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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109025/immune-regulation-by-t-regulatory-cells-in-hbv-related-inflammation-and-cancer
#1
REVIEW
Nirupama Trehanpati, Ashish Kumar Vyas
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the leading cause of cancer death and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the commonest causes in Asians countries. India has the second largest pool after China for hepatitis B infected subjects. HBV clearance is T cell dependent and one of the reason for T cells hypo responsiveness is due to mass production of Tregs through activation of Notch signaling, which suppressCD4/CD8 T cells. Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are important to maintain cellular homeostasis; however during viral infection increase of Tregs is inversely proportional to HBV DNA titers...
January 21, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#2
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088914/diverse-functions-and-mechanisms-of-pericytes-in-ischemic-stroke
#3
Shuai Yang, Huijuan Jin, Yiyi Zhu, Yan Wan, Lingqiang Zhu, Bo Hu
Pericytes are mural cells embedded in the basement membrane of microvessels. Because of such a unique position in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU), they receive, orchestrate and process signals from their neighboring cells to generate diverse neurovascular functions, including regulation of capillary hemodynamics, BBB permeability, clearance of toxic metabolites, angiogenesis, neuroinflammation and stem cell activity. During the different stages of ischemic stroke, pericytes play different roles: 1) On the hyperacute phase of stroke, pericytes constriction and death may be a cause of the no-reflow phenomenon in brain capillaries; 2) During the acute phase, pericytes detach from microvessels and participate in inflammatory-immunological response, resulting in the BBB damage and brain edema...
January 12, 2017: Current Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088494/the-n-butyl-alcohol-extract-from-hibiscus-rosa-sinensis-l-flowers-enhances-healing-potential-on-rat-excisional-wounds
#4
Hui-Min Shen, Chun Chen, Ji-Yang Jiang, Yi-Lin Zheng, Wen-Feng Cai, Bin Wang, Zhen Ling, Liu Tang, Yuan-Hang Wang, Gang-Gang Shi
ETHNO-PHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. (HRS), a folk medicine named Zhujin in China, possess anti-tumor, antioxidant, antibacterial, low density lipoprotein oxidation prevention and macrophage death prevention effects. The leaves and red flowers of HRS have been traditionally used to treat with furuncle and ulceration. AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the efficacy and possible mechanism of the N-butyl alcohol extract of HRS (NHRS) red flowers in wound healing by analyzing the collagen fiber deposition, angiogenic activity and macrophages action of the NHRS...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077373/determination-of-renal-function-and-injury-using-near-infrared-fluorimetry-in-experimental-cardiorenal-syndrome
#5
Mizuko Ikeda, Rumie Wakasaki, Katie J Schenning, Thomas Swide, Jeong Heon Lee, M Bernie Miller, Hak Soo Choi, Sharon Anderson, Michael P Hutchens
Cardiorenal syndrome type 1 causes acute kidney injury but is poorly understood; animal models and diagnostic aids are lacking. Robust noninvasive measurements of glomerular filtration rate are required for injury models and clinical use. Several have been described but are untested in translational models and suffer from biologic interference. We developed a mouse model of cardiorenal syndrome and tested the novel near-infrared fluorophore, ZW800-1, to assess renal and cardiac function. We performed murine cardiac arrest and cardiopulmonary resuscitation followed by transthoracic echocardiography, 2- and 24h later...
January 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073178/polyclonal-and-monoclonal-antibodies-for-induction-therapy-in-kidney-transplant-recipients
#6
REVIEW
Penny Hill, Nicholas B Cross, A Nicholas R Barnett, Suetonia C Palmer, Angela C Webster
BACKGROUND: Prolonging kidney transplant survival is an important clinical priority. Induction immunosuppression with antibody therapy is recommended at transplantation and non-depleting interleukin-2 receptor monoclonal antibodies (IL2Ra) are considered first line. It is suggested that recipients at high risk of rejection should receive lymphocyte-depleting antibodies but the relative benefits and harms of the available agents are uncertain. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: evaluate the relative and absolute effects of different antibody preparations (except IL2Ra) when used as induction therapy in kidney transplant recipients; determine how the benefits and adverse events vary for each antibody preparation; determine how the benefits and harms vary for different formulations of antibody preparation; and determine whether the benefits and harms vary in specific subgroups of recipients (e...
