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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532681/resveratrol-protects-neuronal-like-cells-expressing-mutant-huntingtin-from-dopamine-toxicity-by-rescuing-atg4-mediated-autophagosome-formation
#1
Chiara Vidoni, Eleonora Secomandi, Andrea Castiglioni, Mariarosa A B Melone, Ciro Isidoro
Parkinsonian-like motor deficits in Huntington's Disease (HD) patients are associated with abnormal dopamine neurotransmission in the striatum. Dopamine metabolism leads to the formation of oxidized dopamine quinones that exacerbates mitochondrial dysfunction with production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that eventually lead to neuronal cell death. We have previously shown that dopamine-induced oxidative stress triggers apoptotic cell death in dopaminergic neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells hyper-expressing the mutant polyQ Huntingtin (polyQ-Htt) protein...
May 19, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531865/glutamine-antagonist-mediated-immune-suppression-decreases-pathology-but-delays-virus-clearance-in-mice-during-nonfatal-alphavirus-encephalomyelitis
#2
Victoria K Baxter, Rebecca Glowinski, Alicia M Braxton, Michelle C Potter, Barbara S Slusher, Diane E Griffin
Infection of weanling C57BL/6 mice with the TE strain of Sindbis virus (SINV) causes nonfatal encephalomyelitis associated with hippocampal-based memory impairment that is partially prevented by treatment with 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a glutamine antagonist (Potter et al., J Neurovirol 21:159, 2015). To determine the mechanism(s) of protection, lymph node and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from SINV-infected mice treated daily for 1 week with low (0.3mg/kg) or high (0.6mg/kg) dose DON were examined...
May 19, 2017: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530488/the-effect-of-angiojet-rheolytic-thrombectomy-in-the-endovascular-treatment-of-lower-extremity-deep-venous-thrombosis
#3
Mert Dumantepe, Ibrahim Uyar
Objective To evaluate the clinical safety and effectiveness of percutaneous rheolytic thrombectomy in patients with acute lower extremity deep venous thrombosis. Method Sixty-eight consecutive patients with acute massive lower extremity deep venous thrombosis were included in this retrospective study. A percutaneous rheolytic thrombectomy device (Angiojet ® Rheolytic thrombectomy catheter, Boston Scientific, Marlborough, MA, USA) was used in all patients in an angiography suite through ipsilateral popliteal vein access...
January 1, 2017: Phlebology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528869/pure-membranous-lupus-nephritis-description-of-a-cohort-of-150-patients-and-review-of-the-literature
#4
Lucía Silva-Fernández, Teresa Otón, Anca Askanase, Patricia Carreira, Francisco Javier López-Longo, Alejandro Olivé, Íñigo Rúa-Figueroa, Javier Narváez, Esther Ruiz-Lucea, Mariano Andrés, Enrique Calvo, Francisco Toyos, Juan José Alegre-Sancho, Eva Tomero, Carlos Montilla, Antonio Zea, Esther Uriarte, Jaime Calvo-Alén, Carlos Marras, Víctor M Martínez-Taboada, María Ángeles Belmonte-López, José Rosas, Enrique Raya, Gema Bonilla, Mercedes Freire, José María Pego-Reigosa, Isabel Millán, Adwoa Hughes-Morley
OBJECTIVES: The course and long-term outcome of pure membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) are little understood. The aims of this study are to evaluate the clinical features, course, outcome and prognostic indicators in pure MLN and to determine the impact of ethnicity and the type of health insurance on the course and prognosis of pure MLN. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of 150 patients with pure MLN from Spain and the USA. RESULTS: Mean age was 34...
