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Neuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125422/characteristics-of-morphologic-macular-abnormalities-in-neuroimmunology-practice
#1
Omar Al-Louzi, Elias S Sotirchos, Angela Vidal-Jordana, Shin C Beh, Julia Button, Howard S Ying, Laura J Balcer, Elliot M Frohman, Shiv Saidha, Peter A Calabresi, Scott D Newsome
BACKGROUND: Morphologic macular abnormalities (MMAs) are frequently seen on macular optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging in neuroimmunology practice, yet studies pragmatically assessing prevalence and risk factors of MMAs to date are limited. OBJECTIVE: To describe the characteristics of MMAs in a neuroimmunology-based academic practice. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 1450 patients (2900 eyes) who underwent spectral-domain macular OCT between June 2010 and June 2012...
November 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123374/anti-cd20-cell-therapies-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-fixed-dosing-schedule-for-ocrelizumab-is-overkill
#2
Jagannadha Avasarala
Anti-CD 20 therapies have found significant uses in multiple sclerosis (MS). Based singularly on the accumulated evidence with the use of rituximab (RTX; Rituxan, Genentech, and Biogen) in neuroimmunological diseases, ocrelizumab (OCR; Ocrevus, Genentech) was developed as a treatment option for MS and selectively targets CD20 B cells, a cell surface antigen found on pre-B cells, mature, and memory B cells, but not on lymphoid stem cells and plasma cells. On the basis of indirect evidence, elimination of the antigen-presenting capabilities and antigen nonspecific immune functions of B cells appear to be central to the therapeutic efficacy of anti-CD20 B-cell therapies...
2017: Drug Target Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103430/promise-progress-and-pitfalls-in-the-search-for-central-nervous-system-biomarkers-in-neuroimmunological-diseases-a-role-for-cerebrospinal-fluid-immunophenotyping
#3
Bibiana Bielekova, Michael R Pranzatelli
Biomarkers are central to the translational medicine strategic focus, though strict criteria need to be applied to their designation and utility. They are one of the most promising areas of medical research, but the "biomarker life-cycle" must be understood to avoid false-positive and false-negative results. Molecular biomarkers will revolutionize the treatment of neurological diseases, but the rate of progress depends on a bold, visionary stance by neurologists, as well as scientists, biotech and pharmaceutical industries, funding agencies, and regulators...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103429/immunotherapeutics-in-pediatric-autoimmune-central-nervous-system-disease-agents-and-mechanisms
#4
Margherita Nosadini, Stefano Sartori, Suvasini Sharma, Russell C Dale
Beyond the major advances produced by careful clinical-radiological phenotyping and biomarker development in autoimmune central nervous system disorders, a comprehensive knowledge of the range of available immune therapies and a deeper understanding of their action should benefit therapeutic decision-making. This review discusses the agents used in neuroimmunology and their mechanisms of action. First-line treatments typically include corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis, while for severe disease second-line "induction" agents such as rituximab or cyclophosphamide are used...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103425/cancer-and-autoimmunity-paraneoplastic-neurological-disorders-associated-with-neuroblastic-tumors
#5
Wendy G Mitchell, Franz Blaes
Cancer and autoimmunity come together in paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS), which reflect the remote, not direct, effects of cancer. In the pediatric population, a variety of PNS have been described, but the most common of these rare disorders are instigated by neuroblastic tumors, such as neuroblastoma, ganglioneuroblastoma, and ganglioneuroma. The main pediatric-onset neurological PNS are ROHHAD syndrome, anti-ANNA1 (anti-Hu), and opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. They manifest distinctive neurological features, which aid the diagnosis, though under-recognition still poses serious challenges and risks...
August 2017: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101600/normal-diet-vs-high-fat-diet-a-comparative-study-behavioral-and-neuroimmunological-changes-in-adolescent-male-mice
#6
Huali Wu, Qiongzhen Liu, Praveen Kumar Kalavagunta, Qiaoling Huang, Wenting Lv, Xiaohong An, Haijuan Chen, Tao Wang, Rakotomalala Manda Heriniaina, Tong Qiao, Jing Shang
Recent evidence has established that consumption of High-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity is associated with deficits in hippocampus-dependent memory/learning and mood states. Nevertheless the link between obesity and emotional disorders still remains to be elucidated. This issue is of particular interest during adolescence, which is important period for shaping learning/memory and mood regulation that can be sensitive to the detrimental effects of HFD. Our present study is focused to investigate behavioral and metabolic influences of short-term HFD intake in adolescent C57BL/6 mice...
