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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913427/formononetin-inhibits-neuroinflammation-and-increases-estrogen-receptor-beta-er%C3%AE-protein-expression-in-bv2-microglia
#1
Abdelmeniem El-Bakoush, Olumayokun A Olajide
Formononetin is a bioactive non-steroidal polyphenol found in a variety of plants. In this study we evaluated the effects of formononetin on neuroinflammation in LPS-stimulated BV2 microglia. Results showed that formononetin significantly reduced the production of TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β, nitrite and PGE2 , as well as protein levels of iNOS and COX-2. Reporter gene assays showed that formononetin produced inhibition of NF-κB luciferase activity in HEK293 cells stimulated with TNF-α. Immunoblotting experiments revealed an inhibition of IKKα phosphorylation, with the resultant attenuation of phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα following LPS stimulation...
June 15, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913243/spinal-inhibition-of-p2xr-or-p38-signaling-disrupts-hyperalgesic-priming-in-male-but-not-female-mice
#2
Candler Paige, Gayathri Batchalli Maruthy, Galo Mejia, Gregory Dussor, Theodore Price
Recent studies have demonstrated sexual dimorphisms in the mechanisms contributing to the development of chronic pain. Here we tested the hypothesis that microglia might preferentially regulate hyperalgesic priming in male mice. We based this hypothesis on evidence that microglia preferentially contribute to neuropathic pain in male mice via ionotropic purinergic receptor (P2XR) or p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) signaling. Mice given a single priming injection of the soluble human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6r) and then a second injection of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ), which unmasks hyperalgesic priming, show a significant increase in levels of activated microglia at 3h following the PGE2 injection in both male and female mice...
June 15, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913164/structural-and-visual-functional-deficits-in-a-rat-model-of-neuromyelitis-optica-spectrum-disorders-related-optic-neuritis
#3
Yuxin Zhang, Yiqin Bao, Wei Qiu, Lisheng Peng, Ling Fang, Ying Xu, Hui Yang
Neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) are a group of autoimmune astrocytopathies in the central nervous system, which are mainly caused by immunoglobulin G (IgG) against astrocyte water channel aquaporin-4 (AQP4). In this study, we aimed to establish a model of NMOSD-related optic neuritis (NMOSD-ON) and to evaluate the progressive changes of the optic nerve and visual function. AQP4 IgG-positive serum from NMOSD patients was injected into the subarachnoid space of the rat optic nerve to induce the NMOSD-ON model (AQP4 + group), and healthy serum was injected as the control...
June 15, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911589/perspectives-in-pain-research-2014-neuroinflammation-and-glial-cell-activation-the-cause-of-transition-from-acute-to-chronic-pain
#4
Brian E Cairns, Lars Arendt-Nielsen, Paola Sacerdote
Background It is unknown why an acute pain condition under various circumstances can transition into a chronic pain condition. There has been a shift towards neuroinflammation and hence glial cell activations specifically in the dorsal root ganglion and spinal cord as a mechanism possibly driving the transition to chronic pain. This has led to a focus on non-neuronal cells in the peripheral and central nervous system. Besides infiltrating macrophages, Schwann cells and satellite glial cells release cytokines and therefore important mechanisms in the maintenance of pain...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909984/a-milieu-molecule-for-tgf-%C3%AE-required-for-microglia-function-in-the-nervous-system
#5
Yan Qin, Brian S Garrison, Wenjiang Ma, Rui Wang, Aiping Jiang, Jing Li, Meeta Mistry, Roderick T Bronson, Daria Santoro, Charlotte Franco, Daisy A Robinton, Beth Stevens, Derrick J Rossi, Chafen Lu, Timothy A Springer
Extracellular proTGF-β is covalently linked to "milieu" molecules in the matrix or on cell surfaces and is latent until TGF-β is released by integrins. Here, we show that LRRC33 on the surface of microglia functions as a milieu molecule and enables highly localized, integrin-αVβ8-dependent TGF-β activation. Lrrc33-/- mice lack CNS vascular abnormalities associated with deficiency in TGF-β-activating integrins but have microglia with a reactive phenotype and after 2 months develop ascending paraparesis with loss of myelinated axons and death by 5 months...
