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Neurodegeneration

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793062/functional-mri-of-brain-physiology-in-aging-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
J Jean Chen
Brain aging and associated neurodegeneration constitute a major societal challenge as well as one for the neuroimaging community. A full understanding of the physiological mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration still eludes medical researchers, fuelling the development of in vivo neuroimaging markers. Hence it is increasingly recognized that our understanding of neurodegenerative processes likely will depend upon the available information provided by imaging techniques. At the same time, the imaging techniques are often developed in response to the desire to observe certain physiological processes...
May 21, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792933/role-of-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthase-in-slowly-progressive-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration-in-the-zitter-rat
#2
Ayuka Ehara, Kazuhiko Nakadate, Hiroyuki Sugimoto, Kanji Yoshimoto, Shuichi Ueda
Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) is involved in nigrostriatal dopaminergic (DA) neurodegeneration. However, little is known about the distribution patterns and functions of nNOS in slowly progressive DA neurodegeneration. Here we describe the spatiotemporal change in nNOS expression over the course of neurodegeneration and the effect of short- or long-term treatment with the nNOS inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), in zitter (zi/zi) rats. In the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc), nNOS expression was significantly increased with progression of neurodegeneration...
May 21, 2018: Nitric Oxide: Biology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792878/deoxyelephantopin-ameliorates-lipopolysaccharides-lps-induced-memory-impairments-in-rats-evidence-for-its-anti-neuroinflammatory-properties
#3
Shathiswaran N Andy, Vijayapandi Pandy, Zazali Alias, Habsah Abdul Kadir
AIM: Neuroinflammation is a critical pathogenic mechanism of most neurodegenerative disorders especially, Alzheimer's disease (AD). Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are known to induce neuroinflammation which is evident from significant upsurge of pro-inflammatory mediators in in vitro BV-2 microglial cells and in vivo animal models. In present study, we investigated anti-neuroinflammatory properties of deoxyelephantopin (DET) isolated from Elephantopus scaber in LPS-induced neuroinflammatory rat model...
May 21, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790425/hypoxic-preconditioning-reduces-propofol-induced-neuroapoptosis-via-regulation-of-bcl-2-and-bax-and-downregulation-of-activated-caspase-3-in-the-hippocampus-of-neonatal-rats
#4
Jing Lv, Yubing Liang, Youbing Tu, Jing Chen, Yubo Xie
OBJECTIVE:  Evidence has shown that propofol may cause widespread apoptotic neurodegeneration. Hypoxic preconditioning (HPC) was previously demonstrated to provide neuroprotection and brain recovery from either acute or chronic neurodegeneration in several cellular and animal models. Therefore, the present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of hypoxic preconditioning on apoptosis caused by propofol in neonatal rats. METHODS: Propofol (100 mg/kg) was given to 7-day-old (P7) Sprague Dawley pups...
May 23, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790176/tau-filaments-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#5
Michel Goedert
The ordered assembly of Tau protein into abnormal filamentous inclusions is a defining characteristic of many human neurodegenerative diseases. Thirty years ago, we reported that Tau is an integral component of the intraneuronal filaments of Alzheimer's disease. All six brain Tau isoforms make up those filaments. Twenty years ago, we and others showed that mutations in MAPT, the Tau gene, cause familial forms of frontotemporal dementia, thus proving that dysfunction of Tau protein is sufficient to cause neurodegeneration and dementia...
May 22, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789964/caring-for-women-with-multiple-sclerosis-across-the-lifespan
#6
REVIEW
Kelsey Rankin, Riley Bove
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caring for women with multiple sclerosis (MS), whose first symptoms typically begin during the childbearing years, requires a comprehensive approach to management across a range of reproductive exposures, and beyond through menopause. RECENT FINDINGS: This article summarizes what is known about the disease course in women with MS, how it differs from men, and the current state of knowledge regarding effects of reproductive exposures (menarche, childbearing, menopause) on MS-related inflammation and neurodegeneration...
May 23, 2018: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789375/neurotrophin-responsiveness-of-sympathetic-neurons-is-regulated-by-rapid-mobilization-of-the-p75-receptor-to-the-cell-surface-through-trka-activation-of-arf6
#7
F Edward Hickman, Emily M Stanley, Bruce D Carter
The p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) plays an integral role in patterning the sympathetic nervous system during development. Initially, p75NTR is expressed at low levels as sympathetic axons project toward their targets, which enables neurotrophin-3 (NT3) to activate TrkA receptors and promote growth. Upon reaching nerve growth factor (NGF) producing tissues, p75NTR is up regulated resulting in formation of TrkA-p75 complexes, which are high affinity binding sites selective for NGF, thereby blunting NT3 signaling...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789218/does-too-much-magic-lead-to-mitophagy
#8
Mohamed A Eldeeb, Richard P Fahlman
Neurodegeneration-associated hallmarks include an abundance of protein aggregates and amelioration of mitochondrial function. Despite the knowledge of molecular counteracting mechanisms, the molecular dialogue between protein aggregate accumulation and aberrant mitochondrial import is poorly understood. Recent work unraveled a novel role for the mitochondrial import machinery in regulating cytosolic proteostasis.
