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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352389/detailed-t1-weighted-profiles-from-the-human-cortex-measured-in-vivo-at-3-tesla-mri
#1
Bart Ferguson, Natalia Petridou, Alessio Fracasso, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rachel M Brouwer, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, René S Kahn, René C W Mandl
Studies into cortical thickness in psychiatric diseases based on T1-weighted MRI frequently report on aberrations in the cerebral cortex. Due to limitations in image resolution for studies conducted at conventional MRI field strengths (e.g. 3 Tesla (T)) this information cannot be used to establish which of the cortical layers may be implicated. Here we propose a new analysis method that computes one high-resolution average cortical profile per brain region extracting myeloarchitectural information from T1-weighted MRI scans that are routinely acquired at a conventional field strength...
January 19, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352260/effect-of-in-vitro-storage-duration-on-measured-mechanical-properties-of-brain-tissue
#2
Wei Zhang, Li-Fu Liu, Yue-Jiao Xiong, Yi-Fan Liu, Sheng-Bo Yu, Cheng-Wei Wu, Weihong Guo
Accurate characterization of the mechanical properties of brain tissue is essential for understanding the mechanisms of traumatic brain injuries and developing protective gears or facilities. However, how storage conditions might affect the mechanical properties of brain tissue remains unclear. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of in vitro storage duration on the mechanical performance of brain tissue since measurements are usually carried out in vitro. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) measurements and uniaxial compression mechanical experiments are carried out...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352131/early-impoverished-environment-delays-the-maturation-of-cerebral-cortex
#3
Roberta Narducci, Laura Baroncelli, Gabriele Sansevero, Tatjana Begenisic, Concetta Prontera, Alessandro Sale, Maria Cristina Cenni, Nicoletta Berardi, Lamberto Maffei
The influence of exposure to impoverished environments on brain development is unexplored since most studies investigated how environmental impoverishment affects adult brain. To shed light on the impact of early impoverishment on developmental trajectories of the nervous system, we developed a protocol of environmental impoverishment in which dams and pups lived from birth in a condition of reduced sensory-motor stimulation. Focusing on visual system, we measured two indexes of functional development, that is visual acuity, assessed by using Visual Evoked Potentials (VEPs), and VEP latency...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351992/involvement-of-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-in-myelination-and-in-human-nerve-sheath-tumorigenesis
#4
Ghjuvan'Ghjacumu Shackleford, Nirmal Kumar Sampathkumar, Mehdi Hichor, Laure Weill, Delphine Meffre, Ludmila Juricek, Ingrid Laurendeau, Aline Chevallier, Nicolas Ortonne, Frédérique Larousserie, Marc Herbin, Ivan Bièche, Xavier Coumoul, Mathieu Beraneck, Etienne-Emile Baulieu, Frédéric Charbonnier, Eric Pasmant, Charbel Massaad
Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in xenobiotic metabolism. Plexiform neurofibromas (PNFs) can transform into malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) that are resistant to existing therapies. These tumors are primarily composed of Schwann cells. In addition to neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) gene inactivation, further genetic lesions are required for malignant transformation. We have quantified the mRNA expression levels of AHR and its associated genes in 38 human samples...
