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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717876/structural-and-ultrastructural-changes-to-type-i-spiral-ganglion-neurons-and-schwann-cells-in-the-deafened-guinea-pig-cochlea
#1
Andrew K Wise, Remy Pujol, Thomas G Landry, James B Fallon, Robert K Shepherd
Sensorineural hearing loss is commonly caused by damage to cochlear sensory hair cells. Coinciding with hair cell degeneration, the peripheral fibres of type I spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) that normally form synaptic connections with the inner hair cell gradually degenerate. We examined the time course of these degenerative changes in type I SGNs and their satellite Schwann cells at the ultrastructural level in guinea pigs at 2, 6, and 12 weeks following aminoglycoside-induced hearing loss. Degeneration of the peripheral fibres occurred prior to the degeneration of the type I SGN soma and was characterised by shrinkage of the fibre followed by retraction of the axoplasm, often leaving a normal myelin lumen devoid of axoplasmic content...
July 17, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717636/orthodontic-treatment-for-a-patient-with-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Manal A Bakathir
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic, autoimmune inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) that affects myelinated axons, destroying the myelin and damaging axons to varying degrees. The course of MS is highly varied and unpredictable. Metals used during orthodontic treatment can negatively affect imaging techniques used to diagnose and monitor the progression of MS, while medications used to treat MS can negatively affect orthodontic tooth movement. The present case report highlights some of the challenges encountered during orthodontic treatment of a patient with MS and how to overcome them...
July 2017: Journal of Orthodontic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716943/visualizing-context-dependent-calcium-signaling-in-encephalitogenic-t-cells-in-vivo-by-two-photon-microscopy
#3
Nikolaos I Kyratsous, Isabel J Bauer, Guokun Zhang, Marija Pesic, Ingo Bartholomäus, Marsilius Mues, Ping Fang, Miriam Wörner, Stephanie Everts, Joachim W Ellwart, Joanna M Watt, Barry V L Potter, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Hartmut Wekerle, Naoto Kawakami
In experimental autoimmune encephalitis (EAE), autoimmune T cells are activated in the periphery before they home to the CNS. On their way, the T cells pass through a series of different cellular milieus where they receive signals that instruct them to invade their target tissues. These signals involve interaction with the surrounding stroma cells, in the presence or absence of autoantigens. To portray the serial signaling events, we studied a T-cell-mediated model of EAE combining in vivo two-photon microscopy with two different activation reporters, the FRET-based calcium biosensor Twitch1 and fluorescent NFAT...
July 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716587/botulinum-neurotoxin-a-promotes-functional-recovery-after-peripheral-nerve-injury-by-increasing-regeneration-of-myelinated-fibers
#4
Stefano Cobianchi, Jessica Jaramillo, Siro Luvisetto, Flaminia Pavone, Xavier Navarro
The injection of safe doses of botulinum neurotoxin A (BoNT/A) have been reported to be useful for the treatment of neuropathic pain, but it is still unknown how functional recovery is induced after peripheral nerve injury. We evaluated the effects of intranerve application of BoNT/A, on regeneration and sensorimotor functional recovery in partial and complete peripheral nerve injuries in the mouse. After sciatic nerve crush (SNC) and intranerve delivery of BoNT/A (15 pg), axonal regeneration was measured by nerve pinch test at different days...
July 14, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716393/combine-effect-of-chondroitinase-abc-and-low-level-laser-660nm-on-spinal-cord-injury-model-in-adult-male-rats
#5
Atousa Janzadeh, Arash Sarveazad, Mahmoud Yousefifard, Sima Dameni, Fazel Sahraneshin Samani, Kobra Mokhtarian, Farinaz Nasirinezhad
After spinal cord injury (SCI) there are many recoveries inhibiting factors such as chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) and inflammation. The present study investigated the combinational effect of low level laser therapy (LLLT) as anti-inflammatory agent and Chondroitinase ABC (ChABC) enzyme as CSPG digesting factor on spinal cord after injury. This study performed on 44 male Wistar rats, spinal cord injury induced by a clip compression injury. Animals received two-weeks treatment of 660nm low level laser (LLL) and intraspinal injection of 1μg ChABC...
