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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454265/supplementation-of-lycopene-attenuates-lipopolysaccharide-induced-amyloidogenesis-and-cognitive-impairments-via-mediating-neuroinflammation-and-oxidative-stress
#1
Jia Wang, Lixia Li, Zhuo Wang, Yifan Cui, Xintong Tan, Tian Yuan, Qian Liu, Zhigang Liu, Xuebo Liu
Neuroinflammation is documented to be the major culprit of Alzheimer's disease. Lycopene (LYC), a fat soluble carotenoid, exhibits neuroprotective function in several neurodegenerative disorders. However, the effects of LYC to countering systemic inflammation-induced amyloidogenesis and memory deficiency remain to be elucidated. In current study, 3-month-old male C57BL/6J mice were treated with 0.03% LYC (w/w, mixed into normal chow) for 5 weeks. The mice were then treated by intraperitoneal injection of LPS (0...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453990/atp-activated-p2x7-receptor-in-the-pathophysiology-of-mood-disorders-and-as-an-emerging-target-for-the-development-of-novel-antidepressant-therapeutics
#2
REVIEW
Linyu Wei, Sharifah A Syed Mortadza, Jing Yan, Libin Zhang, Lu Wang, Yaling Yin, Chaokun Li, Sylvie Chalon, Patrick Emond, Catherine Belzung, Dongliang Li, Chengbiao Lu, Sebastien Roger, Lin-Hua Jiang
Mood disorders are a group of psychiatric conditions that represent leading global disease burdens. Increasing evidence from clinical and preclinical studies supports that innate immune system dysfunction plays an important part in the pathophysiology of mood disorders. P2X7 receptor, belonging to the ligand-gated ion channel P2X subfamily of purinergic P2 receptors for extracellular ATP, is highly expressed in immune cells including microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and has a vital role in mediating innate immune response...
February 14, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453985/zika-virus-infected-primary-microglia-impairs-npcs-proliferation-and-differentiation
#3
Jin Wang, Jing Liu, Rui Zhou, Xin Ding, Qipeng Zhang, Chenyu Zhang, Liang Li
Zika virus (ZIKV) can lead to severe birth defects especially microcephaly in newborns by infecting human neural progenitors and impairing brain development. However, as the resident immune cells in the brain, the role of microglia in the ZIKV pathology is not clearly defined. To understand the interplay between immune response and neural cells, we investigate the interaction between microglia and NPCs during ZIKV infection. Our results demonstrate that primary microglia infected with ZIKV induces an inflammatory response similar to that in human, producing high level of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6), interleukin 1β (IL-1β) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)...
February 14, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453958/age-dependent-effects-of-dimethyl-fumarate-on-cognitive-and-neuropathological-features-in-the-streptozotocin-induced-rat-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
Irena Majkutewicz, Ewelina Kurowska, Magdalena Podlacha, Dorota Myślińska, Beata Grembecka, Jan Ruciński, Karolina Pierzynowska, Danuta Wrona
We previously demonstrated that dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an anti-oxidative and immunosuppresive compound, prevents intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin-induced disruption of spatial memory and neurodegeneration in 4-month-old rats. The present study evaluated the influence of age on DMF's therapeutic effect. Aged rats (22-months-old, n=40) were provided rodent chow containing DMF (0.4%) and given ICV injections of streptozotocin (STZ) or vehicle (Sham) on days 2 and 4. Spatial memory was evaluated using the Morris water maze (MWM) on days 14-21...