January 19, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350602/a-novel-approach-to-32-channel-peripheral-nervous-system-myelin-imaging-in-vivo-with-single-axon-resolution
#5
Joey Grochmal, Wulin Teo, Hardeep Gambhir, Ranjan Kumar, Jo Anne Stratton, Raveena Dhaliwal, Craig Brideau, Jeff Biernaskie, Peter K Stys, Rajiv Midha
OBJECTIVE Intravital spectral imaging of the large, deeply situated nerves in the rat peripheral nervous system (PNS) has not been well described. Here, the authors have developed a highly stable platform for performing imaging of the tibial nerve in live rodents, thus allowing the capture of high-resolution, high-magnification spectral images requiring long acquisition times. By further exploiting the qualities of the topically applied myelin dye Nile red, this technique is capable of visualizing the detailed microenvironment of peripheral nerve demyelination injury and recovery, while allowing us to obtain images of exogenous Schwann cell myelination in a living animal...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350423/ephrin-a1-epha4-signaling-negatively-regulates-myelination-in-the-central-nervous-system
#6
Mette Harboe, Julie Torvund-Jensen, Kasper Kjaer-Sorensen, Lisbeth S Laursen
During development of the central nervous system not all axons are myelinated, and axons may have distinct myelination patterns. Furthermore, the number of myelin sheaths formed by each oligodendrocyte is highly variable. However, our current knowledge about the axo-glia communication that regulates the formation of myelin sheaths spatially and temporally is limited. By using axon-mimicking microfibers and a zebrafish model system, we show that axonal ephrin-A1 inhibits myelination. Ephrin-A1 interacts with EphA4 to activate the ephexin1-RhoA-Rock-myosin 2 signaling cascade and causes inhibition of oligodendrocyte process extension...
January 19, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350067/soluble-neuregulin1-is-strongly-up-regulated-in-the-rat-model-of-charcot-marie-tooth-1a-disease
#7
Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Giulia Ronchi, Davide Pascal, Davide Visigalli, Giovanna Capodivento, Lucilla Nobbio, Isabelle Perroteau, Angelo Schenone, Stefano Geuna, Giovanna Gambarotta
Neuregulin1 (NRG1) is a growth factor playing a pivotal role in peripheral nerve development through the activation of the transmembrane co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3. Soluble NRG1 isoforms, mainly secreted by Schwann cells, are strongly and transiently up-regulated after acute peripheral nerve injury, thus suggesting that they play a crucial role also in the response to nerve damage. Here we show that in the rat experimental model of the peripheral demyelinating neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth 1A (CMT1A) the expression of the different NRG1 isoforms (soluble, type α and β, type a and b) is strongly up-regulated, as well as the expression of NRG1 co-receptors ErbB2-ErbB3, thus showing that CMT1A nerves have a gene expression pattern highly reminiscent of injured nerves...
January 1, 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348594/myelination-of-purkinje-axons-is-critical-for-resilient-synaptic-transmission-in-the-deep-cerebellar-nucleus
#8
Tara Barron, Julia Saifetiarova, Manzoor A Bhat, Jun Hee Kim
The roles of myelin in maintaining axonal integrity and action potential (AP) propagation are well established, but its role in synapse maintenance and neurotransmission remains largely understudied. Here, we investigated how Purkinje axon myelination regulates synaptic transmission in the Purkinje to deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) synapses using the Long Evans Shaker (LES) rat, which lacks compact myelin and thus displays severe locomotion deficits. DCN neurons fired spontaneous action potentials (APs), whose frequencies were dependent on the extent of myelin...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348134/cerebral-mitochondrial-microangiopathy-leads-to-leukoencephalopathy-in-mitochondrial-neurogastrointestinal-encephalopathy
#9
L L Gramegna, A Pisano, C Testa, D N Manners, R D'Angelo, E Boschetti, F Giancola, L Pironi, L Caporali, M Capristo, M L Valentino, G Plazzi, C Casali, M T Dotti, G Cenacchi, M Hirano, C Giordano, P Parchi, R Rinaldi, R De Giorgio, R Lodi, V Carelli, C Tonon
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy is a rare disorder due to recessive mutations in the thymidine phosphorylase gene, encoding thymidine phosphorylase protein required for mitochondrial DNA replication. Clinical manifestations include gastrointestinal dysmotility and diffuse asymptomatic leukoencephalopathy. This study aimed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying brain leukoencephalopathy in patients with mitochondrial neurogastrointestinal encephalopathy by correlating multimodal neuroradiologic features to postmortem pathology...
