keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Microglia

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244745/immunotherapeutic-potential-of-oncolytic-h-1-parvovirus-hints-of-glioblastoma-microenvironment-conversion-towards-immunogenicity
#1
Assia L Angelova, Milena Barf, Karsten Geletneky, Andreas Unterberg, Jean Rommelaere
Glioblastoma, one of the most aggressive primary brain tumors, is characterized by highly immunosuppressive microenvironment. This contributes to glioblastoma resistance to standard treatment modalities and allows tumor growth and recurrence. Several immune-targeted approaches have been recently developed and are currently under preclinical and clinical investigation. Oncolytic viruses, including the autonomous protoparvovirus H-1 (H-1PV), show great promise as novel immunotherapeutic tools. In a first phase I/IIa clinical trial (ParvOryx01), H-1PV was safe and well tolerated when locally or systemically administered to recurrent glioblastoma patients...
December 15, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243403/microglia-sculptors-of-sex-differences-and-sensitive-periods
#2
REVIEW
Jonathan Van Ryzin, Lindsay A Pickett, Margaret M McCarthy
Recent research is beginning to shift the focus of our understanding of microglia from passive members of the brain's immune system to active participants in brain development. Despite these advances, little attention has been paid to one of the most critical components of early brain development- sexual differentiation. Mounting evidence suggests that the normal developmental functions microglia perform- cell number regulation and synaptic connectivity, may be involved in the sex-specific patterning of the brain during these early critical periods, with lasting sex-dependent and sex-independent effects on behavior...
December 15, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243172/therapeutic-delivery-of-simvastatin-loaded-in-pla-peg-polymersomes-resulted-in-amplification-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-activated-microglia
#3
Dharani Manickavasagam, Kimberly Novak, Moses O Oyewumi
Simvastatin (Sim), a lipid-lowering drug has been studied in chronic neuroinflammation associated with degenerative brain disorders due to its potential protective properties against inflammatory reaction, oxidative damage, neuronal dysfunction, and death. Meanwhile, potential application of Sim in neuroinflammation will require a suitable delivery system that can overcome notable challenges pertaining to poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and side/off-target effects. Herein, we engineered and characterized nano-sized polymersomes loaded with Sim (Sim-Ps) using PEG-PdLLA (methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(D,L) lactic acid) diblock co-polymers...
December 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242722/recent-progress-in-the-development-of-tspo-pet-ligands-for-neuroinflammation-imaging-in-neurological-diseases
#4
REVIEW
Md Maqusood Alam, Jihye Lee, Sang-Yoon Lee
Neuroinflammation is heavily associated with various neurological diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and stroke. It is strongly characterized by the activation of microglia which can be visualized using position emission tomography (PET). Traditionally, translocator protein 18 kDa (TSPO) has been the preferred target for imaging the inflammatory progression of the microglial component. TSPO is expressed in the outer mitochondrial membrane and present in very low concentrations in the healthy human brain, but is markedly upregulated in response to brain injury and inflammation...
December 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242629/immune-microenvironment-of-experimental-rat-c6-gliomas-resembles-human-glioblastomas
#5
Anna Gieryng, Dominika Pszczolkowska, Katarzyna Bocian, Michal Dabrowski, Wenson David Rajan, Michal Kloss, Jakub Mieczkowski, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with ineffective anti-tumor responses and a poor prognosis despite aggressive treatments. GBM immune microenvironment is heterogenous  and activation of specific immune populations in GBM is not fully characterized. Reliable animal models are critical for defining mechanisms of anti-tumor immunity. First we analyzed the immune subpopulations present in rat C6 gliomas. Using flow cytometry we determined kinetics of infiltration of myeloid cells and T lymphocytes into glioma-bearing brains...