February 14, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453337/p66shc-signaling-mediates-diabetes-related-cognitive-decline
#5
Yohei Minami, Noriyuki Sonoda, Eiichi Hayashida, Hiroaki Makimura, Makoto Ide, Noriko Ikeda, Masahiro Ohgidani, Takahiro A Kato, Yoshihiro Seki, Yasutaka Maeda, Shigenobu Kanba, Ryoichi Takayanagi, Yoshihiro Ogawa, Toyoshi Inoguchi
Accumlating evidence have suggested that diabetes mellitus links dementia, notably of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Several studies have shown oxidative stress (OS) to be one of the major factors in the pathogenesis of diabetic complications. Here we show OS involvement in brain damage in a diabetic animal model that is at least partially mediated through an AD-pathology-independent mechanism apart from amyloid-β accumulation. We investigated the contribution of the p66Shc signaling pathway to diabetes-related cognitive decline using p66Shc knockout (-/-) mice...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452810/interleukin-6-is-both-necessary-and-sufficient-to-produce-perioperative-neurocognitive-disorder-in-mice
#6
J Hu, X Feng, M Valdearcos, D Lutrin, Y Uchida, S K Koliwad, M Maze
BACKGROUND: Perioperative neurocognitive disorders (PND) result in long-term morbidity and mortality with no effective interventions available. Because interleukin-6 (IL-6), a pro-inflammatory cytokine, is consistently up-regulated by trauma, including after surgery, we determined whether IL-6 is a putative therapeutic target for PND in a mouse model. METHODS: Following institutional approval, adult (12-14 weeks) male C57/Bl6 mice were pretreated with the IL-6 receptor (IL6R) blocking antibody tocilizumab prior to open tibia fracture with internal fixation under isoflurane anaesthesia...
March 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452586/the-role-of-glucocorticoid-interleukin-1%C3%AE-and-antioxidants-in-prenatal-stress-effects-on-embryonic-microglia
#7
Jada Bittle, Hanna E Stevens
Maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of psychopathology in offspring. Resident immune cells of the brain, microglia, may be mediators of prenatal stress and altered neurodevelopment. Here, we demonstrate that neither the exogenous pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β), nor the glucocorticoid hormone, corticosterone, recapitulated the full effects of prenatal stress on the morphology of microglial cells in the cortical plate of embryonic mice; IL-1β effects showed greater similarity to prenatal stress effects on microglia...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451906/brain-changes-due-to-hypoxia-during-light-anaesthesia-can-be-prevented-by-deepening-anaesthesia-a-study-in-rats
#8
Setayesh R Tasbihgou, Mina Netkova, Alain F Kalmar, Janine Doorduin, Michel M R F Struys, Regien G Schoemaker, Anthony R Absalom
In anaesthetic practice the risk of cerebral ischemic/hypoxic damage is thought to be attenuated by deep anaesthesia. The rationale is that deeper anaesthesia reduces cerebral oxygen demand more than light anaesthesia, thereby increasing the tolerance to ischemia or hypoxia. However, evidence to support this is scarce. We thus investigated the influence of light versus deep anaesthesia on the responses of rat brains to a period of hypoxia. In the first experiment we exposed adult male Wistar rats to deep or light propofol anaesthesia and then performed [18F]- Fludeoxyglucose (FDG) Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans to verify the extent of cerebral metabolic suppression...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450981/nurr1-promotes-neurogenesis-of-dopaminergic-neuron-and-represses-inflammatory-factors-in-the-transwell-coculture-system-of-neural-stem-cells-and-microglia
#9
Xiaoxiang Chen, Yuan Qian, Xiangpeng Wang, Zhiwei Tang, Jiaotian Xu, Hai Lin, Zhiyong Yang, Xiaobin Song, Di Lu, Jiazhi Guo, Ligong Bian, Yu Li, Lei Zhou, Xingli Deng
INTRODUCTION: Neural stem cells (NSCs) are the most promising cells for cell replacement therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD). However, a majority of the transplanted NSCs differentiated into glial cells, thereby limiting the clinical application. Previous studies indicated that chronic neuroinflammation plays a vital role in the degeneration of midbrain DA (mDA) neurons, which suggested the developing potential of therapies for PD by targeting the inflammatory processes. Thus, Nurr1 (nuclear receptor-related factor 1), a transcription factor, has been referred to play a pivotal role in both the differentiation of dopaminergic neurons in embryonic stages and the maintenance of the dopaminergic phenotype throughout life...
