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Neuroimmunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195192/ng2-glial-cells-regulate-neuroimmunological-responses-to-maintain-neuronal-function-and-survival
#1
Masayuki Nakano, Yasuhisa Tamura, Masanori Yamato, Satoshi Kume, Asami Eguchi, Kumi Takata, Yasuyoshi Watanabe, Yosky Kataoka
NG2-expressing neural progenitor cells (i.e., NG2 glial cells) maintain their proliferative and migratory activities even in the adult mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and produce myelinating oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Although NG2 glial cells have been observed in close proximity to neuronal cell bodies in order to receive synaptic inputs, substantive non-proliferative roles of NG2 glial cells in the adult CNS remain unclear. In the present study, we generated NG2-HSVtk transgenic rats and selectively ablated NG2 glial cells in the adult CNS...
February 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186177/the-far-reaching-scope-of-neuroinflammation-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#2
REVIEW
Dennis W Simon, Mandy J McGeachy, Hülya Bayır, Robert S B Clark, David J Loane, Patrick M Kochanek
The 'silent epidemic' of traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been placed in the spotlight as a result of clinical investigations and popular press coverage of athletes and veterans with single or repetitive head injuries. Neuroinflammation can cause acute secondary injury after TBI, and has been linked to chronic neurodegenerative diseases; however, anti-inflammatory agents have failed to improve TBI outcomes in clinical trials. In this Review, we therefore propose a new framework of targeted immunomodulation after TBI for future exploration...
February 10, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167648/natalizumab-for-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-in-point-for-the-impact-of-translational-neuroimmunology
#3
Afsaneh Shirani, Olaf Stüve
Advances in translational neuroimmunology over the last two decades have revolutionized the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis. A pathological hallmark of multiple sclerosis is the presence of leukocytes in the areas of disease activity in the CNS. Natalizumab inhibits the trafficking of lymphocytes from the blood into the brain and spinal cord by blocking the adhesion molecule α4-integrin. Representing the enormous success of a molecular targeted approach, natalizumab was the first mAb approved for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis...
February 15, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155893/neuroimmunology-microglia-induced-reactive-astrocytes-toxic-players-in-neurological-disease
#4
Charlotte Ridler
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 3, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122768/aggressive-traits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-case-control-study
#5
Yara Dadalti Fragoso, Luana Caramillo Going, Amanda M Lourido, Leticia V Berlim, Marcia B A Egas, Mariani R Souza
OBJECTIVE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic neuroimmunological disease that mainly affects young adults and leads to neurological disabilities. Depression, anxiety, cognitive dysfunction, and other psychiatric conditions have often been reported in patients with MS. Other, subtler aspects of psychosocial conditions in MS have been studied, but there is a paucity of papers on the subject. Remarkable degrees of aggression have been described in up to a quarter of patients with MS, but few studies have targeted this outcome in the psychopathological assessment on patients...
February 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099564/guideline-for-multiple-sclerosis-treatment-in-brazil-consensus-from-the-neuroimmunology-scientific-department-of-the-brazilian-academy-of-neurology
#6
Elizabeth Regina Comini-Frota, Cláudia C F Vasconcelos, Maria Fernanda Mendes
Multiple sclerosis has become an ever-increasing challenge to neurologists. With the release of the latest medications on the market, Brazilian neurologists feel divided between following their patients' evolution in accordance with the strict rules established by the Brazilian Ministry of Health regarding drug distribution, or following disease progression and worsening in accordance with the evidence in the literature. Therefore, a systematic review of the main published treatment guidelines was conducted and an escalating therapy proposed for guiding multiple sclerosis patient treatment in Brazil...
January 2017: Arquivos de Neuro-psiquiatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092989/therapeutic-complement-inhibition-a-promising-approach-for-treatment-of-neuroimmunological-diseases
#7
Kjara S Pilch, Peter Spaeth, Yuki Nobuhiro, Benjamin R Wakerley
Autoimmunity is an important cause of disease both in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Aetiologies and clinical manifestations are complex and heterogeneous. Inappropriate control of complement activation at inappropriate sites has been recognized as a major determinant in several neurological conditions, including Guillain-Barré syndrome and neuromyelitis optica. In each case pathogenesis is thought to be associated with generation of autoantibodies which upon binding guide activation of the complement system to self-tissue...
