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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447514/neuroprotective-effects-of-ellagic-acid-on-cuprizone-induced-acute-demyelination-through-limitation-of-microgliosis-adjustment-of-cxcl12-il-17-il-11-axis-and-restriction-of-mature-oligodendrocytes-apoptosis
#1
Nima Sanadgol, Fereshteh Golab, Zakiyeh Tashakkor, Nooshin Taki, Samira Moradi Kouchi, Ali Mostafaie, Mehdi Mehdizadeh, Mohammad Abdollahi, Ghorban Taghizadeh, Mohammad Sharifzadeh
CONTEXT: Ellagic acid (EA) is a natural phenol antioxidant with various therapeutic activities. However, the efficacy of EA has not been examined in neuropathologic conditions. OBJECTIVE: In vivo neuroprotective effects of EA on cuprizone (cup)-induced demyelination were evaluated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: C57BL/6 J mice were fed with chow containing 0.2% cup for 4 weeks to induce oligodendrocytes (OLGs) depletion predominantly in the corpus callosum (CC)...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447247/the-role-of-peripheral-myelin-protein-2-in-remyelination
#2
Mark Stettner, Jennifer Zenker, Fabian Klingler, Fabian Szepanowski, Hans-P Hartung, Anne K Mausberg, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Roman Chrast, Bernd C Kieseier
The protein component of the myelin layer is essential for all aspects of peripheral nerves, and its deficiency can lead to structural and functional impairment. The presence of peripheral myelin protein 2 (P2, PMP2, FABP8, M-FABP) in Schwann cells has been known for decades and shown recently to be involved in the lipid homeostasis in the peripheral neural system. However, its precise role during de- and remyelination has yet to be elucidated. To this end, we assessed remyelination after sciatic nerve crush injury in vivo, and in an experimental de/remyelination ex vivo myelinating culture model in P2-deficient (P2 (-/-) ) and wild-type (WT) animals...
April 26, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446142/differences-in-peripheral-myelin-antigen-specific-t-cell-responses-and-t-memory-subsets-in-atypical-versus-typical-cidp
#3
M Staudt, J M Diederich, C Meisel, A Meisel, J Klehmet
BACKGROUND: Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) is presented by a large heterogeneity of clinical phenotypes. Around 50% of patients suffer from typical CIDP and show better therapy response than atypical variants. The goal of our study was to search for cellular immunological differences in typical versus atypical CIDP in comparison to controls. METHODS: We evaluated 26 (9 typical, 17 atypical) patients with mainly active-unstable CIDP using clinical and immunological examinations (enzyme-linked immunospot assay ELISPOT, fluorescence-activated cell sorting FACS) in comparison to 28 healthy, age-matched controls (HC)...
April 26, 2017: BMC Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445714/the-toll-like-receptor-2-agonist-pam3csk4-is-neuroprotective-after-spinal-cord-injury
#4
Nicole S Stivers, Nicolas Pelisch, Ben C Orem, Joshua Williams, Jacqueline M Nally, David P Stirling
Microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment following spinal cord injury (SCI) is associated with both detrimental and reparative functions. Stimulation of the innate immune receptor Toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) has shown to be beneficial following SCI, and it increases axonal regeneration following optic nerve crush. However, the mechanism(s) remain unclear. As microglia express high levels of TLR2, we hypothesized that modulating the microglial response to injury using a specific TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, would prevent secondary-mediated white matter degeneration following SCI...
April 23, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#5
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443644/a-reciprocal-regulatory-loop-between-taz-yap-and-g-protein-g%C3%AE-s-regulates-schwann-cell-proliferation-and-myelination
#6
Yaqi Deng, Lai Man Natalie Wu, Shujun Bai, Chuntao Zhao, Haibo Wang, Jincheng Wang, Lingli Xu, Masahide Sakabe, Wenhao Zhou, Mei Xin, Q Richard Lu
Schwann cell (SC) myelination in the peripheral nervous system is essential for motor function, and uncontrolled SC proliferation occurs in cancer. Here, we show that a dual role for Hippo effectors TAZ and YAP in SC proliferation and myelination through modulating G-protein expression and interacting with SOX10, respectively. Developmentally regulated mutagenesis indicates that TAZ/YAP are critical for SC proliferation and differentiation in a stage-dependent manner. Genome-wide occupancy mapping and transcriptome profiling reveal that nuclear TAZ/YAP promote SC proliferation by activating cell cycle regulators, while targeting critical differentiation regulators in cooperation with SOX10 for myelination...
April 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443569/can-a-small-intestine-segment-be-an-alternative-biological-conduit-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration
#7
Mehmet S Arda, Emre A Koçman, Emre Özkara, Erdem Söztutar, Orhan Özatik, Aydan Köse, Cengiz Çetin
BACKGROUND: Autologous nerve grafts (ANG) are used to bridge peripheral nerve defects. Limited sources and donor site morbidity are the major problems of peripheral nerve grafts. Although various types of autologous grafts such as arteries, veins and muscles have been recommended, an ideal conduit has not been described yet. AIMS: The purpose of present study is to investigate the effectiveness of small intestinal conduit (SIC) for peripheral nerve defects. STUDY DESIGN: Animal experimentation...