January 18, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347989/bal%C3%A3-s-concentric-sclerosis-is-immunologically-distinct-from-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-retrospective-analysis-of-almost-150-lumbar-punctures
#10
S Jarius, C Würthwein, J R Behrens, J Wanner, J Haas, F Paul, B Wildemann
BACKGROUND: Baló's concentric sclerosis (BCS) is a rare inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system characterised by concentric layers of demyelination. It is unclear whether BCS is a variant of multiple sclerosis (MS) or a disease entity in its own right. OBJECTIVE: To compare the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) features of BCS to those of MS. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of the CSF profile of all patients with BCS reported in the medical literature between 1980 and 2017...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346320/c-phycocyanin-and-phycocyanobilin-as-remyelination-therapies-for-enhancing-recovery-in-multiple-sclerosis-and-ischemic-stroke-a-preclinical-perspective
#11
REVIEW
Giselle Pentón-Rol, Javier Marín-Prida, Viviana Falcón-Cama
Myelin loss has a crucial impact on behavior disabilities associated to Multiple Sclerosis (MS) and Ischemic Stroke (IS). Although several MS therapies are approved, none of them promote remyelination in patients, limiting their ability for chronic recovery. With no available therapeutic options, enhanced demyelination in stroke survivors is correlated with a poorer behavioral recovery. Here, we show the experimental findings of our group and others supporting the remyelinating effects of C-Phycocyanin (C-PC), the main biliprotein of Spirulina platensis and its linked tetrapyrrole Phycocyanobilin (PCB), in models of these illnesses...
January 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345114/introduction-to-the-special-issue-on-myelin-plasticity-in-the-central-nervous-system
#12
EDITORIAL
Patrizia Casaccia, Gabriel Corfas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2018: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344669/clc-2-is-a-positive-modulator-of-oligodendrocyte-precursor-cell-differentiation-and-myelination
#13
Xiaolin Hou, Rui Zhang, Junyan Wang, Yunhong Li, Fan Li, Yan Zhang, Xiaomin Zheng, Ying Shen, Yin Wang, Liang Zhou
Oligodendrocytes (OLs) are myelin-forming cells that are present within the central nervous system. Impaired oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) differentiation into mature OLs is a major cause of demyelination diseases. Therefore, identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms of OPC differentiation is crucial to understand the processes of myelination and demyelination. It has been acknowledged that various extrinsic and intrinsic factors are involved in the control of OPC differentiation; however, the function of ion channels, particularly the voltage‑gated chloride channel (CLC), in OPC differentiation and myelination are not fully understood...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343640/single-cell-transcriptomics-of-the-developing-lateral-geniculate-nucleus-reveals-insights-into-circuit-assembly-and-refinement
#14
Brian T Kalish, Lucas Cheadle, Sinisa Hrvatin, M Aurel Nagy, Samuel Rivera, Megan Crow, Jesse Gillis, Rory Kirchner, Michael E Greenberg
Coordinated changes in gene expression underlie the early patterning and cell-type specification of the central nervous system. However, much less is known about how such changes contribute to later stages of circuit assembly and refinement. In this study, we employ single-cell RNA sequencing to develop a detailed, whole-transcriptome resource of gene expression across four time points in the developing dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN), a visual structure in the brain that undergoes a well-characterized program of postnatal circuit development...
January 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341019/mri-in-the-study-of-animal-models-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#15
Nyoman D Kurniawan
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is an important tool to study various animal models of degenerative diseases. This chapter describes routine protocols of T 1-, T 2-, and T 2*-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI for rodent brain and spinal cord. These protocols can be used to measure atrophy, axonal and myelin injury and changes in white matter connectivity.
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340845/dihydrotestosterone-treatment-accelerates-autograft-reversal-sciatic-nerve-regeneration-in-rats
#16
Xiaofan Yang, Pingping Xue, Ruozheng Wei, Xin Liu, Xiang Xu, Zhenyu Liu, Yanhua Chen, Zhenbing Chen
Neuroactive steroids such as progesterone, testosterone, and their derivatives have been widely studied for their neuroprotective roles in the nervous system. Autologous nerve transplantation is considered as the gold standard repair technique when primary suture is impossible; nevertheless, this method is far from ideal. In this study, we aimed to explore the impact of dihydrotestosterone (DHT), a 5α-reduced derivative of testosterone, on the recovery of peripheral nerve injury treated with autologous nerve transplantation...