December 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241670/glia-and-tissue-specific-changes-in-the-kynurenine-pathway-after-treatment-of-mice-with-lipopolysaccharide-and-dexamethasone
#6
Carlos R Dostal, Nicolaus S Gamsby, Marcus A Lawson, Robert H McCusker
Behavioral symptoms associated with mood disorders have been intimately linked with immunological and psychological stress. Induction of immune and stress pathways is accompanied by increased tryptophan entry into the Kynurenine (Kyn) Pathway as governed by the rate-limiting enzymes indoleamine/tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenases (DO's: Ido1, Ido2, Tdo2). Indeed, elevated DO expression is associated with inflammation- and stress-related depression symptoms. Here we examined central (brain, astrocyte and microglia) and peripheral (lung, liver and spleen) DO expression in mice treated intraperitoneally with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and dexamethasone (DEX) to model the response of the Kyn Pathway to inflammation and glucocorticoids...
December 11, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241552/a-single-cell-rna-sequencing-study-reveals-cellular-and-molecular-dynamics-of-the-hippocampal-neurogenic-niche
#7
Benedetta Artegiani, Anna Lyubimova, Mauro Muraro, Johan H van Es, Alexander van Oudenaarden, Hans Clevers
Adult neurogenesis in the murine dentate gyrus occurs in a specialized microenvironment that sustains the generation of neurons during life. To fully understand adult neurogenesis, it is essential to determine the neural stem cell (NSC) and progenitor developmental stages, their molecular determinants, and the niche cellular and molecular composition. We report on a single-cell RNA sequencing study of the hippocampal niche, performed by isolating all the non-neuronal cell populations. Our analysis provides a comprehensive description of the dentate gyrus cells, and it allows the identification of exclusive cell-type-specific markers...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241548/diverging-mrna-and-protein-networks-in-activated-microglia-reveal-srsf3-suppresses-translation-of-highly-upregulated-innate-immune-transcripts
#8
Hejer Boutej, Reza Rahimian, Sai Sampath Thammisetty, Louis-Charles Béland, Mélanie Lalancette-Hébert, Jasna Kriz
Uncontrolled microglial activation may lead to the development of inflammation-induced brain damage. Here, we uncover a ribosome-based mechanism/checkpoint involved in control of the innate immune response and microglial activation. Using an in vivo model system for analysis of the dynamic translational state of microglial ribosomes, with mRNAs as input and newly synthesized peptides as an output, we find a marked dissociation of microglia mRNA and protein networks following innate immune challenge. Highly upregulated and ribosome-associated mRNAs were not translated, resulting in two distinct microglial molecular signatures, a highly specialized pro-inflammatory mRNA signature and an immunomodulatory/homeostatic protein signature...
December 12, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239336/neural-progenitor-cells-but-not-astrocytes-respond-distally-to-thoracic-spinal-cord-injury-in-rat-models
#9
Tara Nguyen, Yilin Mao, Theresa Sutherland, Catherine Anne Gorrie
Traumatic spinal cord injury (SCI) is a detrimental condition that causes loss of sensory and motor function in an individual. Many complex secondary injury cascades occur after SCI and they offer great potential for therapeutic targeting. In this study, we investigated the response of endogenous neural progenitor cells, astrocytes, and microglia to a localized thoracic SCI throughout the neuroaxis. Twenty-five adult female Sprague-Dawley rats underwent mild-contusion thoracic SCI (n = 9), sham surgery (n = 8), or no surgery (n = 8)...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239335/saponins-from-panax-japonicus-attenuate-age-related-neuroinflammation-via-regulation-of-the-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-and-nuclear-factor-kappa-b-signaling-pathways
#10
Li-Li Deng, Ding Yuan, Zhi-Yong Zhou, Jing-Zhi Wan, Chang-Cheng Zhang, Chao-Qi Liu, Yao-Yan Dun, Hai-Xia Zhao, Bo Zhao, Yuan-Jian Yang, Ting Wang
Neuroinflammation is recognized as an important pathogenic factor for aging and related cognitive disorders. Mitogen-activated protein kinase and nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathways may mediate neuroinflammation. Saponins from Panax japonicus are the most abundant and bioactive members in rhizomes of Panax japonicus, and show anti-inflammatory activity. However, it is not known whether saponin from Panax japonicus has an anti-inflammatory effect in the aging brain, and likewise its underlying mechanisms...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239330/expression-of-ng2-and-platelet-derived-growth-factor-receptor-alpha-in-the-developing-neonatal-rat-brain
#11
Ping Li, Heng-Xi Li, Hong-Yan Jiang, Lie Zhu, Hai-Ying Wu, Jin-Tao Li, Jiang-Hua Lai
Platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRα) is a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the central nervous system. NG2 is also considered a marker of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. However, whether there are differences in the distribution and morphology of oligodendrocyte precursor cells labeled by NG2 or PDGFRα in the developing neonatal rat brain remains unclear. In this study, by immunohistochemical staining, NG2 positive (NG2+) cells were ubiquitous in the molecular layer, external pyramidal layer, internal pyramidal layer, and polymorphic layer of the cerebral cortex, and corpus callosum, external capsule, piriform cortex, and medial septal nucleus...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239311/interferon-regulatory-factor-2-binding-protein-2-a-new-player-of-the-innate-immune-response-for-stroke-recovery
#12
REVIEW
Hsiao-Huei Chen, Alexandre F R Stewart
Ischemic brain injury triggers an inflammatory response. This response is necessary to clear damaged brain tissue but can also exacerbate brain injury. Microglia are the innate immune cells of the brain that execute this critical function. In healthy brain, microglia perform a housekeeping function, pruning unused synapses between neurons. However, microglia become activated to an inflammatory phenotype upon brain injury. Interferon regulatory factors modulate microglial activation and their production of inflammatory cytokines...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239126/sexual-dimorphism-in-microglia-and-synapses-during-mouse-postnatal-development
#13
Laetitia Weinhard, Urte Neniskyte, Auguste Vadisiute, Giulia di Bartolomei, Nil Aygün, Laurie Riviere, Francesca Zonfrillo, Susan Dymecki, Cornelius Gross
Microglia participate in synapse remodeling in the cortex and hippocampus during mouse postnatal development. Although sex differences in microglia activity during embryonic development have been reported in these regions, it remains unexplored whether microglia show sexually dimorphic features during the early postnatal period, a critical window for synapse formation and maturation. Here, we investigated morphological and functional features of microglia across early postnatal development as well as morphological features of both pre- and postsynaptic neuronal compartments in the mouse hippocampus...
December 14, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238736/combination-of-fluorescent-in-situ-hybridization-fish-and-immunofluorescence-imaging-for-detection-of-cytokine-expression-in-microglia-macrophage-cells
#14
Maria Fe Lanfranco, David J Loane, Italo Mocchetti, Mark P Burns, Sonia Villapol
Microglia and macrophage cells are the primary producers of cytokines in response to neuroinflammatory processes. But these cytokines are also produced by other glial cells, endothelial cells, and neurons. It is essential to identify the cells that produce these cytokines to target their different levels of activation. We used dual RNAscope® fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) techniques to visualize the mRNA expression pattern of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in microglia/macrophages cells...
November 20, 2017: Bio-protocol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238467/neuroprotection-of-a-sesamin-derivative-1-2-bis-3-methoxyphenyl-methyl-ethane-1-2-dicaroxylic-acid-mmeda-against-ischemic-and-hypoxic-neuronal-injury
#15
Chang-Tsen Hung, Li-Dian Chen, Chien-Wei Hou
Objectives: Stroke may cause severe neuronal damage. The sesamin have been demonstrated to possess neuroprotection by its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. One sesamin derivative was artificially composited, 1, 2-bis [(3-methoxyphenyl) methyl] ethane-1, 2-dicaroxylic acid (MMEDA) had been developed to study its antioxidative activity and neuroprotection. Materials and Methods: The infaction of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and hypoxia models of BV-2 microglia or PC12 cells were investigated for in vivo and in vitro test respectively...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238462/mechanisms-of-spinal-cord-injury-regeneration-in-zebrafish-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Zeynab Noorimotlagh, Mahla Babaie, Mahdi Safdarian, Tahereh Ghadiri, Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar
Objectives: To determine the molecular and cellular mechanisms of spinal cord regeneration in zebrafish. Materials and Methods: Medical databases of PubMed and Scopus were searched with following key words: Zebrafish; spinal cord injuries; regeneration; recovery of function. The map of mechanisms was performed using Xmind software. Results: Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, L1.1, L1.2, Major vault protein (MVP), contactin-2 and High mobility group box1 (HMGB1) had positive promoting effects on axonal re-growth while Ptena had an inhibitory effect...