May 18, 2017: Reumatología Clinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507057/benefit-of-ezetimibe-added-to-simvastatin-in-reduced-kidney-function
#5
John W Stanifer, David M Charytan, Jennifer White, Yuliya Lokhnygina, Christopher P Cannon, Matthew T Roe, Michael A Blazing
Efficacy of statin-based therapies in reducing cardiovascular mortality in individuals with CKD seems to diminish as eGFR declines. The strongest evidence supporting the cardiovascular benefit of statins in individuals with CKD was shown with ezetimibe plus simvastatin versus placebo. However, whether combination therapy or statin alone resulted in cardiovascular benefit is uncertain. Therefore, we estimated GFR in 18,015 individuals from the IMPROVE-IT (ezetimibe plus simvastatin versus simvastatin alone in individuals with cardiovascular disease and creatinine clearance >30 ml/min) and examined post hoc the relationship of eGFR with end points across treatment arms...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506744/hepatic-stellate-cells-as-key-target-in-liver-fibrosis
#6
Takaaki Higashi, Scott L Friedman, Yujin Hoshida
Progressive liver fibrosis, induced by chronic viral and metabolic disorders, leads to more than one million deaths annually via development of cirrhosis, although no antifibrotic therapy has been approved to date. Transdifferentiation (or "activation") of hepatic stellate cells is the major cellular source of matrix protein-secreting myofibroblasts, the major driver of liver fibrogenesis. Paracrine signals from injured epithelial cells, fibrotic tissue microenvironment, immune and systemic metabolic dysregulation, enteric dysbiosis, and hepatitis viral products can directly or indirectly induce stellate cell activation...
May 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495373/amyloid-beta-neurotoxicity-and-clearance-are-both-regulated-by-glial-group-ii-metabotropic-glutamate-receptors
#7
Daniela Durand, Lila Carniglia, Juan Turati, Delia Ramírez, Julieta Saba, Carla Caruso, Mercedes Lasaga
Astrocytes are now fully endorsed as key players in CNS functionality and plasticity. We recently showed that metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGlu3R) activation by LY379268 promotes non-amyloidogenic cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP) in cultured astrocytes, leading to increased release of neuroprotective sAPPα. Furthermore, mGlu3R expression is reduced in hippocampal astrocytes from PDAPP-J20 mice, suggesting a role for these receptors in Alzheimer's disease. The present study enquires into the role of astroglial-derived neurotrophins induced by mGlu3R activation in neurotoxicity triggered by amyloid β (Aβ)...
May 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494683/what-is-clearance-worth-patients-stated-risk-tolerance-for-psoriasis-treatments
#8
Angelyn O Fairchild, Shelby D Reed, F Reed Johnson, Greg Anglin, Anne M Wolka, Rebecca A Noel
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to provide quantitative evidence of patients' tolerance for therapeutic risks associated with psoriasis treatments that could offer psoriasis improvements beyond the PASI 75 benchmark. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used a discrete-choice experiment in which respondents chose between competing psoriasis treatments characterized by benefits (ie, reduced plaque severity, reduced plaque area), risks (ie, 10-year risk of tuberculosis, 10-year risk of death from infection), and treatment regimen...
May 12, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490436/longitudinal-associations-among-renal-urea-clearance-corrected-normalized-protein-catabolic-rate-serum-albumin-and-mortality-in-patients-on-hemodialysis
#9
Rieko Eriguchi, Yoshitsugu Obi, Elani Streja, Amanda R Tortorici, Connie M Rhee, Melissa Soohoo, Taehee Kim, Csaba P Kovesdy, Kamyar Kalantar-Zadeh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are inconsistent reports on the association of dietary protein intake with serum albumin and outcomes among patients on hemodialysis. Using a new normalized protein catabolic rate (nPCR) variable accounting for residual renal urea clearance, we hypothesized that higher baseline nPCR and rise in nPCR would be associated with higher serum albumin and better survival among incident hemodialysis patients. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: Among 36,757 incident hemodialysis patients in a large United States dialysis organization, we examined baseline and change in renal urea clearance-corrected nPCR as a protein intake surrogate and modeled their associations with serum albumin and mortality over 5 years (1/2007-12/2011)...
May 10, 2017: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485317/early-kinetics-of-procalcitonin-in-predicting-surgical-outcomes-in-type-a-aortic-dissection-patients
#10
Hua Liu, Zhe Luo, Lan Liu, Xiao-Mei Yang, Ya-Min Zhuang, Ying Zhang, Guo-Wei Tu, Guo-Guang Ma, Guang-Wei Hao, Jian-Feng Luo, Ji-Li Zheng, Chun-Sheng Wang
BACKGROUND: In cardiac surgery, elevation of procalcitonin (PCT) could be observed postoperatively in the absence of any evidence of infection and also seems to be a prognostic marker. PCT levels measured in patients undergoing Type A aortic dissection (TAAD) were used to determine prognostic values for complications and surgical outcomes. METHODS: Measurements of PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP), and leukocyte count were observed in TAAD surgery patients (n = 251; average age: 49...
