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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092438/biofunctionalization-of-nerve-interface-via-biocompatible-polymer-roughened-pt-black-on-cuff-electrode-for-chronic-recording
#1
Yi Jae Lee, Han-Jun Kim, Ji Yoon Kang, Sun Hee Do, Soo Hyun Lee
Peripheral nerve cuff electrodes with roughened Pt black (BPt) are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Nafion (NF). Although the influence of coated PEG and Nafion on roughened BPt on the electrical properties is weak, the cuff electrode with BPt/PEG and BPt/Nafion exhibits some very important properties. For example, it markedly decreases interfacial impedance, increases charge storage capacity (CSC) due to retaining the BPt surface structure, good stability without exfoliation in repetitive cyclic voltammetry scanning because it is protected by PEG or Nafion coating...
January 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092084/iron-availability-compromises-not-only-oligodendrocytes-but-also-astrocytes-and-microglial-cells
#2
Maria Victoria Rosato-Siri, Leandro Marziali, María Eugenia Guitart, Maria Elvira Badaracco, Mariana Puntel, Fernando Pitossi, Jorge Correale, Juana Maria Pasquini
When disrupted, iron homeostasis negatively impacts oligodendrocyte (OLG) differentiation and impairs myelination. To better understand myelin formation and OLG maturation, in vivo and in vitro studies were conducted to evaluate the effect of iron deficiency (ID) not only on OLG maturation but also on astrocytes (AST) and microglial cells (MG). In vivo experiments in an ID model were carried out to describe maturational events during OLG and AST development and the reactive profile of MG during myelination when iron availability is lower than normal...
January 14, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089770/structural-pierce-into-molecular-mechanism-underlying-clostridium-perfringens-epsilon-toxin-function
#3
Saeed Khalili, Abolfazl Jahangiri, Zahra Sadat Hashemi, Bahman Khalesi, Meysam Mardsoltani, Jafar Amani
Epsilon toxin of the Clostridium perfringens garnered a lot of attention due to its potential for toxicity in humans, extreme potency for cytotoxicity in mice and lack of any approved therapeutics prescribed for human. However, the intricacies of the Epsilon toxin action mechanism are yet to be understood. In this regard, various in silico tools have been exploited to model and refine the 3D structure of the toxin and its two receptors. The receptor proteins were embedded into designed lipid membranes within an aqueous and ionized environment...
January 12, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088313/q-space-myelin-map-imaging-for-longitudinal-analysis-of-demyelination-and-remyelination-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-treated-with-fingolimod-a-preliminary-study
#4
Mariko Tanikawa, Jin Nakahara, Junichi Hata, Shigeaki Suzuki, Kanehiro Fujiyoshi, Hirokazu Fujiwara, Suketaka Momoshima, Masahiro Jinzaki, Masaya Nakamura, Hideyuki Okano, Shinichi Takahashi, Norihiro Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Fingolimod (FTY) is an oral sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator that reduces relapse and slows brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. In addition, FTY has been shown to enhance remyelination in certain animal models. OBJECTIVE: To analyze feasibility of a novel q-space Myelin Map imaging to monitor demyelination and remyelination under FTY treatment in MS patients. METHODS: Treatment outcomes of 24 consecutive MS patients treated with FTY were analyzed...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087836/neuropathological-consequences-of-gestational-exposure-to-concentrated-ambient-fine-and-ultrafine-particles-in-the-mouse
#5
Carolyn Klocke, Joshua L Allen, Marissa Sobolewski, Margot Mayer-Pröschel, Jason L Blum, Dana Lauterstein, Judith T Zelikoff, Deborah A Cory-Slechta
Increasing evidence indicates that the central nervous system (CNS) is a target of air pollution. We previously reported that postnatal exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (UFP; ≤100nm) via the University of Rochester HUCAPS system during a critical developmental window of CNS development, equivalent to human 3(rd) trimester, produced male-predominant neuropathological and behavioral characteristics common to multiple neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in humans...
January 13, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087806/splenectomy-does-not-improve-long-term-outcome-after-stroke
#6
Dannielle Zierath, Angela Shen, Astiana Stults, Theresa Olmstead, Kyra J Becker
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Immune responses to brain antigens after stroke contribute to poor outcome. We hypothesized that splenectomy would lessen the development of such responses and improve outcome. METHODS: Male Lewis rats (275-350 g) underwent 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion immediately after splenectomy or sham splenectomy. Animals were survived to 4 weeks (672 hrs), and immune responses to myelin basic protein determined at euthanasia. Infarct volume was determined in a subset of animals euthanized at 72 hours...