July 14, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714395/five-decades-of-cuprizone-an-updated-model-to-replicate-demyelinating-diseases
#6
Jose M Vega-Riquer, Gerardo Mendez-Victoriano, Raul A Morales-Luckie, Oscar Gonzalez-Perez
Multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, peripheral nerve polyneuropathy and others comprise a group of demyelinating diseases characterized by progressive (and eventually irreversible) loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths in the white matter of the brain. To date, the etiology of these disorders is not well known and no effective treatments are currently available. Therefore, further research is needed to gain a better understand and treat these patients. To accomplish this goal, it is necessary to have appropriate animal models that closely resemble the pathophysiology of these diseases...
July 17, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714350/activation-and-expression-of-%C3%AE-calpain-in-dorsal-root-contributes-to-rtx-induced-mechanical-allodynia
#7
Xiao-Cui Yuan, Cai-Hua Wu, Fang Gao, Hong-Ping Li, Hong-Chun Xiang, He Zhu, Xiao-Li Pan, Li-Xue Lin, Yan-Shen Liu, Wei Yu, Bo Tian, Xian-Fang Meng, Man Li
Background Calpain is a calcium-dependent cysteine protease, and inhibition of calpain by pre-treatment with MDL28170 attenuated the rat mechanical allodynia in a variety of pain models. Postherpetic neuralgia (Shingles) is a neuropathic pain conditioned with the presence of profound mechanical allodynia. Systemic injection of resiniferatoxin can reproduce the clinical symptoms of postherpetic neuralgia. In this study, we determined to study whether activation of calpain contributes to cleave the myelin basic protein of dorsal root and is involved in resiniferatoxin-induced mechanical allodynia of postherpetic neuralgia animal model...
January 2017: Molecular Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713915/concurrent-administration-of-thyroxine-and-donepezil-induces-plastic-changes-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-of-adult-hypothyroid-rats
#8
Fen Wang, Zhangbi Wu, Xiaoxue Zha, Yaojun Cai, Bo Wu, Xuemei Jia, Defa Zhu
The aim of the present study was to observe the effects of the concurrent administration of thyroxine (T4) and an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, donepezil (DON), on the hypothyroidism‑induced ultrastructural changes of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult rats. The acetylcholine (ACh) content and AChE activity was assessed, as well as the expressions of synaptotagmin‑1 (syt‑1) and SNAP‑25 were analyzed in the rats. Adding 0.05% propylthiouracil to rats' drinking water induced a hypothyroid rat model...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713821/comparative-analysis-of-the-cell-fates-of-induced-schwann-cells-from-subcutaneous-fat-tissue-and-na%C3%A3-ve-schwann-cells-in-the-sciatic-nerve-injury-model
#9
Mingzi Zhang, Mei Hua Jiang, Dae-Wook Kim, Woosung Ahn, Eunkyung Chung, Youngsook Son, Guangfan Chi
PURPOSE: The fate and function of the induced Schwann cells (iSCs) like cells from adipose tissue have not been critically evaluated in vivo after transplantation. The objective of this study is to compare the fate of iSCs with naïve SCs (nSCs) after transplantation into the lesion sites of sciatic nerve, respectively. METHODS: Adipose-derived stem cells from eGFP-expressing transgenic rat's subcutaneous fat were induced to iSCs in vitro. iSCs were injected to the sciatic nerve lesion area after crush injury and the cells fate was comparatively analyzed with that of nSCs from the same rat...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713262/effects-of-strength-training-and-anabolic-steroid-in-the-peripheral-nerve-and-skeletal-muscle-morphology-of-aged-rats
#10
Walter Krause Neto, Wellington de A Silva, Adriano P Ciena, Ricardo Aparecido Baptista Nucci, Carlos A Anaruma, Eliane F Gama
Thirty male 20-month-old Wistar rats were divided into groups: IC-initial control (n = 6), FC-final control (n = 6), AC-anabolic hormone control (n = 6), ST-strength trained (n = 6) and STA-strength trained with anabolic hormone (n = 6). All groups were submitted to adaptation, familiarization and maximum load carrying test (MLCT). Strength training (6-8×/session with loads of 50%-100% MLCT, 3×/week and pause of 120 s) was performed in ladder climbing (LC) for 15 weeks. The administration of testosterone propionate (TP) was performed 2×/week (10 mg/kg) in animals in the AC and STA groups...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713236/modulation-of-calcitonin-parathyroid-hormone-and-thyroid-hormone-secretion-by-electrical-stimulation-of-sympathetic-and-parasympathetic-nerves-in-anesthetized-rats