May 20, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483530/lamp-2-mediates-oxidative-stress-dependent-cell-death-in-zn-2-treated-lung-epithelium-cells
#11
Xia Qin, Jun Zhang, Bin Wang, Ge Xu, Zhen Zou
Zinc is an essential element for the biological system. However, excessive exogenous Zn(2+) would disrupt cellular Zn(2+) homeostasis and cause toxicity. In particular, Zinc salts or ZnO nanoparticles exposure could induce respiratory injury. Although previous studies have indicated that organelle damage (including mitochondria or lysosomes) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production are involved in Zn(2+)-induced toxicity, the interplay between mitochondria/lysosomes damage and ROS production is obscure...
June 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474548/resolution-of-chest-x-ray-opacities-in-patients-with-ventilator-associated-pneumonia
#12
Shervin Shokouhi, Ilad Alavi Darazam, Raziyeh Niyati, Latif Gachkar, Reza Goharani, Shahram Kahkoue
BACKGROUND: Chest Radiograph accompanied by clinical and laboratory findings are required for diagnosis and follow-up of patients with suspected ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). However, there are no reliable data whether follow-up chest-X-ray (CXR) is needed or not, moreover, when the physicians request CXR and how many times CXR is required. We aimed to determine association of the clinical improvement with resolution of pulmonary infiltrates as well as time of resolution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients with a diagnosis of VAP based on Clinical Pulmonary Infection Score (CPIS) were enrolled in this study...
May 5, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471565/a-new-cutoff-for-abnormal-proteinuria-in-diabetes-mellitus-patients-relationship-to-albuminuria
#13
Orit Erman, Arie Erman, Alina Vodonos, Uzi Gafter, David J van Dijk
BACKGROUND: Proteinuria and albuminuria are markers of kidney injury and function, serving as a screening test as well as a means of assessing the degree of kidney injury and risk for cardiovascular disease and death in both the diabetic and the non-diabetic general population. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between proteinuria below 300 mg/24 hours and albuminuria, as well as a possible association with kidney function in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM)...
July 2016: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28468643/recombinant-salmonella-expressing-ssph2-esci-fusion-protein-limits-its-colonization-in-mice
#14
Maozhi Hu, Weixin Zhao, Wei Gao, Wenhua Li, Chuang Meng, Qiuxiang Yan, Yuyang Wang, Xiaohui Zhou, Shizhong Geng, Zhiming Pan, Guiyou Cui, Xinan Jiao
BACKGROUND: Activation of inflammasome contributes to the clearance of intracellular bacteria. C-terminus of E. coli EscI protein can activate NLRC4 (NLR family, CARD domain containing-4) inflammasome in macrophages. The purpose of this study was to determine if activation of NLRC4 inflammasome by EscI can reduce the colonization of Salmonella in mice. RESULTS: A recombinant S. typhimurium strain expressing fusion protein of the N-terminal SspH2 (a Salmonella type III secretion system 2 effector) and C-terminal EscI was constructed and designated as X4550(pYA3334-SspH2-EscI)...
May 3, 2017: BMC Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28462526/molecular-mechanisms-and-functions-of-pyroptosis-inflammatory-caspases-and-inflammasomes-in-infectious-diseases
#15
REVIEW
Si Ming Man, Rajendra Karki, Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
Cell death is a fundamental biological phenomenon that is essential for the survival and development of an organism. Emerging evidence also indicates that cell death contributes to immune defense against infectious diseases. Pyroptosis is a form of inflammatory programmed cell death pathway activated by human and mouse caspase-1, human caspase-4 and caspase-5, or mouse caspase-11. These inflammatory caspases are used by the host to control bacterial, viral, fungal, or protozoan pathogens. Pyroptosis requires cleavage and activation of the pore-forming effector protein gasdermin D by inflammatory caspases...
May 2017: Immunological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28461251/mitophagy-and-age-related-pathologies-development-of-new-therapeutics-by-targeting-mitochondrial-turnover
#16
REVIEW
Konstantinos Palikaras, Ioanna Daskalaki, Maria Markaki, Nektarios Tavernarakis
Mitochondria are highly dynamic and semi-autonomous organelles, essential for many fundamental cellular processes, including energy production, metabolite synthesis, ion homeostasis, lipid metabolism and initiation of apoptotic cell death. Proper mitochondrial physiology is a prerequisite for health and survival. Generation of new and removal of damaged or unwanted mitochondria are tightly controlled processes that need to be accurately coordinated for the maintenance of mitochondrial and cellular homeostasis...