May 19, 2018: Trends in Biochemical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788869/advances-in-the-tyrosinase-inhibitors-from-plant-source
#9
Marco Bonesi, Jianbo Xiao, Rosa Tundis, Francesca Aiello, Vincenzo Sicari, Monica R Loizzo
Tyrosinase is a multifunctional copper-containing oxidase which catalyses the oxidation of tyrosine to produce melanin. The alteration in melanin biosynthesis occurs in many diseases. The pigment has a protecting role against skin photo-carcinogenesis, but anomalous melanin pigmentation is an aesthetic problem in human beings. Moreover, the formation of neuromelanin in human brain could contribute to the neurodegeneration associated with Parkinson's disease. Finally, tyrosinase is also responsible of undesired browning in fruits and vegetables...
May 21, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788379/dna-damage-response-and-repair-dna-methylation-and-cell-death-in-human-neurons-and-experimental-animal-neurons-are-different
#10
Lee J Martin, Qing Chang
Neurological disorders affecting individuals in infancy to old age elude interventions for meaningful protection against neurodegeneration, and preclinical work has not translated to humans. We studied human neuron responses to injury and death stimuli compared to those of animal neurons in culture under similar settings of insult (excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, and DNA damage). Human neurons were differentiated from a cortical neuron cell line and the embryonic stem cell-derived H9 line. Mouse neurons were differentiated from forebrain neural stem cells and embryonic cerebral cortex; pig neurons were derived from forebrain neural stem cells...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29788038/testing-a-longitudinal-compensation-model-in-premanifest-huntington-s-disease
#11
Sarah Gregory, Jeffrey D Long, Stefan Klöppel, Adeel Razi, Elisa Scheller, Lora Minkova, Eileanoir B Johnson, Alexandra Durr, Raymund A C Roos, Blair R Leavitt, James A Mills, Julie C Stout, Rachael I Scahill, Sarah J Tabrizi, Geraint Rees
The initial stages of neurodegeneration are commonly marked by normal levels of cognitive and motor performance despite the presence of structural brain pathology. Compensation is widely assumed to account for this preserved behaviour, but despite the apparent simplicity of such a concept, it has proven incredibly difficult to demonstrate such a phenomenon and distinguish it from disease-related pathology. Recently, we developed a model of compensation whereby brain activation, behaviour and pathology, components key to understanding compensation, have specific longitudinal trajectories over three phases of progression...
May 17, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787708/emerging-links-between-lipid-droplets-and-motor-neuron-diseases
#12
Giuseppa Pennetta, Michael A Welte
Lipid droplets (LDs) are ubiquitous fat storage organelles and play key roles in lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis; in addition, they contribute to protein storage, folding, and degradation. However, a role for LDs in the nervous system remains largely unexplored. We discuss evidence supporting an intimate functional connection between LDs and motor neuron disease (MND) pathophysiology, examining how LD functions in systemic energy homeostasis, in neuron-glia metabolic coupling, and in protein folding and clearance may affect or contribute to disease pathology...
May 21, 2018: Developmental Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787609/an-investigation-of-cerebral-oxygen-utilization-blood-flow-and-cognition-in-healthy-aging
#13
Sarah J Catchlove, Helen Macpherson, Matthew E Hughes, Yufen Chen, Todd B Parrish, Andrew Pipingas
BACKGROUND: Understanding how vascular and metabolic factors impact on cognitive function is essential to develop efficient therapies to prevent and treat cognitive losses in older age. Cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2), cerebral blood flow (CBF) and venous oxygenation (Yv) comprise key physiologic processes that maintain optimum functioning of neural activity. Changes to these parameters across the lifespan may precede neurodegeneration and contribute to age-related cognitive decline...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786666/dopamine-receptor-subtypes-differentially-regulate-autophagy
#14
Dongmei Wang, Xinmiao Ji, Juanjuan Liu, Zhiyuan Li, Xin Zhang
Some dopamine receptor subtypes were reported to participate in autophagy regulation, but their exact functions and mechanisms are still unclear. Here we found that dopamine receptors D2 and D3 (D2-like family) are positive regulators of autophagy, while dopamine receptors D1 and D5 (D1-like family) are negative regulators. Furthermore, dopamine and ammonia, the two reported endogenous ligands of dopamine receptors, both can induce dopamine receptor internalization and degradation. In addition, we found that AKT (protein kinase B)-mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) and AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) pathways are involved in DRD3 (dopamine receptor D3) regulated autophagy...