#11
Harumi Hotta, Akiko Onda, Harue Suzuki, Philip Milliken, Arun Sridhar
The thyroid and parathyroid glands are dually innervated by sympathetic (cervical sympathetic trunk [CST]) and parasympathetic (superior laryngeal nerve [SLN]) nerve fibers. We examined the effects of electrical stimulation of efferent or afferent nerve fibers innervating the thyroid and parathyroid glands on the secretion of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT), parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 3,3',5-triiodothyronine (iT3), and thyroxine (iT4) from the thyroid and parathyroid glands. In anesthetized and artificially ventilated rats, thyroid venous blood was collected...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712329/organotypic-cultures-of-cerebellar-slices-as-a-model-to-investigate-demyelinating-disorders
#12
Frédéric Doussau, Jean-Luc Dupont, Dorine Neel, Aline Schneider, Bernard Poulain, Jean Louis Bossu
Demyelinating disorders, characterized by a chronic or episodic destruction of the myelin sheath, are a leading cause of neurological disability in young adults in western countries. Studying the complex mechanisms involved in axon myelination, demyelination and remyelination requires an experimental model preserving the neuronal networks and neuro-glial interactions. Organotypic cerebellar slice cultures appear to be the best alternative to in vivo experiments and the most commonly used model for investigating etiology or novel therapeutic strategies in multiple sclerosis...
July 17, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712060/abnormal-social-behavior-in-mice-with-tyrosinemia-type-i-is-associated-with-an-increase-of-myelin-in-the-cerebral-cortex
#13
Marissa E Moore, Ashton E Koenig, Megan A Hillgartner, Christopher C Otap, Elizabeth Barnby, Gordon G MacGregor
Hereditary tyrosinemia type I (HT1) is caused by mutations in the fumarylacetoacetate hydrolase (FAH) gene, the template for the final enzyme in the tyrosine catabolism pathway. If left untreated this deficiency of functional FAH leads to a buildup of toxic metabolites that can cause liver disease, kidney dysfunction and high mortality. The current treatment with the drug NTBC prevents the production of these metabolites and has consequently increased the survival rate in HT1 children. As a result of this increased survival, long term complications of HT1 are now being observed, including slower learning, impaired cognition and altered social behavior...
July 15, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711670/evaluation-of-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-s100b-myelin-basic-protein-and-glial-fibrilliary-acidic-protein-as-brain-specific-proteins-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#14
Erman Esnafoglu, Sema Nur Ayyıldız, Selma Cırrık, Emine Yurdakul Erturk, Abdullah Erdil, Abdullah Daglı, Tevfik Noyan
OBJECTIVE: Brain specific-proteins are not found in other tissues and measurement non-invasively in the blood may identify structurally and functionally damaged brain regions and identify the severity and prognosis of neuropsychiatric diseases. For this reason, we aimed to evaluate serum brain-specific protein values as brain damage markers in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). METHOD: 35 children with ASD and 31 healthy subjects were included in the study...
July 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710465/effects-of-the-mode-of-re-socialization-after-juvenile-social-isolation-on-medial-prefrontal-cortex-myelination-and-function
#15
Manabu Makinodan, Daisuke Ikawa, Kazuhiko Yamamuro, Yasunori Yamashita, Michihiro Toritsuka, Sohei Kimoto, Takahira Yamauchi, Kazuki Okumura, Takashi Komori, Shin-Ichi Fukami, Hiroki Yoshino, Shigenobu Kanba, Akio Wanaka, Toshifumi Kishimoto
Social isolation is an important factor in the development of psychiatric disorders. It is necessary to develop an effective psychological treatment, such as cognitive rehabilitation, for children who have already suffered from social isolation, such as neglect and social rejection. We used socially isolated mice to validate whether elaborate re-socialization after juvenile social isolation can restore hypomyelination in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the attendant functions manifested in socially isolated mice...
