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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348094/in-vitro-salmonella-typhi-biofilm-formation-on-gallstones-and-its-disruption-by-manuka-honey
#1
Abdul Hannan, Asma Ejaz Bajwa, Saira Riaz, Usman Arshad, Sidrah Saleem, Usama Ijaz Bajwa
Biofilm is a complex community of single or different types of microorganisms (bacteria, viruses, fungi, protozoa) attached to a surface and stick to each other through production of extracellular matrix. Salmonella typhi forms biofilm on cholesterol gallstones resulting in carrier state. Once formed, biofilm is difficult to treat. To date cholecystectomy is the only cure for this condition. Manuka honey is known to have tremendous antibiofilm activity against various organisms. S. typhi biofilm was grown in vitro on clinical samples of human cholesterol gallstones by Gallstone tube assay method for 12 days...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344632/factors-associated-with-outcomes-and-costs-after-pediatric-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy
#2
Gileh-Gol Akhtar-Danesh, Aristithes G Doumouras, Cecily Bos, Helene Flageole, Dennis Hong
Importance: The prevalence of pediatric cholelithiasis is increasing with the epidemic of childhood obesity. With this rise, the outcomes and costs of pediatric laparoscopic cholecystectomy become an important public health and economic concern. Objective: To assess patient and health system factors associated with the outcomes and costs after laparoscopic cholecystectomy among Canadian children. Design, Setting, and Participants: This was a retrospective, population-based study of children 17 years and younger undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy from April 1, 2008, until March 31, 2015...
January 17, 2018: JAMA Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340918/validation-of-aast-egs-grade-for-acute-pancreatitis
#3
Moustafa Younis, Matthew Hernandez, Mohamed Ray-Zack, Nadeem N Haddad, Asad Choudhry, Pooja Reddy, Martin D Zielinski
BACKGROUND: The AAST recently developed an emergency general surgery (EGS) disease grading system to measure anatomic severity. We aimed to validate this grading system for acute pancreatitis and compare cross sectional imaging-based AAST EGS grade and compare with several clinical prediction models. We hypothesize that increased AAST EGS grade would be associated with important physiological and clinical outcomes and is comparable to other severity grading methods. METHODS: Single institution retrospective review of adult patients admitted with acute pancreatitis during 10/2014-1/2016 was performed...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340294/a-comparison-of-endoscopic-and-non-endoscopic-biliary-intervention-outcomes-in-patients-with-prior-bariatric-surgery
#4
Amrit K Kamboj, Victorio Pidlaoan, Mohammad H Shakhatreh, Alice Hinton, Darwin L Conwell, Somashekar G Krishna
Background and study aims : Endoscopic biliary intervention (BI) is often difficult to perform in patients with prior bariatric surgery (BRS). We sought to analyze outcomes of patients with prior BRS undergoing endoscopic and non-endoscopic BI. Patients and methods:  The Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2007 - 2011) was reviewed to identify all adult inpatients (≥ 18 years) with a history of BRS undergoing BI. The clinical outcomes of interest were in-patient mortality, length of stay (LOS), and total hospital charges...
January 2018: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336742/small-bowel-obstruction-from-a-3-cm-gallstone-in-the-setting-of-child-pugh-c-liver-cirrhosis
#5
Charles K Grigsby, Kristina L Falkenstrom, Todd D Merchen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 1, 2017: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321478/reprogramming-of-pro-inflammatory-human-macrophages-to-an-anti-inflammatory-phenotype-by-bile-acids
#6
Marianne Wammers, Anna-Kathrin Schupp, Johannes G Bode, Christian Ehlting, Stephanie Wolf, René Deenen, Karl Köhrer, Dieter Häussinger, Dirk Graf
Cholestasis is caused by autoimmune reactions, drug-induced hepatotoxicity, viral infections of the liver and the obstruction of bile ducts by tumours or gallstones. Cholestatic conditions are associated with impaired innate and adaptive immunity, including alterations of the cellular functions of monocytes, macrophages, NK cells and T-cells. Bile acids act as signalling molecules, affecting lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine expression in primary human macrophages. The present manuscript investigates the impact of bile acids, such as taurolithocholic acid (TLC), on the transcriptome of human macrophages in the presence or absence of LPS...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320323/multimodality-imaging-including-dual-energy-ct-in-the-evaluation-of-gallbladder-disease
#7
Lisa Ratanaprasatporn, Jennifer W Uyeda, Jeremy R Wortman, Ian Richardson, Aaron D Sodickson
Imaging of the gallbladder has a key role in the examination of patients with abdominal pain-especially pain localized to the right upper quadrant. Pathologic conditions that affect the gallbladder include cholelithiasis and associated complications such as acute and chronic cholecystitis, choledocholithiasis, gallstone pancreatitis, and cancer. Modalities used to image the gallbladder include ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance (MR) imaging, and nuclear scintigraphy. US is the primary imaging modality used to evaluate entities suspected of being gallbladder disease, as it is both sensitive and specific for demonstrating gallstones, biliary duct dilatation, and inflammatory features...