April 6, 2017: Balkan Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442994/egf-enhances-oligodendrogenesis-from-glial-progenitor-cells
#8
Junlin Yang, Xuejun Cheng, Jiajun Qi, Binghua Xie, Xiaofeng Zhao, Kang Zheng, Zunyi Zhang, Mengsheng Qiu
Emerging evidence indicates that epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling plays a positive role in myelin development and repair, but little is known about its biological effects on the early generation and differentiation of oligodendrocyte (OL) lineage cells. In this study, we investigated the role of EGF in early OL development with isolated glial restricted precursor (GRP) cells. It was found that EGF collaborated with Platelet Derived Growth Factor-AA (PDGFaa) to promote the survival and self-renewal of GRP cells, but predisposed GRP cells to develop into O4(-) early-stage oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) in the absence of or PDGFaa...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442990/spatiotemporal-and-long-lasting-modulation-of-11-key-nogo-signaling-genes-in-response-to-strong-neuroexcitation
#9
Tobias E Karlsson, Katrin Wellfelt, Lars Olson
Inhibition of nerve growth and plasticity in the CNS is to a large part mediated by Nogo-like signaling, now encompassing a plethora of ligands, receptors, co-receptors and modulators. Here we describe the distribution and levels of mRNA encoding 11 key genes involved in Nogo-like signaling (Nogo-A, Oligodendrocyte-Myelin glycoprotein (OMgp), Nogo receptor 1 (NgR1), NgR2, NgR3, Lingo-1, TNF receptor orphan Y (Troy), Olfactomedin, Lateral olfactory tract usher substance (Lotus) and membrane-type matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MT3-MPP)), as well as BDNF and GAPDH...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442857/influence-of-blood-flow-on-the-neuroma-formation-after-transposition-of-the-nerve-stump-into-vein-experimental-and-clinical-study
#10
Hossam El-Din Ali Ismail, Mohamed Ali Kasem, Fatma El-Hossiney Mostafa
We study the influence of blood flow on the neuroma formation after transposition of the nerve stump into a vein. A total of 30 rats were divided into two groups. In group (I), a 10-mm segment of the femoral vein was excluded from the blood stream. A venotomy was performed in the middle of this segment. The proximal nerve stump of femoral nerve was transposed into the lumen of the femoral vein via a venotomy and held with an epineural suture through the venous wall. In group (II), the same technique was used as in group (I) but without exclusion of the vein segment from blood flow...
April 2017: Journal of Hand and Microsurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442746/ultrastructural-characterization-of-the-lower-motor-system-in-a-mouse-model-of-krabbe-disease
#11
Valentina Cappello, Laura Marchetti, Paola Parlanti, Silvia Landi, Ilaria Tonazzini, Marco Cecchini, Vincenzo Piazza, Mauro Gemmi
Krabbe disease (KD) is a neurodegenerative disorder caused by the lack of β- galactosylceramidase enzymatic activity and by widespread accumulation of the cytotoxic galactosyl-sphingosine in neuronal, myelinating and endothelial cells. Despite the wide use of Twitcher mice as experimental model for KD, the ultrastructure of this model is partial and mainly addressing peripheral nerves. More details are requested to elucidate the basis of the motor defects, which are the first to appear during KD onset. Here we use transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to focus on the alterations produced by KD in the lower motor system at postnatal day 15 (P15), a nearly asymptomatic stage, and in the juvenile P30 mouse...
December 5, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442549/neuraminidases-3-and-4-regulate-neuronal-function-by-catabolizing-brain-gangliosides
#12
Xuefang Pan, Camila De Britto Pará De Aragão, Juan P Velasco-Martin, David A Priestman, Harry Y Wu, Kohta Takahashi, Kazunori Yamaguchi, Luisella Sturiale, Domenico Garozzo, Frances M Platt, Nathalie Lamarche-Vane, Carlos R Morales, Taeko Miyagi, Alexey V Pshezhetsky
Gangliosides (sialylated glycolipids) play an essential role in the CNS by regulating recognition and signaling in neurons. Metabolic blocks in processing and catabolism of gangliosides result in the development of severe neurologic disorders, including gangliosidoses manifesting with neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. We demonstrate that 2 mammalian enzymes, neuraminidases 3 and 4, play important roles in catabolic processing of brain gangliosides by cleaving terminal sialic acid residues in their glycan chains...