January 13, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087667/prmt5-selective-inhibitors-suppress-inflammatory-t-cell-responses-and-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#7
Lindsay M Webb, Stephanie A Amici, Kyle A Jablonski, Himanshu Savardekar, Amanda R Panfil, Linsen Li, Wei Zhou, Kevin Peine, Vrajesh Karkhanis, Eric M Bachelder, Kristy M Ainslie, Patrick L Green, Chenglong Li, Robert A Baiocchi, Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano
In the autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), expansion of pathogenic, myelin-specific Th1 cell populations drives active disease; selectively targeting this process may be the basis for a new therapeutic approach. Previous studies have hinted at a role for protein arginine methylation in immune responses, including T cell-mediated autoimmunity and EAE. However, a conclusive role for the protein arginine methyltransferase (PRMT) enzymes that catalyze these reactions has been lacking...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087418/degeneration-of-auditory-nerve-fibers-in-guinea-pigs-with-severe-sensorineural-hearing-loss
#8
Steven Kroon, Dyan Ramekers, Emma M Smeets, Ferry G J Hendriksen, Sjaak F L Klis, Huib Versnel
Damage to and loss of the organ of Corti leads to secondary degeneration of the spiral ganglion cell (SGC) somata of the auditory nerve. Extensively examined in animal models, this degeneration process of SGC somata following deafening is well known. However, degeneration of auditory nerve axons, which conduct auditory information towards the brainstem, and its relation to SGC soma degeneration are largely unknown. The consequences of degeneration of the axons are relevant for cochlear implantation, which is applied to a deafened system but depends on the condition of the auditory nerve...
January 10, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081461/bdnf-gene-delivery-mediated-by-neuron-targeted-nanoparticles-is-neuroprotective-in-peripheral-nerve-injury
#9
Cátia D F Lopes, Nádia P Gonçalves, Carla P Gomes, Maria J Saraiva, Ana P Pêgo
Neuron-targeted gene delivery is a promising strategy to treat peripheral neuropathies. Here we propose the use of polymeric nanoparticles based on thiolated trimethyl chitosan (TMCSH) to mediate targeted gene delivery to peripheral neurons upon a peripheral and minimally invasive intramuscular administration. Nanoparticles were grafted with the non-toxic carboxylic fragment of the tetanus neurotoxin (HC) to allow neuron targeting and were explored to deliver a plasmid DNA encoding for the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in a peripheral nerve injury model...
December 24, 2016: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080173/evaluation-of-long-term-cryostorage-of-brain-tissue-sections-for-quantitative-histochemistry
#10
Larissa I Estrada, Amy A Robinson, Ana C Amaral, Eustathia L Giannaris, Nadine C Heyworth, Farzad Mortazavi, Laura B Ngwenya, Debra E Roberts, Howard J Cabral, Ronald J Killiany, Douglas L Rosene
Storage of tissue sections for long periods allows multiple samples, acquired over months or years, to be processed together, in the same reagents, for quantitative histochemical studies. Protocols for freezer storage of free-floating frozen sections using sucrose with different additives have been reported and assert that storage has no effect on histochemistry, but no quantitative support has been provided. The present study analyzed the efficacy of long-term storage of brain tissue sections at -80C in buffered 15% glycerol...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Histochemistry and Cytochemistry: Official Journal of the Histochemistry Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078802/evaluation-of-pva-biodegradable-electric-conductive-membranes-for-nerve-regeneration-in-axonotmesis-injuries-the-rat-sciatic-nerve-animal-model
#11
J Ribeiro, A R Caseiro, T Pereira, Pas Armada-da-Silva, I Pires, J Prada, I Amorim, I Leal Reis, S Amado, J D Santos, S Bompasso, S Raimondo, Asp Varejão, S Geuna, A L Luís, A C Maurício
The therapeutic effect of three polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) membranes loaded with electrically conductive materials - carbon nanotubes (PVA-CNTs) and polypyrrole (PVA-PPy) - were tested in vivo for neuro-muscular regeneration after an axonotmesis injury in the rat sciatic nerve. The membranes electrical conductivity measured was 1.5±0.5x10(-6) S/m, 579±0.6x10(-6) S/m, and 1837.5±0.7 x10(-6) S/m, respectively. At week-12, a residual motor and nociceptive deficit were present in all treated groups, but at week-12, a better recovery to normal gait pattern of the PVA-CNTs and PVA-PPy treated groups was observed...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077718/integrin-linked-kinase-ilk-deletion-disrupts-oligodendrocyte-development-by-altering-cell-cycle
#12
Rashad Hussain, Wendy B Macklin
: During development, oligodendrocytes are initially specified, after which oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) migrate and proliferate before differentiating into myelinating cells. Lineage-specific programming of oligodendrocytes results from sensing environmental cues through membrane-bound receptors and related intracellular signaling molecules. Integrin-linked kinase (ILK) is an important protein that is expressed at the inner margins of the plasma membrane and can mediate some of these signals...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077267/rapid-whole-brain-myelin-water-content-mapping-without-an-external-water-standard-at-1-5t
#13
Thanh D Nguyen, Pascal Spincemaille, Susan A Gauthier, Yi Wang
The objective of this study is to develop rapid whole brain mapping of myelin water content (MWC) at 1.5T. The Fast Acquisition with Spiral Trajectory and T2prep (FAST-T2) pulse sequence originally developed for myelin water fraction (MWF) mapping was modified to obtain fast mapping of T1 and receiver coil sensitivity needed for MWC computation. The accuracy of the proposed T1 mapping was evaluated by comparing with the standard IR-FSE method. Numerical simulations were performed to assess the accuracy and reliability of the proposed MWC mapping...