April 28, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28456380/a-basic-apoe-based-peptide-mediator-to-deliver-proteins-across-the-blood-brain-barrier-long-term-efficacy-toxicity-and-mechanism
#17
Yu Meng, Jennifer A Wiseman, Yuliya Nemtsova, Dirk F Moore, Jenieve Guevarra, Kenneth Reuhl, William A Banks, Richard Daneman, David E Sleat, Peter Lobel
We have investigated delivery of protein therapeutics from the bloodstream into the brain using a mouse model of late-infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (LINCL), a lysosomal disease due to deficiencies in tripeptidyl peptidase 1 (TPP1). Supraphysiological levels of TPP1 are delivered to the mouse brain by acute intravenous injection when co-administered with K16ApoE, a peptide that in trans mediates passage across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Chronic treatment of LINCL mice with TPP1 and K16ApoE extended the lifespan from 126 to >294 days, diminished pathology, and slowed locomotor dysfunction...
April 26, 2017: Molecular Therapy: the Journal of the American Society of Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455584/phase-ii-study-of-s-1-plus-bevacizumab-combination-therapy-for-patients-previously-treated-for-non-squamous-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#18
Yu Nishijima-Futami, Seigo Minami, Shinji Futami, Taro Koba, Masayoshi Higashiguchi, Motohiro Tamiya, Hidekazu Suzuki, Tomonori Hirashima, Kiyoshi Komuta, Takashi Kijima
PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy and toxicity of S-1 and bevacizumab combination therapy for patients previously treated for advanced non-squamous non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: This was a prospective, multi-center, single-arm phase II study. Patients with non-squamous NSCLC who had experienced progression after cytotoxic chemotherapy were enrolled. Oral S-1 was administered on days 1-14 of a 21-day cycle, and bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) was given intravenously on day 1...
June 2017: Cancer Chemotherapy and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28453306/the-association-of-lung-clearance-index-with-copd-and-fev-1-reduction-in-men-born-in-1914
#19
Suneela Zaigham, Per Wollmer, Gunnar Engström
Lung Clearance Index (LCI) provides an overall measurement of ventilation inhomogeneity. This population-based study examines whether LCI predicts pulmonary obstruction and incidence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) events over a long-term follow-up. Multiple breath nitrogen washout and spirometry were performed in 674 men from the cohort "Men born in 1914" at age 55 years. Subjects were classified into quartiles (Q) of LCI and according to LCI above and below upper limit of normal (ULN). Incidence of COPD events (COPD hospitalisations or COPD-related deaths) were monitored over the remaining life span of the men, by linkage with national hospital registers...
April 28, 2017: COPD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450389/mertk-expressing-hepatic-macrophages-promote-the-resolution-of-inflammation-in-acute-liver-failure
#20
Evangelos Triantafyllou, Oltin T Pop, Lucia A Possamai, Annika Wilhelm, Evaggelia Liaskou, Arjuna Singanayagam, Christine Bernsmeier, Wafa Khamri, Gemma Petts, Rebecca Dargue, Scott P Davies, Joseph Tickle, Muhammed Yuksel, Vishal C Patel, Robin D Abeles, Zania Stamataki, Stuart M Curbishley, Yun Ma, Ian D Wilson, Muireann Coen, Kevin J Woollard, Alberto Quaglia, Julia Wendon, Mark R Thursz, David H Adams, Chris J Weston, Charalambos G Antoniades
OBJECTIVE: Acute liver failure (ALF) is characterised by overwhelming hepatocyte death and liver inflammation with massive infiltration of myeloid cells in necrotic areas. The mechanisms underlying resolution of acute hepatic inflammation are largely unknown. Here, we aimed to investigate the impact of Mer tyrosine kinase (MerTK) during ALF and also examine how the microenvironmental mediator, secretory leucocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), governs this response. DESIGN: Flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and gene expression analyses determined the phenotype, functional/transcriptomic profile and tissue topography of MerTK+ monocytes/macrophages in ALF, healthy and disease controls...
April 27, 2017: Gut
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