December 2017: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238302/sevoflurane-induces-exaggerated-and-persistent-cognitive-decline-in-a-type-ii-diabetic-rat-model-by-aggregating-hippocampal-inflammation
#17
Dongliang Li, Lingling Liu, Liang Li, Xingang Li, Bin Huang, Changqing Zhou, Zhaohang Zhang, Chunling Wang, Ping Dong, Xiyan Zhang, Bo Yang, Li Zhang
Recent studies show that a moderate duration of sevoflurane, one of the most commonly used volatile anesthetics in clinical practice, does not induce cognitive impairment in animals under physiological conditions. However, the influence of sevoflurane on cognitive function under diabetic conditions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to determine whether sevoflurane causes cognitive decline in a rat model of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and if so, to explore a possible underlying mechanism. Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats and non-diabetic Wistar rats underwent 2...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238292/effect-of-vegf-on-inflammatory-regulation-neural-survival-and-functional-improvement-in-rats-following-a-complete-spinal-cord-transection
#18
Jing Li, Shuangxi Chen, Zhikai Zhao, Yunhao Luo, Yuhui Hou, Heng Li, Liumin He, Libing Zhou, Wutian Wu
After complete transection of the thoracic spinal segment, neonatal rats exhibit spontaneous locomotor recovery of hindlimbs, but this recovery is not found in adult rats after similar injury. The potential mechanism related to the difference in recovery of neonatal and adult rats remains unknown. In this study, 342 animals were analyzed. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) level in spinal segments below injury sites was significantly higher in postnatal day 1 rats (P1) compared with 28-day-old adult rats (P28) following a complete T9 transection...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237478/am404-paracetamol-metabolite-prevents-prostaglandin-synthesis-in-activated-microglia-by-inhibiting-cox-activity
#19
Soraya Wilke Saliba, Ariel R Marcotegui, Ellen Fortwängler, Johannes Ditrich, Juan Carlos Perazzo, Eduardo Muñoz, Antônio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Bernd L Fiebich
BACKGROUND: N-arachidonoylphenolamine (AM404), a paracetamol metabolite, is a potent agonist of the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and low-affinity ligand of the cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1). There is evidence that AM404 exerts its pharmacological effects in immune cells. However, the effect of AM404 on the production of inflammatory mediators of the arachidonic acid pathway in activated microglia is still not fully elucidated. METHOD: In the present study, we investigated the effects of AM404 on the eicosanoid production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in organotypic hippocampal slices culture (OHSC) and primary microglia cultures using Western blot, immunohistochemistry, and ELISA...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237453/human-microglia-and-astrocytes-constitutively-express-the-neurokinin-1-receptor-and-functionally-respond-to-substance-p
#20
Amanda R Burmeister, M Brittany Johnson, Vinita S Chauhan, Megan J Moerdyk-Schauwecker, Ada D Young, Ian D Cooley, Alejandra N Martinez, Geeta Ramesh, Mario T Philipp, Ian Marriott
BACKGROUND: The tachykinin substance P (SP) is recognized to exacerbate inflammation at peripheral sites via its target receptor, neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R), expressed by leukocytes. More recently, SP/NK-1R interactions have been associated with severe neuroinflammation and neuronal damage. We have previously demonstrated that NK-1R antagonists can limit neuroinflammatory damage in a mouse model of bacterial meningitis. Furthermore, we have since shown that these agents can attenuate bacteria-induced neuronal and glial inflammatory mediator production in nonhuman primate (NHP) brain explants and isolated neuronal cells, and following in vivo infection...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
keyword
keyword
1392
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"