July 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709907/the-details-of-structural-disconnectivity-in-psychotic-disorder-a-family-based-study-of-non-fa-diffusion-weighted-imaging-measures
#16
Stijn Michielse, Ed Gronenschild, Patrick Domen, Jim van Os, Machteld Marcelis
BACKGROUND: Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) studies in psychotic disorder have shown reduced FA, often interpreted as disturbed white matter integrity. The observed 'dysintegrity' may be of multifactorial origin, as changes in FA are thought to reflect a combination of changes in myelination, fiber organization and number of axons. Examining the structural substrate of the diffusion tensor in individuals with (risk for) psychotic disorder may provide better understanding of the underlying structural changes...
July 11, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709864/the-role-of-human-natural-killer-1-hnk-1-carbohydrate-in-neuronal-plasticity-and-disease
#17
REVIEW
Jyoji Morise, Hiromu Takematsu, Shogo Oka
BACKGROUND: The human natural killer-1 (HNK-1) carbohydrate, a unique trisaccharide possessing sulfated glucuronic acid in a non-reducing terminus (HSO3-3GlcAß1-3Galß1-4GlcNAc-), is highly expressed in the nervous system and its spatiotemporal expression is strictly regulated. Mice deficient in the gene encoding a key enzyme, GlcAT-P, of the HNK-1 biosynthetic pathway exhibit almost complete disappearance of the HNK-1 epitope in the brain, significant reduction of long-term potentiation, and aberration of spatial learning and memory formation...
July 11, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709021/architecting-the-myelin-landscape
#18
REVIEW
Lindsay A Osso, Jonah R Chan
Myelin increases the speed and efficiency of action potential propagation. Yet, not all axons are myelinated and some axons are discontinuously myelinated, prompting the question of how myelinating glia select axons for myelination. Whereas myelination by Schwann cells depends on axonal induction, oligodendrocytes can form myelin membrane in the absence of axons. However, oligodendrocytes alone cannot architect the complex myelination patterns of the central nervous system and recent advances have implicated axonal signaling in this process...
July 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707715/myelinating-cocultures-of-rodent-stem-cell-line-derived-neurons-and-immortalized-schwann-cells
#19
Tomohiro Ishii, Emiko Kawakami, Kentaro Endo, Hidemi Misawa, Kazuhiko Watabe
Myelination is one of the most remarkable biological events in the neuron-glia interactions for the development of the mammalian nervous system. To elucidate molecular mechanisms of cell-to-cell interactions in myelin synthesis in vitro, establishment of the myelinating system in cocultures of continuous neuronal and glial cell lines are desirable. In the present study, we performed co-culture experiments using rat neural stem cell-derived neurons or mouse embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived motoneurons with immortalized rat IFRS1 Schwann cells to establish myelinating cultures between these cell lines...
July 14, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707358/suppressed-oligodendrocyte-steroidogenesis-in-multiple-sclerosis-implications-for-regulation-of-neuroinflammation
#20
Roobina Boghozian, Brienne A McKenzie, Leina B Saito, Ninad Mehta, William G Branton, JianQiang Lu, Glen B Baker, Farshid Noorbakhsh, Christopher Power
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Neurosteroids are reported to exert anti-inflammatory effects in several neurological disorders. We investigated the expression and actions of the neurosteroid, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), and its more stable 3β-sulphated ester, DHEA-S, in MS and associated experimental models. CNS tissues from patients with MS and animals with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) displayed reduced DHEA concentrations, accompanied by diminished expression of the DHEA-synthesizing enzyme CYP17A1 in oligodendrocytes (ODCs), in association with increased expression of inflammatory genes including interferon (IFN)-γ and interleukin (IL)-1β...
July 14, 2017: Glia
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