June 12, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909495/the-neuro-immune-regulators-niregs-promote-tissue-resilience-a-vital-component-of-the-host-s-defense-strategy-against-neuroinflammation
#6
REVIEW
Yosra Bedoui, Jim W Neal, Philippe Gasque
An effective protective inflammatory response in the brain is crucial for the clearance of pathogens (e.g. microbes, amyloid fibrils, prionSC ) and should be closely regulated. However, the CNS seems to have limited tissue resilience to withstand the detrimental effects of uncontrolled inflammation compromising functional recovery and tissue repair. Newly described neuro-immune-regulators (NIREGs) are functionally related proteins regulating the severity and duration of the host inflammatory response. NIREGs such as CD200, CD47 and CX3CL1 are vital for increasing tissue resilience and are constitutively expressed by neurons...
June 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909450/zebrin-ii-is-ectopically-expressed-in-microglia-in-the-cerebellum-of-neurogenin-2-null-mice
#7
Maryam Rahimi-Balaei, Xiaodan Jiao, Shahin Shabanipour, Rajiv Dixit, Carol Schuurmans, Hassan Marzban
Zebrin II/aldolase C expression in the normal cerebellum is restricted to a Purkinje cell subset and is the canonical marker for stripes and zones. This spatial restriction has been confirmed in over 30 species of mammals, birds, fish, etc. In a transgenic mouse model in which the Neurogenin 2 gene has been disrupted (Neurog2 -/- ), the cerebellum is smaller than normal and Purkinje cell dendrites are disordered, but the basic zone and stripe architecture is preserved. Here, we show that in the Neurog2 -/- mouse, in addition to the normal Purkinje cell expression, zebrin II is also expressed in a population of cells with a morphology characteristic of microglia...
May 16, 2018: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909203/neuronal-complement-cascade-drives-bone-cancer-pain-via-c3r-mediated-microglial-activation
#8
Xiaoxia Huang, Jinyuan Li, Jin Xie, Yang Li, Yan Gao, Xiaohui Li, Xueqin Xu, Ruoshi Shi, Wanjun Yao, Changbin Ke
Activation of spinal cord microglia is crucial for the development of bone cancer pain (BCP). The essential signal between neuronal excitability and microglial activation is not fully understood. In the present study, carcinoma implantation into tibia was used to induce BCP and RNAi-lentivirus was injected into spinal cord to knock down C1, C2 or C3 of complement cascade. We showed that C1, C2 and C3 co-localized in the same neurons and increased in cancer-bearing rats along with microglial activation. Knocked down of C1, C2 or C3 inhibited microglial activation and prevented the development of cancer-induced bone pain...
June 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908963/nonfunctional-mutant-wrn-protein-leads-to-neurological-deficits-neuronal-stress-microglial-alteration-and-immune-imbalance-in-a-mouse-model-of-werner-syndrome
#9
Chin Wai Hui, Marie-Kim St-Pierre, Jérôme Detuncq, Lucie Aumailley, Marie-Julie Dubois, Vanessa Couture, Daniel Skuk, André Marette, Jacques P Tremblay, Michel Lebel, Marie-Ève Tremblay
Werner syndrome (WS) is a premature aging disorder caused by mutations in a RecQ-family DNA helicase, WRN. Mice lacking part of the helicase domain of the WRN orthologue exhibit many phenotypic features of WS, including metabolic abnormalities and a shorter lifespan. Yet, little is known about the impact of WRN mutations on the central nervous system in both humans and mouse models of WS. In the current study, we have performed a longitudinal behavioral assessment on mice bearing a Wrn helicase deletion. Behavioral tests demonstrated a loss of motor activity and coordination, reduction in perception, increase in repetitive behavior, and deficits in both spatial and social novelty memories in Wrn mutant mice compared to age-matched wild type mice...