January 11, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071722/spict-a-cyst-cell-specific-gene-regulates-starvation-induced-spermatogonial-cell-death-in-the-drosophila-testis
#7
Ason C-Y Chiang, Heiko Yang, Yukiko M Yamashita
Tissues are maintained in a homeostatic state by balancing the constant loss of old cells with the continued production of new cells. Tissue homeostasis can shift between high and low turnover states to cope with environmental changes such as nutrient availability. Recently, we discovered that the elimination of transit-amplifying cells plays a critical role in maintaining the stem cell population during protein starvation in the Drosophila testis. Here, we identify spict, a gene expressed specifically in differentiating cyst cells, as a regulator of spermatogonial death...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059524/antileishmanial-activity-of-pyrazolopyridine-derivatives-and-their-potential-as-adjunct-therapy-with-miltefosine
#8
Devireddy Anand, Pawan Kumar Yadav, Om P S Patel, Naveen Parmar, Rahul K Maurya, Preeti Vishwakarma, Kanumuri S R Raju, Isha Taneja, Muhammad Wahajuddin, Susanta Kar, Prem P Yadav
A series of pyrazolo(dihydro)pyridines were synthesized and evaluated for antileishmanial efficacy against experimental visceral leishmaniasis. Among all, compounds 6d and 6j exhibited better activity than miltefosine against the intracellular amastigotes. Compound 6j (50 mg/kg/day) was further studied against Leishmania donovani/BALB/c mice via the intraperitoneal route for 5 days and displayed >91 and >93% clearances in splenic and liver parasitic burden, respectively. Combination treatment of 6j with the sub-curative dose of miltefosine (5 mg/kg) in BALB/c mice almost completely ameliorated the disease (>97% inhibition) by augmenting nitric oxide generation and shifting the immune response towards Th1 mode...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056752/inhibiting-the-secretion-of-hepatitis-b-surface-antigen-hbsag-to-treat-hepatitis-b-infection-a-review
#9
Simon D Baugh
Chronic Hepatitis B is a major global health issue, and has no known cure. Currently there are over 240 million people infected with the disease, and it leads to the death of over 686,000 people each year. A total of seven treatments which help to control the disease are currently available: interferon-based treatments (pegasys, and interferon alpha), and nucleoside and nucleotide analogs (Viread, Baraclude, Tyzeka, Hepsera, Epivir-HBV), but all require continuing treatment to maintain control of the disease...