February 15, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449802/sparc-and-glua1-containing-ampa-receptors-promote-neuronal-health-following-cns-injury
#10
Emma V Jones, Yann Bernardinelli, Juan G Zarruk, Sabrina Chierzi, Keith K Murai
The proper formation and maintenance of functional synapses in the central nervous system (CNS) requires communication between neurons and astrocytes and the ability of astrocytes to release neuromodulatory molecules. Previously, we described a novel role for the astrocyte-secreted matricellular protein SPARC (Secreted Protein, Acidic and Rich in Cysteine) in regulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) and plasticity at developing synapses. SPARC is highly expressed by astrocytes and microglia during CNS development but its level is reduced in adulthood...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449568/binge-alcohol-exposure-causes-neurobehavioral-deficits-and-gsk3%C3%AE-activation-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rats
#11
Zhe Ji, Lin Yuan, Xiong Lu, Hanqing Ding, Jia Luo, Zun-Ji Ke
Heavy alcohol exposure causes profound damage to the adolescent brain, particularly the hippocampus, which underlie some behavioral deficits. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain inconclusive. The current study sought to determine whether binge alcohol exposure affects the hippocampus-related behaviors and key signaling proteins that may mediate alcohol neurotoxicity in adolescent rats. Alcohol exposure reduced the number of both NeuN-positive and doublecortin-positive cells in the hippocampus...
February 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448957/brain-region-specific-enhancement-of-remyelination-and-prevention-of-demyelination-by-the-csf1r-kinase-inhibitor-blz945
#12
Nicolau Beckmann, Elisa Giorgetti, Anna Neuhaus, Stefan Zurbruegg, Nathalie Accart, Paul Smith, Julien Perdoux, Ludovic Perrot, Mark Nash, Sandrine Desrayaud, Peter Wipfli, Wilfried Frieauff, Derya R Shimshek
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non-invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448255/intrathecal-administration-of-cxcl1-enhances-potassium-currents-in-microglial-cells
#13
Alexandru-Florian Deftu, Violeta Ristoiu, Marc Rene Suter
The functioning of microglial cells inside the central nervous system depends on their ion channels expression. Microglia are capable of synthesizing different cytokines and chemokines, including CXCL1, and responding to their action via specific receptors. In this study, we explore the effect of intrathecal injection of CXCL1 on potassium currents, expressed in CX3CR1-Green Fluorescent Protein labeled microglia in transgenic mice. The results showed that CXCL1 hyperpolarized the cells by enhancing inward rectifying potassium currents and increasing the membrane area, suggesting an activating effect on microglia...
February 15, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448108/inhibition-of-hmgb1-mediates-neuroprotection-of-traumatic-brain-injury-by-modulating-the-microglia-macrophage-polarization
#14
Tielei Gao, Zhe Chen, He Chen, Hui Yuan, Yuena Wang, Xue Peng, Can Wei, Jinxia Yang, Changqing Xu
Microglia/Macrophages have a double-edged role in secondary brain damage after traumatic brain injury (TBI) depending on polarization toward proinflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes. Recently, high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) was found to influence the polarization of macrophages. In this study, glycyrrhizin (GL), an inhibitor of HMGB1, was used to investigate whether the inhibition of HMGB1 could modulate microglia/macrophage polarization after TBI. The results showed that treatment with GL improved the neurological function recovery, reduced the lesion volume, and inhibited the release and expression of HMGB1 after TBI...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448097/selective-degradation-of-bet-proteins-with-dbet1-a-proteolysis-targeting-chimera-potently-reduces-pro-inflammatory-responses-in-lipopolysaccharide-activated-microglia
#15
Kelly M DeMars, Changjun Yang, Carolina I Castro-Rivera, Eduardo Candelario-Jalil
Bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins are essential to pro-inflammatory gene transcription. The BET family proteins, BRD2, BRD3, BRD4, and testis-specific BRDT, couple chromatin remodeling to gene transcription, acting as histone acetyltransferases, scaffolds for transcription complexes, and markers of histone acetylation. To initiate an inflammatory response, cells undergo de novo gene transcription requiring histone-modifying proteins to make DNA wrapped around histones more or less readily available to transcription complexes...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448014/intrauterine-inflammation-reduces-postnatal-neurogenesis-in-the-hippocampal-subgranular-zone-and-leads-to-accumulation-of-hilar-ectopic-granule-cells
#16
Michael S Hester, Natalia Tulina, Amy Brown, Guillermo Barila, Michal A Elovitz
Prenatal inflammation is associated with poor neurobehavioral outcomes in exposed offspring. A common route of exposure for the fetus is intrauterine infection, which is often associated with preterm birth. Hippocampal development may be particularly vulnerable to an inflammatory insult during pregnancy as this region remains highly neurogenic both prenatally and postnatally. These studies sought to determine if intrauterine inflammation specifically altered hippocampal neurogenesis and migration of newly produced granule neurons during the early postnatal period...