January 2018: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317704/biofilm-formation-protects-salmonella-from-the-antibiotic-ciprofloxacin-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-in-the-mouse-model-of-chronic-carriage
#8
Juan F González, Halley Alberts, Joel Lee, Lauren Doolittle, John S Gunn
Typhoid fever is caused by the human-restricted pathogen Salmonella enterica sv. Typhi. Approximately 5% of people that resolve the disease become chronic carriers, with the gallbladder as the main reservoir of the bacteria. Of these, about 90% present with gallstones, on which Salmonella form biofilms. Because S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen, these carriers are the main source of dissemination of the disease; unfortunately, antibiotic treatment has shown to be an ineffective therapy. This is believed to be caused by the inherent antibiotic resistance conferred by Salmonella biofilms growing on gallstones...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311470/associations-between-lifestyle-related-diseases-and-transporters-involved-in-intestinal-absorption-and-biliary-excretion-of-cholesterol
#9
Yoshihide Yamanashi, Tappei Takada, Hiroshi Suzuki
Westernization of dietary habits leads to an increase in lipid intake and is thought to be responsible for an increase in patients with dyslipidemia. It is a well-known fact that the impaired cholesterol homeostasis is closely related to the development of various lifestyle-related diseases such as fatty liver, diabetes, and gallstone as well as dyslipidemia leading to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and stroke. Therefore, appropriate management of cholesterol levels in the body is considered important in prevention and treatments of these lifestyle-related diseases and in addition, molecular mechanisms controlling plasma (and/or hepatic) cholesterol levels have been intensively studied...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306087/a-model-of-gallbladder-motility
#10
M Żulpo, J Balbus, P Kuropka, K Kubica
Impaired gallbladder motility leads to some clinical manifestations associated with its muscle contraction and/or the rate of filling with bile. To gain a better understanding of the possible reasons for different filling/emptying patterns we developed a mathematical model of the gallbladder that takes into account the kinetics of its filling and emptying and changes in the concentration of the accumulated bile. The model is based on four parameters responsible for the maximum speed of bile evacuation (Mg), pulsation of contractions (ω), the kinetic filling rate (kg) and the maximum bile mass accumulated in the gallbladder (mtotal)...
December 26, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305390/blind-alleys-and-dead-ends-researching-innovation-in-late-20th-century-surgery
#11
Harriet Palfreyman, Roger L Kneebone
This article examines the fortunes of one particular surgical innovation in the treatment of gallstones in the late 20th century; the percutaneous cholecystolithotomy (PCCL). This was an experimental procedure which was trialled and developed in the early days of minimally invasive surgery and one which fairly rapidly fell out of favour. Using diverse research methods from textual analysis to oral history to re-enactment, the authors explore the rise and fall of the PCCL demonstrating that such apparent failures are as crucial a part of innovation histories as the triumphs and have much light to shed on the development of surgery more generally...
January 5, 2018: Medical Humanities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301452/ultrasound-characteristics-and-outcome-of-prenatally-diagnosed-fetal-cholelithiasis
#12
Assaad Kesrouani, Nadine Nassif, Bernard Nasr, Elie Choueiry, M D Gihad Chalouhi
We report a small case series of prenatally diagnosed fetal cholelithiasis. After a review of the literature, we discuss ultrasound features, workup and prognosis of prenatally diagnosed fetal gallstones.
January 4, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301445/gallstones-were-associated-with-the-gastrointestinal-adverse-events-of-cinacalcet-in-hemodialysis-patients-with-secondary-hyperparathyroidism
#13
Keiichi Otsuka, Yoichi Ohno, Joji Oshima
This study aimed to investigate the association of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events of cinacalcet with gallstones in the hemodialysis (HD) patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT). A total of 23 HD patients under the treatment with cinacalcet and 101 control patients were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. We investigated the prevalence of gallstones and the association of GI adverse events of cinacalcet with gallstones. The prevalence of gallstones was significantly higher in the HD patients with cinacalcet compared with the controls (47...
November 2018: Renal Failure
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29299374/probable-paclitaxel-induced-pancreatitis-uncommon-case-report-and-literature-review
#14
Hanan Raiss, Lamiae El Amarti, Jean Dominique Tigaud, Mohamed Layachi, Amandine Bruyas, Saber Boutayeb, Hassan Errihani
Acute pancreatitis is an inflammatory disorder of the pancreas characterized by upper abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting, with elevated serum amylase or lipase. Gallstones and alcohol are the two main etiologies; drug-induced pancreatitis is uncommon. Paclitaxel associated with pancreatitis is very rare and since that time, only seven case reports have been published. We report a case of a 54-year-old female who developed an acute pancreatitis after administration of the first cycle of neoadjuvant chemotherapy with paclitaxel (175 mg/m2 over 3 h) and carboplatin (AUC 6) for ovarian adenocarcinoma...