June 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29907159/jnk-mediated-microglial-dicer-degradation-potentiates-inflammatory-responses-to-induce-dopaminergic-neuron-loss
#10
Qing Wang, Qian He, Yifei Chen, Wei Shao, Chao Yuan, Yizheng Wang
BACKGROUND: Amplified inflammation is important for the progression of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, how this enhanced inflammation is regulated remains largely unknown. Deletion of DICER leads to progressive dopamine neuronal loss and induces gliosis. We hypothesized that the homeostasis of microglial DICER would be responsible for the amplified inflammation in the mouse model of PD. METHODS: The microglia or C57BL/6 mice were treated or injected with l-methyl-4-phenyl-l,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) or 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+ ), respectively, for the model establishment...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906661/loss-of-trem2-in-microglia-leads-to-widespread-disruption-of-cell-coexpression-networks-in-mouse-brain
#11
Guillermo Carbajosa, Karim Malki, Nathan Lawless, Hong Wang, John W Ryder, Eva Wozniak, Kristie Wood, Charles A Mein, Richard J B Dobson, David A Collier, Michael J O'Neill, Angela K Hodges, Stephen J Newhouse
Rare heterozygous coding variants in the triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) gene, conferring increased risk of developing late-onset Alzheimer's disease, have been identified. We examined the transcriptional consequences of the loss of Trem2 in mouse brain to better understand its role in disease using differential expression and coexpression network analysis of Trem2 knockout and wild-type mice. We generated RNA-Seq data from cortex and hippocampus sampled at 4 and 8 months. Using brain cell-type markers and ontology enrichment, we found subnetworks with cell type and/or functional identity...
May 17, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29905772/nrf2-deficiency-exacerbates-obesity-induced-oxidative-stress-neurovascular-dysfunction-blood-brain-barrier-disruption-neuroinflammation-amyloidogenic-gene-expression-and-cognitive-decline-in-mice-mimicking-the-aging-phenotype
#12
Stefano Tarantini, M Noa Valcarcel-Ares, Andriy Yabluchanskiy, Zsuzsanna Tucsek, Peter Hertelendy, Tamas Kiss, Tripti Gautam, Xin A Zhang, William E Sonntag, Rafael de Cabo, Eszter Farkas, Michael H Elliott, Michael T Kinter, Ferenc Deak, Zoltan Ungvari, Anna Csiszar
Obesity has deleterious effects on cognitive function in the elderly adults. In mice, aging exacerbates obesity-induced oxidative stress, microvascular dysfunction, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and neuroinflammation, which compromise cognitive health. However, the specific mechanisms through which aging and obesity interact to remain elusive. Previously, we have shown that Nrf2 signaling plays a critical role in microvascular resilience to obesity and that aging is associated with progressive Nrf2 dysfunction, promoting microvascular impairment...
June 14, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904414/pynod-reduces-microglial-inflammation-and-consequent-neurotoxicity-upon-lipopolysaccharides-stimulation
#13
Qi Zeng, Chaofeng Hu, Renbin Qi, Daxiang Lu
PYNOD, a nod-like receptors (NLR)-like protein, was indicated to inhibit NF-κB activation, caspase-1-mediated interleukin (IL)-1β release and cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Exogenous addition of recombinant PYNOD to mixed glial cultures may suppress caspase-1 activation and IL-1β secretion induced by Aβ. However, to the best of our knowledge, there no study has focused on the immunoregulatory effects of PYNOD specifically in microglia. The present study aimed to explore the roles of PYNOD involved in the lipopolysaccharides (LPS)-induced microglial inflammation and consequent neurotoxicity...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904345/a-larger-social-network-enhances-novel-object-location-memory-and-reduces-hippocampal-microgliosis-in-aged-mice
#14
Bryon M Smith, Xinyue Yao, Kelly S Chen, Elizabeth D Kirby
The mammalian hippocampus shows marked decline in function with aging across many species, including humans and laboratory rodent models. This decline frequently manifests in memory impairments that occur even in the absence of dementia pathology. In humans, a number of factors correlate with preserved hippocampal memory in aging, such as exercise, cognitive stimulation and number of social ties. While interventional studies and animal models clearly indicate that exercise and cognitive stimulation lead to hippocampal preservation, there is relatively little research on whether a decline in social ties leads to cognitive decline or vice versa...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904189/mitigation-of-radiation-myelopathy-and-reduction-of-microglial-infiltration-by-ramipril-ace-inhibitor
#15
Mariano G Clausi, Alexander M Stessin, Stella E Tsirka, Samuel Ryu
STUDY DESIGN: Experimental study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor Ramipril, as a mitigator of radiation-induced spinal cord injury. SETTING: Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY, USA. METHODS: Total of 22 rats were irradiated with single doses of 23.6-33 Gy at the C4-T2 spinal levels. After irradiation, the rats were randomized to the radiation only control group and the Ramipril-treated (radiation + Ramipril) experimental group...