November 3, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081518/neuroimmunological-disorders-jak-in-the-itch
#7
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 30, 2017: Nature Reviews. Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054968/pivotal-neuroinflammatory-and-therapeutic-role-of-high-mobility-group-box-1-in-ischemic-stroke
#8
Seidu A Richard, Marian Sackey, Zhaoliang Su, Huaxi Xu
Stroke is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. Stroke is a frequent and severe neurovascular disorder. The main cause of stroke is atherosclerosis, and the most common risk factor for atherosclerosis is hypertension. Therefore, prevention and treatment of stroke are crucial issues in humans. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is non-histone nuclear protein that is currently one of the crucial pro-inflammatory alarmin in ischemic stroke (IS). It is instantly released from necrotic cells in the ischemic core and activates an early inflammatory response...
October 20, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054292/addiction-a-dysregulation-of-satiety-and-inflammatory-processes
#9
Rivona Harricharan, Oualid Abboussi, William M U Daniels
Over the years, drug addiction has proven to be a perplexing conundrum for scientists. In attempts to decipher the components of the puzzle, multiple theories of addiction have been proposed. While these theories have assisted in providing essential fundamental information, current research recommends that a new theory needs to be presented taking into consideration the results of recent developments in the fields of neuroimmunology, genetics, and neuropsychiatry. After extensively examining the published literature, we propose in this review that neuroinflammation and hypothalamic functioning strongly underpin addictive behavior...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053777/movement-disorders-with-neuronal-antibodies-syndromic-approach-genetic-parallels-and-pathophysiology
#10
Bettina Balint, Angela Vincent, Hans-Michael Meinck, Sarosh R Irani, Kailash P Bhatia
Movement disorders are a prominent and common feature in many autoantibody-associated neurological diseases, a group of potentially treatable conditions that can mimic infectious, metabolic or neurodegenerative disease. Certain movement disorders are likely to associate with certain autoantibodies; for example, the characteristic dyskinesias, chorea and dystonia associated with NMDAR antibodies, stiff person spectrum disorders with GAD, glycine receptor, amphiphysin or DPPX antibodies, specific paroxysmal dystonias with LGI1 antibodies, and cerebellar ataxia with various anti-neuronal antibodies...
September 25, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034906/neuroimmunology-ilc2s-touch-a-nerve
#11
Yvonne Bordon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Nature Reviews. Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030772/diagnostics-of-anti-mag-antibody-polyneuropathy
#12
REVIEW
Diego Franciotta, Matteo Gastaldi, Luana Benedetti, Martina Garnero, Tiziana Biagioli, Marco Brogi, Gianna Costa, Elisabetta Fadda, Francesca Andreetta, Ornella Simoncini, Claudia Giannotta, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Roberta Bedin, Diana Ferraro, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Valentina De Riva, Elisabetta Zardini, Andrea Cortese, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio
This document presents the guidelines for anti-myelin-associated glycoprotein (MAG) antibody testing that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. The main clinical information on anti-MAG antibody polyneuropathy, indications and limits of anti-MAG antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030771/a-bridge-between-evidence-based-laboratory-diagnostics-and-research-in-neuroimmunology-why-standardizations-and-guidelines-matter
#13
EDITORIAL
Diego Franciotta, Antonio Uccelli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030770/diagnostics-of-myasthenic-syndromes-detection-of-anti-achr-and-anti-musk-antibodies
#14
REVIEW
Francesca Andreetta, Elena Rinaldi, Emanuela Bartoccioni, Anna Pia Riviera, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffella Fazio, Giovanni Deiana, Alessandro Pini, Maria Grazia Giudizi, Fulvio Baggi
This paper presents the Italian guidelines for autoantibody testing in myasthenia gravis that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts and discussions during dedicated workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI). Essential clinical information on myasthenic syndromes, indications and limits of antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030769/diagnostics-of-dysimmune-peripheral-neuropathies
#15
REVIEW
Diego Franciotta, Matteo Gastaldi, Luana Benedetti, Giampaola Pesce, Tiziana Biagioli, Francesco Lolli, Gianna Costa, Cristina Melis, Francesca Andreetta, Ornella Simoncini, Claudia Giannotta, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Roberta Bedin, Diana Ferraro, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Valentina De Riva, Elisabetta Zardini, Andrea Cortese, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio
This document presents the guidelines for anti-ganglioside antibody testing that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Main clinical information on dysimmune peripheral neuropathies, indications and limits of anti-ganglioside antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030768/diagnostics-of-the-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-nmosd
#16
REVIEW
Diego Franciotta, Matteo Gastaldi, Arianna Sala, Francesca Andreetta, Elena Rinaldi, Maddalena Ruggieri, Rosaria Leante, Gianna Costa, Tiziana Biagioli, Luca Massacesi, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Francesco Perini, Elisabetta Zardini, Luigi Zuliani, Marco Zoccarato, Bruno Giometto, Antonio Bertolotto
This document presents the guidelines for anti-aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibody testing that has been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, indications and limits of anti-AQP4 antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030767/diagnostics-of-autoimmune-encephalitis-associated-with-antibodies-against-neuronal-surface-antigens
#17
REVIEW
Luigi Zuliani, Marco Zoccarato, Matteo Gastaldi, Raffaele Iorio, Amelia Evoli, Tiziana Biagioli, Silvia Casagrande, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Claudia Giannotta, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Francesca Andreetta, Ornella Simoncini, Gianna Costa, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Michela Marcon, Diego Franciotta, Bruno Giometto
This document presents the guidelines for testing antibodies against neuronal surface antigens that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on autoimmune encephalitis associated with antibodies against neuronal surface antigens, indications and limits of testing for such antibodies, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix A) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030766/diagnostics-of-paraneoplastic-neurological-syndromes
#18
REVIEW
Marco Zoccarato, Matteo Gastaldi, Luigi Zuliani, Tiziana Biagioli, Marco Brogi, Gaetano Bernardi, Elena Corsini, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Raffaella Fazio, Claudia Giannotta, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Gianna Costa, Raffaele Iorio, Amelia Evoli, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Elisabetta Galloni, Valentina De Riva, Elisabetta Zardini, Diego Franciotta, Bruno Giometto
This document presents the guidelines for onconeural antibody testing that have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, indications and limits of onconeural antibody testing, instructions for result interpretation, and an agreed laboratory protocol (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030765/cerebrospinal-fluid-analysis-and-the-determination-of-oligoclonal-bands
#19
REVIEW
Matteo Gastaldi, Elisabetta Zardini, Rosaria Leante, Maddalena Ruggieri, Gianna Costa, Eleonora Cocco, Giovanna De Luca, Ivana Cataldo, Tiziana Biagioli, Clara Ballerini, Massimiliano Castellazzi, Enrico Fainardi, Paola Pettini, Mauro Zaffaroni, Debora Giunti, Elisabetta Capello, Gaetano Bernardi, Emilio Ciusani, Claudia Giannotta, Eduardo Nobile-Orazio, Elena Bazzigaluppi, Gabriella Passerini, Roberta Bedin, Patrizia Sola, Rinaldo Brivio, Guido Cavaletti, Arianna Sala, Antonio Bertolotto, Gaetano Desina, Maurizio A Leone, Sara Mariotto, Sergio Ferrari, Andreina Paternoster, Davide Giavarina, Francesco Lolli, Diego Franciotta
This document presents the guidelines for the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and the determination of oligoclonal bands (OCBs) as pivotal tests in neuroinflammatory pathologies of the central nervous system. The guidelines have been developed following a consensus process built on questionnaire-based surveys, internet contacts, and discussions at workshops of the sponsoring Italian Association of Neuroimmunology (AINI) congresses. Essential clinical information on the pathologies in which the CSF analysis is indicated, and, particularly, on those characterized by the presence of OCBs in the intrathecal compartment, indications and limits of CSF analysis and OCB determination, instructions for result interpretation, and agreed laboratory protocols (Appendix) are reported for the communicative community of neurologists and clinical pathologists...
October 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021839/diffusion-tensor-imaging-for-multilevel-assessment-of-the-visual-pathway-possibilities-for-personalized-outcome-prediction-in-autoimmune-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#20
REVIEW
Joseph Kuchling, Alexander U Brandt, Friedemann Paul, Michael Scheel
The afferent visual pathway represents the most frequently affected white matter pathway in multiple sclerosis (MS) and neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD). Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can reveal microstructural or non-overt brain tissue damage and quantify pathological processes. DTI facilitates the reconstruction of major white matter fiber tracts allowing for the assessment of structure-function and damage-dysfunction relationships. In this review, we outline DTI studies investigating the afferent visual pathway in idiopathic optic neuritis (ON), NMOSD, and MS...
September 2017: EPMA Journal
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