February 12, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447858/intrathecal-injection-of-scaav9-higf1-prolongs-the-survival-of-als-model-mice-by-inhibiting-the-nf-kb-pathway
#17
HaoJie Hu, HuiQian Lin, WeiSong Duan, Can Cui, ZhongYao Li, YaKun Liu, Wan Wang, Di Wen, Ying Wang, ChunYan Li
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a chronic, fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of upper and lower motor neurons. Currently, there is no effective drug for ALS. Recent studies in ALS model mice have shown that insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) may be a promising therapeutic drug. We demonstrate that self-complementary adeno-associated virus serum type 9 encoding the human IGF1 (scAAV9-hIGF1) could significantly postpone the onset and slow down the progression of the disease owning to inhibiting the NF-κB signalling pathway...
February 12, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447138/inflammation-in-the-pathophysiology-of-neuropathic-pain
#18
Claudia Sommer, Mathias Leinders, Nurcan Üçeyler
Peripheral nerve injuries and diseases often lead to pain persisting beyond the resolution of damage, indicating an active disease-promoting process, which may result in chronic pain. This is regarded as a maladaptive mechanism resulting from neuroinflammation that originally serves to promote regeneration and healing. Knowledge on these physiological and pathophysiological processes has accumulated over the last few decades and has started to yield potential therapeutic targets. Key players are macrophages, T-lymphocytes, cytokines, and chemokines...
March 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446722/herbal-compounds-with-special-reference-to-gastrodin-as-potential-therapeutic-agents-for-microglia-mediated-neuroin%C3%AF-ammation
#19
Juan-Juan Li, Shun-Jin Liu, Xiao-Yu Liu, Eng-Ang Ling
BACKGROUND: Activated microglia play a pivotal role neurodegenerative diseases by producing a variety of proinflammatory mediators including tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1bea (IL-1β) and nitric oxide (NO) that are toxic to neurons and oligodendrocytes. METHODS: In view of the above, suppression of microglia mediated neuroinflammation is deemed a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. Several potential Chinese herbal extracts have been reported to exert neuroprotective effects against neurodegenerative diseases targeting specifically at the activated microglia...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445825/microglial-il-1%C3%AE-progressively-increases-with-duration-of-alcohol-consumption
#20
Bruno Pradier, Edda Erxlebe, Astrid Markert, Ildikó Rácz
Chronic alcohol abuse leads to severe brain damage. Although the underlying neuropathological processes are largely unknown, recent studies show that chronic alcohol consumption leads to neuroinflammation and may result in neurodegeneration and impaired neuronal connectivity. Long-term alcohol consumption promotes the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α and IL-1β, and activates microglia cells in the brain. As it has not yet been investigated to what extent these processes dependent on the duration of alcohol consumption or whether microglia are source of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo, this study investigated the expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-1β, in microglia at different time points in mice chronically exposed to alcohol...
February 14, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
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