January 17, 2017: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057525/lipopolysaccharide-administration-induces-sex-dependent-behavioural-and-serotonergic-neurochemical-signatures-in-mice
#8
Jonathon Sens, Eric Schneider, Joseph Mauch, Anna Schaffstein, Sara Mohamed, Kathryn Fasoli, Joseph Saurine, Aikaterini Britzolaki, Connor Thelen, Pothitos M Pitychoutis
Challenging the innate immune machinery with the pro-inflammatory agent lipopolysaccharide (LPS) results in the development of a sickness syndrome characterized by numerous depressive-like behavioural and physiological manifestations, most of which overlap with the clinical symptoms of major depression. Although women are known to mount stronger pro-inflammatory responses during infections and being at higher risk to develop depressive disorders compared to men, the vast majority of experimental studies investigating the neurobiological effects of LPS administration have been conducted in males...
February 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017232/stiff-person-syndrome-masquerading-as-multiple-sclerosis
#9
Joseph J Sabatino, Scott D Newsome
BACKGROUND: Stiff person syndrome (SPS) is a rare neuroimmunological disorder presenting with a wide variety of signs and symptoms that mimic neuro-inflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), thus delaying diagnosis. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of over 100 patients with SPS who were treated at Johns Hopkins Hospital and identified five patients previously diagnosed with MS. RESULTS: Patients were female with a mean age of 53years old (range 43-64)...
January 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009015/neuroimmunology-could-antibodies-cause-psychosis
#10
Ian Fyfe
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2017: Nature Reviews. Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004339/bace1-deficient-mice-exhibit-alterations-in-immune-system-pathways
#11
L Stertz, V Contreras-Shannon, N Monroy-Jaramillo, J Sun, C Walss-Bass
BACE1 encodes for the beta-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme 1 or β-secretase. Genetic deletion of Bace1 leads to behavioral alterations and affects midbrain dopaminergic signaling and memory processes. In order to further understand the role of BACE1 in brain function and behavior, we performed microarray transcriptome profiling and gene pathway analysis in the hippocampus of BACE1-deficient mice compared to wild type. We identified a total of 91 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), mostly enriched in pathways related to the immune and inflammation systems, particularly IL-9 and NF-κB activation pathways...
December 21, 2016: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989332/neuropathic-and-myopathic-pain
#12
REVIEW
Anthony C Rodrigues, Peter B Kang
The evaluation and management of childhood pain syndromes of neuromuscular origin have distinct challenges, as the patterns of disease presentation and the ability of a child to describe symptoms may differ from that of an adult. Advances in scientific and clinical knowledge are leading to significant progress in the care of affected children. The genetic origins of Fabry disease and the inherited form of erythromelalgia are better understood. The increasing interest in neuroimmunology among pediatric neurologists has led to more sophisticated diagnostic and therapeutic approaches...
August 2016: Seminars in Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981385/-preclinical-safety-evaluation-of-chloral-hydrate-after-topical-application%C3%A2-using-the-example-of-psoriatic-itch
#13
J Wohlrab, F Gilbrich, L Wolff, M Fischer, S Philipp
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is known today as a T‑cell-mediated autoimmunological systemic disease. The chronic inflammatory processes involve neuroimmunological factors that are held responsible not only for various aspects of psychiatric-neurological comorbidities but also for neurosensory problems, primarily itching. Amongst other things, the significance of GABAA receptors are often discussed in this context. The topical use of chloral hydrate in semisolid preparations for antipruritic therapy goes back to Neisser and is currently experiencing a revival in individually manufactured formulations...