January 4, 2017: Infectious Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052373/best-time-window-for-the-use-of-calcium-modulating-agents-to-improve-functional-recovery-in-injured-peripheral-nerves-an-experiment-in-rats
#10
Yuhui Yan, Feng-Yi Shen, Michael Agresti, Lin-Ling Zhang, Hani S Matloub, John A LoGiudice, Robert Havlik, Jifeng Li, Yu-Dong Gu, Ji-Geng Yan
Peripheral nerve injury can have a devastating effect on daily life. Calcium concentrations in nerve fibers drastically increase after nerve injury, and this activates downstream processes leading to neuron death. Our previous studies showed that calcium-modulating agents decrease calcium accumulation, which aids in regeneration of injured peripheral nerves; however, the optimal therapeutic window for this application has not yet been identified. In this study, we show that calcium clearance after nerve injury is positively correlated with functional recovery in rats suffering from a crushed sciatic nerve injury...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050863/incremental-prognostic-value-of-spect-mpi-in-chronic-kidney-disease-a-reclassification-analysis
#11
Amjad M Ahmed, Waqas T Qureshi, Wesley T O'Neal, Fatima Khalid, Mouaz H Al-Mallah
BACKGROUND: Traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors have limited predictive value of CV mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD, creatinine clearance less than 60 mL/minute per 1.73 m(2)). The aim of this study was to evaluate incremental and independent prognostic value of single-photon emission computerized tomography-myocardial perfusion imaging (SPECT-MPI) across continuum of renal function. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 11,518 (mean age, 65 ± 12 years; 52% were men) patients referred for a clinical indication of SPECT-MPI between April 2004 and May 2009...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043617/bedaquiline-in-the-multidrug-resistant-tuberculosis-treatment-belarus-experience
#12
Alena Skrahina, Hennadz Hurevich, Dennis Falzon, Liudmila Zhilevich, Valiantsin Rusovich, Masoud Dara, Svetlana Setkina
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Outcomes of treatment for multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) remain poor worldwide. Among patients with MDR-TB in Belarus who started treatment in 2012, only 54% completed it successfully, with treatment failure reported in 22% of the patients; additionally, 11% died and 13% were lost to follow-up or remained unevaluated. In Belarus, to improve outcomes, bedaquiline was introduced in MDR-TB treatment in June 2015. The national TB program developed measures to monitor safety and effectiveness of bedaquiline-containing regimens in line with the World Health Organization recommendations...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036372/collapse-of-cytolytic-potential-in-siv-specific-cd8-t-cells-following-acute-siv-infection-in-rhesus-macaques
#13
Emily R Roberts, Diane G Carnathan, Hui Li, George M Shaw, Guido Silvestri, Michael R Betts
Poor maintenance of cytotoxic factor expression among HIV-specific CD8+ T cells, in part caused by dysregulated expression of the transcription factor T-bet, is associated with HIV disease progression. However, the precise evolution and context in which CD8+ T cell cytotoxic functions become dysregulated in HIV infection remain unclear. Using the rhesus macaque (RM) SIV infection model, we evaluated the kinetics of SIV-specific CD8+ T cell cytolytic factor expression in peripheral blood, lymph node, spleen, and gut mucosa from early acute infection through chronic infection...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035990/dysregulation-of-cell-death-and-its-epigenetic-mechanisms-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#14
REVIEW
Haijing Wu, Siqi Fu, Ming Zhao, Liwei Lu, Qianjin Lu
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a systemic autoimmune disease involving multiple organs and tissues, which is characterized by the presence of excessive anti-nuclear autoantibodies. The pathogenesis of SLE has been intensively studied but remains far from clear. Increasing evidence has shown that the genetic susceptibilities and environmental factors-induced abnormalities in immune cells, dysregulation of apoptosis, and defects in the clearance of apoptotic materials contribute to the development of SLE...
December 27, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031338/deletion-of-nlrp3-augments-survival-during-polymicrobial-sepsis-by-decreasing-autophagy-and-enhancing-phagocytosis
#15
Liliang Jin, Sanjay Batra, Samithamby Jeyaseelan
NLRP3 inflammasome is a critical player in innate immunity. Neutrophil recruitment to tissues and effective neutrophil function are critical innate immune mechanisms for bacterial clearance. However, the role of NLRP3 in neutrophil-dependent bacterial clearance in polymicrobial sepsis is unclear. In this study, we evaluated the role of NLRP3 in polymicrobial sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Our results showed protection from death in NLRP3-deficient (Nlrp3(-/-)) and NLRP3 inhibitor-treated wild-type (C57BL/6) mice...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029256/conjugation-to-10-kda-linear-peg-extends-serum-half-life-and-preserves-the-receptor-binding-ability-of-mmtrail-with-minimal-stimulation-of-peg-specific-antibodies
#16
Qianxue Nie, Dianlong Jia, Hao Yang, Yanru Feng, Qing Fan, Qiuxiao Shi, Lin Wan, Xiaofeng Lu
The poor in vivo potencies of most therapeutic proteins might be attributed to their short serum half-lives. PEGylation is a well-established method and has been clinically proven to improve pharmacokinetics. mmTRAIL exhibited super-cytotoxicity in a variety of tumor cells, but its serum half-life was less than 10 min in mice. Here, mmTRAIL-5K, mmTRAIL-10K, and mmTRAIL-20K were produced by N-terminus-specific PEGylation of mmTRAIL with 5, 10, or 20 kDa mPEG, respectively. The particle sizes of mmTRAIL-5K, mmTRAIL-10K, and mmTRAIL-20K were 9...