June 14, 2018: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904087/damage-associated-molecular-pattern-recognition-is-required-for-induction-of-retinal-neuroprotective-pathways-in-a-sex-dependent-manner
#16
Marcus J Hooper, Jiangang Wang, Robert Browning, John D Ash
Retinal degeneration is a common cause of irreversible blindness and is caused by the death of retinal light-sensitive neurons called photoreceptors. At the onset of degeneration, stressed photoreceptors cause retinal glial cells to secrete neuroprotective factors that slow the pace of degeneration. Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) is one such factor that is required for endogenous neuroprotection. Photoreceptors are known to release signals of cellular stress, called damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) early in degeneration, and we hypothesized that receptors for DAMPs or pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) play a key role in the induction of LIF and neuroprotective stress responses in retinal glial cells...
June 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903234/-apoptosis-and-ca-2-balance-disorder-of-bv-2-cells-induced-by-polychlorinated-biphenyl
#17
Zhaoshuo Lu, Jingli Zhu, Xinxin Wang, Jian Yao, Yue Wu, Decai Wang
OBJECTIVE: To study the neurotoxicity and mechanism of polychlorinated biphenyl( PCB) in BV-2 cells. METHODS: The experiment was divided into control group and PCB118, 138, 153, 180 treated group, the dosages were 0. 000, 0. 015, 0. 030, 0. 050, 0. 100, 0. 150 μmol/L. Through the statistical analysis of the survival rate of the cells, the final dose was divided into low, middle and high dose levels. Among them, the high dose group except PCB118 was 0. 15 μmol/L, the PCB138, 153, 180 concentration was 0...
January 2018: Wei Sheng Yan Jiu, Journal of Hygiene Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903027/laquinimod-protects-the-optic-nerve-and-retina-in-an-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-model
#18
Anna T Wilmes, Sabrina Reinehr, Sandra Kühn, Xiomara Pedreiturria, Laura Petrikowski, Simon Faissner, Ilya Ayzenberg, Gesa Stute, Ralf Gold, H Burkhard Dick, Ingo Kleiter, Stephanie C Joachim
BACKGROUND: The oral immunomodulatory agent laquinimod is currently evaluated for multiple sclerosis (MS) treatment. Phase II and III studies demonstrated a reduction of degenerative processes. In addition to anti-inflammatory effects, laquinimod might have neuroprotective properties, but its impact on the visual system, which is often affected by MS, is unknown. The aim of our study was to investigate potential protective effects of laquinimod on the optic nerve and retina in an experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902514/principles-of-inflammasome-priming-and-inhibition-implications-for-psychiatric-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Francis J Herman, Giulio Maria Pasinetti
The production of inflammatory proteins by the innate immune system is a tightly orchestrated procedure that allows the body to efficiently respond to exogenous and endogenous threats. Recently, accumulating evidence has indicated that disturbances in the inflammatory response system not only provoke autoimmune disorders, but also can have deleterious effects on neuronal function and mental health. As inflammation in the brain is primarily mediated by microglia, there has been an expanding focus on the mechanisms through which these cells initiate and propagate neuroinflammation...
June 11, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902504/a-single-exposure-to-gsm-1800mhz-signals-in-the-course-of-an-acute-neuroinflammatory-reaction-can-alter-neuronal-responses-and-microglial-morphology-in-the-rat-primary-auditory-cortex
#20
Florian Occelli, Julie Lameth, Victor Adenis, Chloé Huetz, Philippe Lévêque, Thérèse M Jay, Jean-Marc Edeline, Michel Mallat
During mobile phone conversations, the temporal lobe neural networks involved in processing auditory information are exposed to electromagnetic fields such as pulse modulated GSM-1800MHz radiofrequencies that convey wireless communications. The effects of these electromagnetic fields on the brain affected by a pathological condition remain little investigated. In this study, rats injected with lipopolysaccharide to induce neuroinflammation were exposed "head-only" to GSM-1800MHz signals for two hours at a specific absorption rate (SAR) that reached an average value of 1...
June 11, 2018: Neuroscience
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