number of tobacco impressions movies delivered. Sample movies were taken from YouTube. Keyword searches were conducted using 'Ethiopian movies' and 'Ethiopian drama' on 18 September 2016...
April 17, 2018: Health Promotion International
Brian Pittman, Eugenia Buta, Suchitra Krishnan-Sarin, Stephanie S O'Malley, Thomas Liss, Ralitza Gueorguieva
Introduction: This paper describes different methods for analyzing counts and illustrates their use on cigarette and marijuana smoking data. Methods: The Poisson, zero-inflated Poisson (ZIP), hurdle Poisson (HUP), negative binomial (NB), zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) and hurdle negative binomial (HUNB) regression models are considered. The different approaches are evaluated in terms of the ability to take into account zero-inflation (extra zeroes) and overdispersion (variance larger than expected) in count outcomes, with emphasis placed on model fit, interpretation, and choosing an appropriate model given the nature of the data...
April 18, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Z Khadjesari, F Stevenson, P Toner, S Linke, J Milward, E Murray
Background: The public health message around alcohol is complex, with benefits versus harms, the confusing concept of risk and drinking guidance changing over time. This provides a difficult context for alcohol screening in primary care, with established barriers from the practitioner perspective, but less is known about the patients' perspective. This study explores patients' views on drinking. Methods: Eligible participants were recorded as drinking above low risk levels in primary care...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Maria C Fernandez, Cristian O'Flaherty
STUDY QUESTION: Are all components of the peroxiredoxins (PRDXs) system important to control the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to maintain viability and DNA integrity in spermatozoa? SUMMARY ANSWER: PRDX6 is the primary player of the PRDXs system for maintaining viability and DNA integrity in human spermatozoa. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Mammalian spermatozoa are sensitive to high levels of ROS and PRDXs are antioxidant enzymes proven to control the levels of ROS generated during sperm capacitation to avoid oxidative damage in the spermatozoon...
June 15, 2018: Human Reproduction
Nathan Gale, Mike McEwan, Alison C Eldridge, Ian M Fearon, Neil Sherwood, Edward Bowen, Simon McDermott, Emma Holmes, Andrew Hedge, Stuart Hossack, Louise Wakenshaw, James Glew, Oscar M Camacho, Graham Errington, John McAughey, James Murphy, Chuan Liu, Christopher J Proctor
Background: Smoking is a leading cause of numerous human disorders including pulmonary disease, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. Disease development is primarily caused by exposure to cigarette smoke constituents, many of which are known toxicants. Switching smokers to modified risk tobacco products (MRTPs) has been suggested as a potential means to reduce the risks of tobacco use, by reducing such exposure. Methods: This randomized, controlled study investigated whether biomarkers of toxicant exposure (BoE) were reduced when smokers switched from smoking combustible cigarettes to using a novel (glo™/THP1...
June 15, 2018: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Leah Shepherd, Lene Ryom, Matthew Law, Kathy Petoumenos, Camilla Ingrid Hatleberg, Antonella d'Arminio Monforte, Caroline Sabin, Mark Bower, Fabrice Bonnet, Peter Reiss, Stephane de Wit, Christian Pradier, Rainer Weber, Wafaa El-Sadr, Jens Lundgren, Amanda Mocroft
Background: Cancers are a major source of morbidity and mortality for HIV-positive persons on combination antiretroviral therapy, while the clinical benefits of smoking cessation are not well established. Methods: Participants were followed from 1 January 2004 until first cancer diagnosis, death, or 1 February 2016. Smoking status was defined as ex (<1,1-2,2-3,3-5,>5 years since stopping), current, and never smokers. Outcomes considered were any cancer, lung cancer, other smoking-related excluding lung and smoking-unrelated cancers...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
A Straumfors, W Eduard, K K Heldal, M Skogstad, L Barregård, D G Ellingsen
PURPOSE: To investigate if blood biomarkers could indicate early signs of lung damage or cardiovascular risk due to exposure to grain dust. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pneumoproteins and markers of inflammation and platelet activation were analyzed in blood samples of 102 grain elevator and compound feed mill workers. Differences between exposed (n = 67) and controls (n = 35), and associations with exposure measurements and respiratory health were investigated by multiple linear regression analyses...
June 18, 2018: Biomarkers: Biochemical Indicators of Exposure, Response, and Susceptibility to Chemicals
Harm Wienbergen, Andreas Fach, Sven Meyer, Jochen Meyer, Janina Stehmeier, Tina Backhaus, Stephan Michel, Kirsten Krämer, Rico Osteresch, Johannes Schmucker, Henning Haase, Tobias Härle, Albrecht Elsässer, Rainer Hambrecht
Background Long-term risk factor control after myocardial infarction (MI) is currently inadequate and there is an unmet need for effective secondary prevention programmes. Design and methods It was the aim of the study to compare a 12-month intensive prevention programme (IPP), coordinated by prevention assistants and including education sessions, telephone visits and telemetric risk factor control, with usual care after MI. Three hundred and ten patients were randomized to IPP vs. usual care one month after hospital discharge for MI in two German heart centres...
January 1, 2018: European Journal of Preventive Cardiology
Christopher M Seitz, Thomas L Ragsdale
A common approach to enforcing a university smoke-free policy is through "community-based" enforcement, in which the entire campus community is responsible for asking smokers in violation to abide by the policy. The purpose of the study was to explore university students' experiences with this strategy of enforcing a smoke-free policy. A total of 43 undergraduate students were interviewed regarding their experiences and opinions of community enforcement. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using phenomenological methods, in which six major themes emerged from the data: Fear (alarm that smokers might respond with verbal insults or physical violence), Situational (enforcing the policy depended on violators' distance, group settings, strangers vs...
June 1, 2018: Health Promotion Practice
Liming Zhang, Yulan Liu, Peng You, Guijian Feng
BACKGROUND: Additional data on the incidence of gastric neoplasia in the Chinese atrophic gastritis (AG) population during long-term follow-up are needed and the influence of the endoscopic surveillance interval on gastric neoplasia occurrence remains unknown. AIMS: Retrospectively investigated the occurrence of gastric cancer (GC) and precancerous lesions in AG patients during long-term follow-up and assessed risk factors, such as the endoscopic surveillance interval for the development of gastric neoplasia...
June 16, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Marsida Teliti, Giulia Cogni, Lucia Sacchi, Arianna Dagliati, Simone Marini, Valentina Tibollo, Pasquale De Cata, Riccardo Bellazzi, Luca Chiovato
AIMS: In type 2 diabetes, we aimed at clarifying the role of glycated haemoglobin variability and other risk factors in the development of the main micro-vascular complications: peripheral neuropathy, nephropathy and retinopathy. METHODS: In a single-centre cohort of 900 patients, glycated haemoglobin variability was evaluated as intra-individual standard deviation, adjusted standard deviation and coefficient of variation of serially measured glycated haemoglobin in the 2-year period before a randomly selected index visit...
June 1, 2018: Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research
Martina T Ayad, Brandie D Taylor, Ramkumar Menon
PROBLEM: Oxidative stress (OS)-induced, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK)-mediated chorioamniotic senescence and inflammation (senescence-associated secretory phenotype [SASP]) are associated with parturition. In response to OS-inducing risk factors, premature senescence contributes to preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) and spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). We determined the effect of simvastatin, rosuvastatin, and progesterone in downregulating p38MAPK-mediated senescence and SASP...
June 17, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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