December 28, 2016: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028189/implementation-of-a-%C3%AE-agonist-airway-clearance-protocol-in-a-pediatric-icu
#17
Gary R Lowe, J Randy Willis, Shasha Bai, Mark J Heulitt
BACKGROUND: Respiratory therapist (RT)-driven protocols have been in use for over 30 years. Protocols have been reported to decrease unnecessary or harmful therapy, health-care costs, and hospital stay. This study represents the evaluation of an original respiratory care protocol in the pediatric ICU at Arkansas Children's Hospital for β-agonist and airway clearance interventions where one did not exist. METHODS: This project was composed of 2 parts: a survey administered to RTs and licensed independent practitioners and a retrospective review of outcome data comparing a therapist-driven β-agonist/airway clearance protocol with physician-directed respiratory care ordering in a patient population admitted for acute respiratory failure...
December 27, 2016: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28019091/model-based-population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-nivolumab-in-patients-with-solid-tumors
#18
G Bajaj, X Wang, S Agrawal, M Gupta, A Roy, Y Feng
Nivolumab is a fully human monoclonal antibody that inhibits programmed death-1 activation. The clinical pharmacology profile of nivolumab was analyzed by a population pharmacokinetics model that assessed covariate effects on nivolumab concentrations in 1,895 patients who received 0.3-10.0 mg/kg nivolumab in 11 clinical trials. Nivolumab pharmacokinetics is linear with a time-varying clearance. A full covariate model was developed to assess covariate effects on pharmacokinetic parameters. Nivolumab clearance and volume of distribution increase with body weight...
December 26, 2016: CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018860/evidencing-the-role-of-erythrocytic-apoptosis-in-malarial-anemia
#19
REVIEW
Paulo R R Totino, Cláudio T Daniel-Ribeiro, Maria de Fátima Ferreira-da-Cruz
In the last decade it has become clear that, similarly to nucleated cells, enucleated red blood cells (RBCs) are susceptible to programmed apoptotic cell death. Erythrocytic apoptosis seems to play a role in physiological clearance of aged RBCs, but it may also be implicated in anemia of different etiological sources including drug therapy and infectious diseases. In malaria, severe anemia is a common complication leading to death of children and pregnant women living in malaria-endemic regions of Africa. The pathogenesis of malarial anemia is multifactorial and involves both ineffective production of RBCs by the bone marrow and premature elimination of non-parasitized RBCs, phenomena potentially associated with apoptosis...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009648/platelet-aggregation-and-the-risk-of-stent-thrombosis-or-bleeding-in-elective-percutaneous-coronary-intervention-patients
#20
Krzysztof Kukula, Mariusz Klopotowski, Pawel Kunicki, Jacek Jamiolkowski, Artur Debski, Pawel Bekta, Zbigniew Chmielak, Adam Witkowski
Platelet aggregation monitoring in patients after stent implantation is a promising way of preventing stent thrombosis and bleeding. The aim of the study was to verify whether clopidogrel (ADPtest) and aspirin (ASPItest) response measured by Multiplate (Dynabyte, Munich, Germany) analyzer in elective percutaneous coronary implantation patients predict the risk of stent thrombosis or other ischemic adverse events and bleeding. In this prospective, observational study 697 elective percutaneous coronary implantation patients were analyzed...
December 22, 2016: Blood Coagulation & Fibrinolysis: An International Journal in Haemostasis and Thrombosis
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