January 16, 2018: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340649/optic-nerve-regeneration-after-crush-remodels-the-injury-site-molecular-insights-from-imaging-mass-spectrometry
#17
David T Stark, David M G Anderson, Jacky M K Kwong, Nathan Heath Patterson, Kevin L Schey, Richard M Caprioli, Joseph Caprioli
Purpose: Mammalian central nervous system axons fail to regenerate after injury. Contributing factors include limited intrinsic growth capacity and an inhibitory glial environment. Inflammation-induced optic nerve regeneration (IIR) is thought to boost retinal ganglion cell (RGC) intrinsic growth capacity through progrowth gene expression, but effects on the inhibitory glial environment of the optic nerve are unexplored. To investigate progrowth molecular changes associated with reactive gliosis during IIR, we developed an imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)-based approach that identifies discriminant molecular signals in and around optic nerve crush (ONC) sites...
January 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339314/surface-based-characteristics-of-the-cerebellar-cortex-visualized-with-ultra-high-field-mri
#18
Yohan Boillat, Pierre-Louis Bazin, Kieran O'Brien, Mário João Fartaria, Guillaume Bonnier, Gunnar Krueger, Wietske Van der Zwaag, Cristina Granziera
Although having a relatively homogeneous cytoarchitectonic organization, the cerebellar cortex is a heterogeneous region characterized by different amounts of myelin, iron and protein expression profiles. In this study, we used quantitative T1 and T2* mapping at ultra-high field (7T) MRI to investigate the tissue characteristics of the cerebellar gray matter surface and its layers. Detailed subject-specific surfaces were generated at three different cortical depths and averaged across subjects to create averaged T1 and T2* maps on the cerebellar surface...
January 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337237/uridine-5-triphosphate-partially-blocks-differentiation-signals-and-favors-a-more-repair-state-in-cultured-rat-schwann-cells
#19
Marta Palomo-Guerrero, Jose Miguel Cosgaya, Alejandro Gella, Núria Casals, Carmen Grijota-Martinez
Schwann cells (SCs) play a key role in peripheral nerve regeneration. After damage, they respond acquiring a repair phenotype that allows them to proliferate, migrate and redirect axonal growth. Previous studies have shown that Uridine-5'-Triphosphate (UTP) and its purinergic receptors participate in several pathophysiological responses in the nervous system. Our group has previously described how UTP induces the migration of a Schwannoma cell line and promotes wound healing. These data suggest that UTP participates in the signaling involved in the regeneration process...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337119/sox10-single-transcription-factor-based-fast-and-efficient-generation-of%C3%A2-oligodendrocytes-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#20
Juan Antonio García-León, Manoj Kumar, Ruben Boon, David Chau, Jennifer One, Esther Wolfs, Kristel Eggermont, Pieter Berckmans, Nilhan Gunhanlar, Femke de Vrij, Bas Lendemeijer, Benjamin Pavie, Nikky Corthout, Steven A Kushner, José Carlos Dávila, Ivo Lambrichts, Wei-Shou Hu, Catherine M Verfaillie
Scarce access to primary samples and lack of efficient protocols to generate oligodendrocytes (OLs) from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) are hampering our understanding of OL biology and the development of novel therapies. Here, we demonstrate that overexpression of the transcription factor SOX10 is sufficient to generate surface antigen O4-positive (O4+) and myelin basic protein-positive OLs from hPSCs in only 22 days, including from patients with multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The SOX10-induced O4+ population resembles primary human OLs at the transcriptome level and can myelinate neurons in vivo...
January 10, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
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