December 15, 2016: Der Hautarzt; Zeitschrift Für Dermatologie, Venerologie, und Verwandte Gebiete
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870450/the-immune-system-as-a-novel-regulator-of-sex-differences-in-brain-and-behavioral-development
#14
REVIEW
Lars H Nelson, Kathryn M Lenz
Sexual differentiation of the brain occurs early in life as a result of sex-typical hormone action and sex chromosome effects. Immunocompetent cells are being recognized as underappreciated regulators of sex differences in brain and behavioral development, including microglia, astrocytes, and possibly other less well studied cell types, including T cells and mast cells. Immunocompetent cells in the brain are responsive to steroid hormones, but their role in sex-specific brain development is an emerging field of interest...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776957/neuroimmunological-interactions-in-stroke
#15
M A Sotomayor-Sobrino, A Ochoa-Aguilar, L A Méndez-Cuesta, C Gómez-Acevedo
INTRODUCTION: Stroke is one of the leading causes of death in the world; its incidence is increasing due to increased life expectancy. However, treatment options for these patients are limited since no clinically effective drugs have been developed to date. DEVELOPMENT: According to clinical evidence, a number of neurochemical changes take place after stroke, including energy depletion, increased free radical synthesis, calcium accumulation, neurotransmitter imbalance, excitotoxicity, and, at a later stage, immune system activation leading to inflammation...
October 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774643/prothrombin-and-factor-x-are-elevated-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients
#16
Kerstin Göbel, Peter Kraft, Susann Pankratz, Catharina C Gross, Catharina Korsukewitz, Robert Kwiecien, Rolf Mesters, Beate E Kehrel, Heinz Wiendl, Christoph Kleinschnitz, Sven G Meuth
Animal models have implicated an integral role for coagulation factors in neuroinflammatory diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS) beyond their role in hemostasis. However, their relevance in humans requires further elucidation. This study aimed to determine whether levels of coagulation factors differ between patients with neuroimmunological disorders and respective controls. Individuals suffering from relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive MS had significantly higher prothrombin and factor X levels than healthy donors, whereas levels were unchanged in primary progressive MS and neuromyelitis optica patients...
December 2016: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764517/effect-of-recombinant-lactococcus-lactis-producing-myelin-peptides-on-neuroimmunological-changes-in-rats-with-experimental-allergic-encephalomyelitis
#17
K Kasarełło, A Szczepankowska, B Kwiatkowska-Patzer, A W Lipkowski, R Gadamski, D Sulejczak, M Łachwa, M Biały, J Bardowski
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a human autoimmune neurodegenerative disease with an unknown etiology. Despite various therapies, there is no effective cure for MS. Since the mechanism of the disease is based on autoreactive T-cell responses directed against myelin antigens, oral tolerance is a promising approach for the MS treatment. Here, the experiments were performed to assess the impact of oral administration of recombinant Lactococcus lactis producing encephalogenic fragments of three myelin proteins: myelin basic protein, proteolipid protein, and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, on neuroimmunological changes in rats with experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) - an animal model of MS...
2016: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756892/targeting-immune-checkpoints-in-malignant-glioma
#18
REVIEW
Xuhao Zhang, Shan Zhu, Tete Li, Yong-Jun Liu, Wei Chen, Jingtao Chen
Malignant glioma is the most common and a highly aggressive cancer in the central nervous system (CNS). Cancer immunotherapy, strategies to boost the body's anti-cancer immune responses instead of directly targeting tumor cells, recently achieved great success in treating several human solid tumors. Although once considered "immune privileged" and devoid of normal immunological functions, CNS is now considered a promising target for cancer immunotherapy, featuring the recent progresses in neurobiology and neuroimmunology and a highly immunosuppressive state in malignant glioma...
January 24, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754761/a-novel-pink1-and-park2-dependent-protective-neuroimmune-pathway-in-lethal-sepsis
#19
Rui Kang, Ling Zeng, Yangchun Xie, Zhengwen Yan, Borong Zhou, Lizhi Cao, Daniel J Klionsky, Kevin J Tracey, Jianhua Li, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Although the PINK1-PARK2 pathway contributes to the pathogenesis of Parkinson disease, its roles in sepsis (a major challenge for critical care) were previously unknown. Here, we show that pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice are more sensitive to polymicrobial sepsis-induced multiple organ failure and death. The decrease in the circulating level of the neurotransmitter dopamine in pink1(-/-) and park2(-/-) mice accelerates the release of a late sepsis mediator, HMGB1, via HIF1A-dependent anaerobic glycolysis and subsequent NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation...
December 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27752070/neuroimmunology-waking-the-immune-system
#20
Sian Lewis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
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