December 2017: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297503/cholecystectomy-a-way-forward-and-back-to-metabolic-syndrome
#15
EDITORIAL
Gabriella Garruti, David Q-H Wang, Agostino Di Ciaula, Piero Portincasa
The gallbladder provides rhythmic secretion of concentrated bile acids (BAs) during fasting and postprandially contributes to digestion of dietary lipids. In addition, BAs activate metabolic pathways governing gluco-lipid homeostasis and energy expenditure via the farnesoid X nuclear receptor (FXR), G protein-coupled BA receptor 1 (GPBAR-1), and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) in the liver, intestine, brown fat, and muscle. Cholecystectomy is standard treatment worldwide for symptomatic gallstone patients...
January 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286073/proteasome-inhibition-protects-against-diet-induced-gallstone-formation-through-modulation-of-cholesterol-and-bile-acid-homeostasis
#16
Eun-Ji Lee, Min Hee Kim, Ye-Ryung Kim, Joo-Won Park, Woo-Jae Park
Gallstone disease is one of the most prevalent and costly gastrointestinal disorders worldwide. Gallstones are formed in the biliary system by cholesterol secretions in bile, which result from excess cholesterol, a deficiency in bile salts or a combination of the two. The present study examined the effects of proteasome inhibition on gallstone formation using the proteasome inhibitors bortezomib (BT) and carfilzomib (CF). C57BL/6J mice were fed a lithogenic diet to generate gallstones and injected with BT or CF for 12 weeks...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283909/an-update-on-the-pathogenesis-of-cholesterol-gallstone-disease
#17
Agostino Di Ciaula, David Q-H Wang, Piero Portincasa
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Gallstone disease is a major epidemiologic and economic burden worldwide, and the most frequent form is cholesterol gallstone disease. RECENT FINDINGS: Major pathogenetic factors for cholesterol gallstones include a genetic background, hepatic hypersecretion of cholesterol, and supersaturated bile which give life to precipitating cholesterol crystals that accumulate and grow in a sluggish gallbladder. Additional factors include mucin and inflammatory changes in the gallbladder, slow intestinal motility, increased intestinal absorption of cholesterol, and altered gut microbiota...
December 27, 2017: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280919/presence-extent-and-location-of-pancreatic-necrosis-are-independent-of-aetiology-in-acute-pancreatitis
#18
Robert C Verdonk, Hanna Sternby, Alexandra Dimova, Povilas Ignatavicius, Peter Koiva, Anne K Penttila, Lucas Ilzarbe, Sara Regner, Jonas Rosendahl, Thomas L Bollen
OBJECTIVE: The most common aetiologies of acute pancreatitis (AP) are gallstones, alcohol and idiopathic. The impact of the aetiology of AP on the extent and morphology of pancreatic and extrapancreatic necrosis (EXPN) has not been clearly established. The aim of the present study was to assess the influence of aetiology on the presence and location of pancreatic necrosis in patients with AP. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a post-hoc analysis of a previously established multicentre cohort of patients with AP in whom a computed tomography was available for review...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248236/bipolar-androgen-therapy-in-men-with-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-after-progression-on-enzalutamide-an-open-label-phase-2-multicohort-study
#19
Benjamin A Teply, Hao Wang, Brandon Luber, Rana Sullivan, Irina Rifkind, Ashley Bruns, Avery Spitz, Morgan DeCarli, Victoria Sinibaldi, Caroline F Pratz, Changxue Lu, John L Silberstein, Jun Luo, Michael T Schweizer, Charles G Drake, Michael A Carducci, Channing J Paller, Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Mario A Eisenberger, Samuel R Denmeade
BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer that progresses after enzalutamide treatment is poorly responsive to further antiandrogen therapy, and paradoxically, rapid cycling between high and low serum testosterone concentrations (bipolar androgen therapy [BAT]) in this setting might induce tumour responses. We aimed to evaluate BAT in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer that progressed after enzalutamide. METHODS: We did this single-centre, open-label, phase 2, multicohort study in the USA...
December 13, 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242416/etiology-and-outcome-of-cholelithiasis-in-turkish-children
#20
Maşallah Baran, Yeliz Çağan Appak, Gökhan Tümgör, Miray Karakoyun, Tunç Özdemir, Gökhan Köylüoğlu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the etiology of gallstones in children and responses to ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) treatment. METHODS: 74 children with cholelithiasis were recruited, and underwent ultrasonography to detect gallstones. All relevant clinical information was recorded in a structured proforma. RESULTS: The commonest risk factor was a family history of gallstones. Most children responded to UDCA treatment in the first six months; children with hemolytic diseases showed no response to UDCA...
December 14, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
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