April 25, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442361/neuroprotective-effects-of-astaxanthin-in-a-rat-model-of-spinal-cord-injury
#13
Alireza Masoudi, Leila Dargahi, Fatemeh Abbaszadeh, Mohammad Hosein Pourgholami, Alireza Asgari, Mehdi Manoochehri, Masoumeh Jorjani
Spinal cord injury (SCI) often leads to constant neurological deficits and long-term unalterable disability. Apoptosis plays an important role in the initiation of the secondary injury cascades leading to progressive tissue damage and severely functional deficits after SCI. Although the primary mechanical destructive events cannot be reversed, a therapeutic intervention could be carried out in order to moderate the secondary injury damage several hours to weeks after injury. Astaxanthin (AST) is a strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents with the potential to render anti-apoptotic and neuroprotective effects...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442356/unbiased-stereological-analysis-of-the-fate-of-oligodendrocyte-progenitor-cells-in-the-adult-mouse-brain-and-effect-of-reference-memory-training
#14
Jenna J Boulanger, Claude Messier
Oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPC) are glial cells that differentiate into myelinating oligodendrocytes during early stages of post-natal life. However, OPCs persist beyond developmental myelination and represent an important population of cycling cells in the grey and white matter of the adult brain. Here, we used unbiased systematic stereological analysis to determine the total number of OPCs in the neocortex and corpus callosum of the adult mouse. We found that the ratio of OPCs to neurons is of 1: 10 in the adult neocortex...
April 22, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440805/cell-transplantation-therapy-for-spinal-cord-injury
#15
REVIEW
Peggy Assinck, Greg J Duncan, Brett J Hilton, Jason R Plemel, Wolfram Tetzlaff
Spinal cord injury can lead to severe motor, sensory and autonomic dysfunction. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the injured spinal cord. The transplantation of Schwann cells, neural stem cells or progenitor cells, olfactory ensheathing cells, oligodendrocyte precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells has been investigated as potential therapies for spinal cord injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms through which these individual cell types promote repair and functional improvements...
April 25, 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#16
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437941/effect-of-scattering-on-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-cars-signals
#17
Janaka C Ranasinghesagara, Giuseppe De Vito, Vincenzo Piazza, Eric O Potma, Vasan Venugopalan
We develop a computational framework to examine the factors responsible for scattering-induced distortions of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signals in turbid samples. We apply the Huygens-Fresnel wave-based electric field superposition (HF-WEFS) method combined with the radiating dipole approximation to compute the effects of scattering-induced distortions of focal excitation fields on the far-field CARS signal. We analyze the effect of spherical scatterers, placed in the vicinity of the focal volume, on the CARS signal emitted by different objects (2μm diameter solid sphere, 2μm diameter myelin cylinder and 2μm diameter myelin tube)...
April 17, 2017: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436460/histological-validation-of-fast-macromolecular-proton-fraction-mapping-as-a-quantitative-myelin-imaging-method-in-the-cuprizone-demyelination-model
#18
Marina Yu Khodanovich, Irina V Sorokina, Valentina Yu Glazacheva, Andrey E Akulov, Nikolay M Nemirovich-Danchenko, Alexander V Romashchenko, Tatyana G Tolstikova, Lilia R Mustafina, Vasily L Yarnykh
Cuprizone-induced demyelination in mice is a frequently used model in preclinical multiple sclerosis research. A recent quantitative clinically-targeted MRI method, fast macromolecular proton fraction (MPF) mapping demonstrated a promise as a myelin biomarker in human and animal studies with a particular advantage of sensitivity to both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) demyelination. This study aimed to histologically validate the capability of MPF mapping to quantify myelin loss in brain tissues using the cuprizone demyelination model...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434993/effect-of-rat-spinal-cord-injury-hemisection-on-the-ex-vivo-uptake-and-release-of-3-h-noradrenaline-from-a-slice-preparation
#19
Zoltán Borbély, Benedek Krisztián Csomó, Ágnes Kittel, Gábor Gerber, Gábor Varga, E Sylvester Vizi
We measured the ex vivo uptake and release of [(3)H]noradrenaline ([(3)H]NA) from perfused rat spinal cord slice preparations at 1, 3 and 14 days after unilateral hemisection-induced spinal cord injury (SCI) compared with control slice preparations. After surgical hemisection under anaesthesia, the rats showed characteristic signs of hemiplegia, with no movement of the ipsilateral hindlimb. After 3 days, the electron microscopy images showed overall degeneration of neuronal organelles and the myelin sheath, but the synapses seemed to be intact...
April 20, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434974/proteomic-approach-to-detect-changes-in-hippocampal-protein-levels-in-an-animal-model-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
Sung Min Nam, Dae Young Yoo, Hyun Jung Kwon, Jong Whi Kim, Hyo Young Jung, Dae Won Kim, Ho Jae Han, Moo-Ho Won, Je Kyung Seong, In Koo Hwang, Yeo Sung Yoon
In our previous study, we demonstrated that type 2 diabetes affects blood-brain barrier integrity and ultrastructural morphology in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats at 40 weeks of age. In the present study, we investigated the possible candidates for diabetes-related proteins in the hippocampus of ZDF rats and their control littermates (Zucker lean control, ZLC), by using two-dimensional fluorescence difference gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) followed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF)...
April 20, 2017: Neurochemistry International
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