May 22, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786072/mptp-driven-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-microglia-plays-a-central-role-in-dopaminergic-neurodegeneration
#15
Eunju Lee, Inhwa Hwang, Sangjun Park, Sujeong Hong, Boreum Hwang, Yoeseph Cho, Junghyun Son, Je-Wook Yu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN) and the reduction of dopamine levels in the striatum. Although details of the molecular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal death in PD remain unclear, neuroinflammation is also considered a potent mediator in the pathogenesis and progression of PD. In the present study, we present evidences that microglial NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for dopaminergic neuronal loss and the subsequent motor deficits in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD...
May 21, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784248/conventional-and-advanced-mri-in-multiple-sclerosis
#16
REVIEW
C Louapre
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) plays a central role in the management of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). T2-weighted/FLAIR lesions have been included in the diagnostic criteria since 2001, and the importance of the technology has been expanded in each successive revision of the McDonald criteria. While the typical focal hyperintense lesions seen on T2 and FLAIR sequences in several areas of the central nervous system are key features for MS diagnosis, they can also be used to monitor disease activity, particularly in asymptomatic patients, and to evaluate therapeutic responses...
May 18, 2018: Revue Neurologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784049/identification-and-therapeutic-modulation-of-a-pro-inflammatory-subset-of-disease-associated-microglia-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Srikant Rangaraju, Eric B Dammer, Syed Ali Raza, Priyadharshini Rathakrishnan, Hailian Xiao, Tianwen Gao, Duc M Duong, Michael W Pennington, James J Lah, Nicholas T Seyfried, Allan I Levey
BACKGROUND: Disease-associated-microglia (DAM) represent transcriptionally-distinct and neurodegeneration-specific microglial profiles with unclear significance in Alzheimer's disease (AD). An understanding of heterogeneity within DAM and their key regulators may guide pre-clinical experimentation and drug discovery. METHODS: Weighted co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) was applied to existing microglial transcriptomic datasets from neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disease mouse models to identify modules of highly co-expressed genes...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782322/inhibition-of-histone-acetylation-by-anp32a-induces-memory-deficits
#18
Gao-Shang Chai, Qiong Feng, Rong-Hong Ma, Xiao-Hang Qian, Dan-Ju Luo, Zhi-Hao Wang, Yu Hu, Dong-Sheng Sun, Jun-Fei Zhang, Xiao Li, Xiao-Guang Li, Dan Ke, Jian-Zhi Wang, Xi-Fei Yang, Gong-Ping Liu
There is accumulating evidence that decreased histone acetylation is involved in normal aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, we found that ANP32A, a key component of INHAT (inhibitor of acetyltransferases) that suppresses histone acetylation, increased in aged and cognitively impaired C57 mice and expressing wild-type human full length tau (htau) transgenic mice. Downregulating ANP32A restored cognitive function and synaptic plasticity through upregulation of the expressions of synaptic-related proteins via increasing histone acetylation...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782314/a-retrospective-belgian-multi-center-mri-biomarker-study-in-alzheimer-s-disease-remember
#19
Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Annemie Ribbens, Christine Bastin, Florence Benoit, Bruno Bergmans, Jean-Christophe Bier, Roxanne Bladt, Lene Claes, Peter Paul De Deyn, Olivier Deryck, Bernard Hanseeuw, Adrian Ivanoiu, Jean-Claude Lemper, Eric Mormont, Gaëtane Picard, Eric Salmon, Kurt Segers, Anne Sieben, Dirk Smeets, Hanne Struyfs, Evert Thiery, Jos Tournoy, Eric Triau, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Jan Versijpt, Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition/processing techniques assess brain volumes to explore neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical utility of MSmetrix and investigated if automated MRI volumes could discriminate between groups covering the AD continuum and could be used as a predictor for clinical progression. METHODS: The Belgian Dementia Council initiated a retrospective, multi-center study and analyzed whole brain (WB), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cortical GM (CGM) volumes, and WM hyperintensities (WMH) using MSmetrix in the AD continuum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29780873/advances-in-alzheimer-s-imaging-are-changing-the-experience-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
REVIEW
Shana D Stites, Richard Milne, Jason Karlawish
Neuroimaging is advancing a new definition of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Using imaging biomarkers, clinicians may begin to diagnose the disease by identifying pathology and neurodegeneration in either cognitively impaired or unimpaired adults. This "biomarker-based" diagnosis may allow clinicians novel opportunities to use interventions that either delay the onset or slow the progression of cognitive decline, but it will also bring novel challenges. How will changing the definition of AD from a clinical to a biomarker construct change the experience of living with the disease? Knowledge of AD biomarker status can affect how individuals feel about themselves (internalized stigma) and how others judge them (public stigma)...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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