January 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076777/antagonistic-functions-of-mbp-and-cnp-establish-cytosolic-channels-in-cns-myelin
#14
Nicolas Snaidero, Caroline Velte, Matti Myllykoski, Arne Raasakka, Alexander Ignatev, Hauke B Werner, Michelle S Erwig, Wiebke Möbius, Petri Kursula, Klaus-Armin Nave, Mikael Simons
The myelin sheath is a multilamellar plasma membrane extension of highly specialized glial cells laid down in regularly spaced segments along axons. Recent studies indicate that myelin is metabolically active and capable of communicating with the underlying axon. To be functionally connected to the neuron, oligodendrocytes maintain non-compacted myelin as cytoplasmic nanochannels. Here, we used high-pressure freezing for electron microscopy to study these cytoplasmic regions within myelin close to their native state...
January 10, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075461/resistance-of-interleukin-6-to-the-extracellular-inhibitory-environment-promotes-axonal-regeneration-and-functional-recovery-following-spinal-cord-injury
#15
Gang Yang, Wen-Yuan Tang
Interleukin-6 (IL)-6 was originally discovered as a factor that contributes to the secondary pathological and inflammatory response in the central nervous system (CNS) following injury. However, accumulating evidence suggests that IL-6 is also involved in functional and structural recovery following CNS injury by promoting axonal sprou-ting. This suggests a potential dual role of IL-6 in CNS injury. However, the definitive function of IL-6 in neural injury and the corresponding underlying mechanisms are still topics of controversy...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074911/further-evidence-for-microtubule-independent-dimerization-of-tppp-p25
#16
J Oláh, T Szénási, S Szunyogh, A Szabó, A Lehotzky, J Ovádi
Tubulin Polymerization Promoting Protein (TPPP/p25) is a brain-specific disordered protein that modulates the dynamics and stability of the microtubule network by its assembly promoting, cross-linking and acetylation enhancing activities. In normal brain it is expressed primarily in differentiated oligodendrocytes; however, at pathological conditions it is enriched in inclusions of both neurons and oligodendrocytes characteristic for Parkinson's disease and multiple system atrophy, respectively. The objective of this paper is to highlight a critical point of a recently published Skoufias's paper in which the crucial role of the microtubules in TPPP/p25 dimerization leading to microtubule bundling was suggested...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074457/the-acute-effects-of-thymoquinone-on-acute-peripheral-nerve-injury-an-experimental-study
#17
İsmail Gülşen, Hakan Ak, Mikail Kara, Abdulsemat Gökalp, Veysel Akyol, Ömer Faruk Koçak, Murat Çetin Rağbetli
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of thymoquinone (TQ) on acute nerve injury. METHODS: A rat model of crush injury of the sciatic nerve was used. Animals were divided into 3 groups: control, trauma, and TQ treatment groups (n=6 per group). Seven days after injury, sciatic nerve specimens were obtained from the site of the injury and analyzed histologically and stereologically. Axon diameter, myelin thickness, and axon density were measured...
November 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073836/ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-activate-cell-signaling-in-response-to-glutamate-in-schwann-cells
#18
Wendy M Campana, Elisabetta Mantuano, Pardis Azmoon, Kenneth Henry, Michael A Banki, John H Kim, Donald P Pizzo, Steven L Gonias
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) demonstrate surveillance activity, detecting injury and undergoing trans-differentiation to support repair. SC receptors that detect peripheral nervous system injury remain incompletely understood. We used RT-PCR to profile ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in cultured SCs. We identified subunits required for assembly of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDA-R), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and kainate receptors...
January 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073817/paranodal-dissection-in-chronic-inflammatory-demyelinating-polyneuropathy-with-antineurofascin-155-and-anticontactin-1-antibodies
#19
Haruki Koike, Masato Kadoya, Ken-Ichi Kaida, Shohei Ikeda, Yuichi Kawagashira, Masahiro Iijima, Daisuke Kato, Hidenori Ogata, Ryo Yamasaki, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Jun-Ichi Kira, Masahisa Katsuno, Gen Sobue
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological features of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) with autoantibodies directed against paranodal junctional molecules, particularly focusing on the fine structures of the paranodes. METHODS: We assessed sural nerve biopsy specimens obtained from 9 patients with CIDP with antineurofascin-155 antibodies and 1 patient with anticontactin-1 antibodies. 13 patients with CIDP without these antibodies were also examined to compare pathological findings...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073155/differential-effects-of-myostatin-deficiency-on-motor-and-sensory-axons
#20
Maria R Jones, Eric Villalón, Adam J Northcutt, Nigel A Calcutt, Michael L Garcia
INTRODUCTION: Deletion of myostatin in mice (MSTN(-/-) ) alters structural properties of peripheral axons. However, properties like axon diameter and myelin thickness were analyzed in mixed nerves, so it is unclear if loss of myostatin affects motor, sensory or both types of axons. METHODS: Using the MSTN(-/-) mouse model, we analyzed the effects of increasing the number of muscle fibers on axon diameter, myelin thickness, and internode length in motor and sensory axons...
January 10, 2017: Muscle & Nerve
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