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Giulia Suarato, Seong-Il Lee, Weiyi Li, Sneha Rao, Tanvir Khan, Yizhi Meng, Maya Shelly
During mammalian embryonic development, neurons polarize to create distinct cellular compartments of axon and dendrite that inherently differ in form and function, providing the foundation for directional signaling in the nervous system. Polarization results from spatio-temporal segregation of specific proteins' activities to discrete regions of the neuron to dictate axonal vs. dendritic fate. We aim to manipulate axon formation by directed subcellular localization of crucial intracellular protein function...
October 8, 2016: Biomaterials
Igor Savukov, Malcolm G Boshier
Atomic magnetometers (AM) are finding many applications in biomagnetism, national security, industry, and science. Fiber-coupled (FC) designs promise to make them compact and flexible for operation. Most FC designs are based on a single-beam configuration or electrical heating. Here, we demonstrate a two-beam FC AM with laser heating that has 5 fT/Hz(1/2) sensitivity at low frequency (50 Hz), which is higher than that of other fiber-coupled magnetometers and can be improved to the sub-femtotesla level. This magnetometer is widely tunable from DC to very high frequencies (as high as 100 MHz; the only issue might be the application of a suitable uniform and stable bias field) with a sensitivity under 10 fT/Hz(1/2) and can be used for magneto-encephalography (MEG), magneto-cardiography (MCG), underground communication, ultra-low MRI/NMR, NQR detection, and other applications...
October 13, 2016: Sensors
Bettina F Cuneo, Janette F Strasburger, Ronald T Wakai
INTRODUCTION: Fetal magnetocardiography (fMCG), the magnetic analog of ECG, has provided invaluable insight into the mechanisms of fetal arrhythmias. In the past 15years, we have evaluated over 300 fetuses with arrhythmia by fMCG. We review the unique characteristics and natural history of the long QT syndrome (LQTS) rhythms. METHODS: We reviewed the fMCGs of subjects referred with suspected LQTS based on either a positive family history or echo diagnosis of the LQTS rhythms (sinus bradycardia, ventricular tachycardia, or 2:1 AV conduction) to the Biomagnetism laboratory in the Department of Medical Physics, UW-Madison...
July 28, 2016: Journal of Electrocardiology
Samir D Sharma, Roland Fischer, Bjoern P Schoennagel, Peter Nielsen, Hendrik Kooijman, Jin Yamamura, Gerhard Adam, Peter Bannas, Diego Hernando, Scott B Reeder
PURPOSE: We aimed to determine the agreement between quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM)-based biomagnetic liver susceptometry (BLS) and confounder-corrected R2* mapping with superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID)-based biomagnetic liver susceptometry in patients with liver iron overload. METHODS: Data were acquired from two healthy controls and 22 patients undergoing MRI and SQUID-BLS as part of routine monitoring for iron overload. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed on a 3T system using a three-dimensional multi-echo gradient-echo acquisition...
August 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
Hao Xi, Xiaoshi Qian, Meng-Chien Lu, Lei Mei, Sebastian Rupprecht, Qing X Yang, Q M Zhang
Iron is a trace mineral that plays a vital role in the human body. However, absorbing and accumulating excessive iron in body organs (iron overload) can damage or even destroy an organ. Even after many decades of research, progress on the development of noninvasive and low-cost tissue iron detection methods is very limited. Here we report a recent advance in a room-temperature ultrasensitive biomagnetic susceptometer for quantitative tissue iron detection. The biomagnetic susceptometer exploits recent advances in the magnetoelectric (ME) composite sensors that exhibit an ultrahigh AC magnetic sensitivity under the presence of a strong DC magnetic field...
2016: Scientific Reports
Diana Escalona-Vargas, Eric R Siegel, Pamela Murphy, C L Lowery, Hari Eswaran
Fetal magnetoencephalography (fMEG) recordings are measured in the presence of maternal (mMCG) and fetal (fMCG) magnetocardiograms, and other biological and environmental interferences. MCG interferences can be attenuated by the frequency dependent subtraction (SUBTR) method which uses a set of reference channels and performs subtraction of interference in the frequency domain. We propose a method that uses minimal redundancy and maximal relevance (mRMR) based on mutual information (MI) as criteria to automatically select references...
July 13, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Yosuke Ito, Daichi Sato, Keigo Kamada, Tetsuo Kobayashi
An optically pumped K-Rb hybrid atomic magnetometer can be a useful tool for biomagnetic measurements due to the high spatial homogeneity of its sensor property inside a cell. However, because the property varies depending on the densities of potassium and rubidium atoms, optimization of the densities is essential. In this study, by using the Bloch equations of K and Rb and considering the spatial distribution of the spin polarization, we confirmed that the calculation results of spin polarization behavior are in good agreement with the experimental data...
July 11, 2016: Optics Express
James Wilson, Jens Haueisen
OBJECTIVE: This paper presents the development of a fast, robust method which can be applied to multi-channel physiologic signals for the purpose of either removing a selected interfering signal or separating signals that arise from temporally correlated and spatially distributed signals such as maternal or fetal cardiac waveform recordings. METHODS: Projection operators based upon both the weighted and un-weighted minimum norm equations are presented. The weighted formulation uses models based on signal covariance and the unweighted formulation requires that a statistical model be built using time-locked averaging...
June 20, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
P Anninos, P Anastasiadis, A Adamopoulos, A Kotini
This article reports the application of non-linear analysis to biomagnetic signals recorded from fetal growth restriction, fetal brain activity, ovarian lesions, breast lesions, umbilical arteries, uterine myomas, and uterine arteries in a Greek population. The results were correlated with clinical findings. The biomagnetic measurements and the application of non-linear analysis are promising procedures in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
2016: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Daniel Wolf, Luis A Rodriguez, Armand Béché, Elsa Javon, Luis Serrano, Cesar Magen, Christophe Gatel, Axel Lubk, Hannes Lichte, Sara Bals, Gustaaf Van Tendeloo, Amalio Fernández-Pacheco, José M De Teresa, Etienne Snoeck
The investigation of three-dimensional (3D) ferromagnetic nanoscale materials constitutes one of the key research areas of the current magnetism roadmap and carries great potential to impact areas such as data storage, sensing, and biomagnetism. The properties of such nanostructures are closely connected with their 3D magnetic nanostructure, making their determination highly valuable. Up to now, quantitative 3D maps providing both the internal magnetic and electric configuration of the same specimen with high spatial resolution are missing...
October 13, 2015: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Pere J Riu
This article is a review of the book "Biomagnetics: Principles and Applications of Biomagnetic Stimulation and Imaging" (ISBN 978-1-4822-3920-1, 343 pages) edited by Shoogo Ueno and Masaki Sekino published by CRC Press, Taylor and Francis Group, LLC in 2015. The content of the book and its importance for biomedical engineering have been discussed in this invited review.
2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Masayoshi Tanaka, William Knowles, Rosemary Brown, Nicole Hondow, Atsushi Arakaki, Stephen Baldwin, Sarah Staniland, Tadashi Matsunaga
UNLABELLED: Using microorganisms to remove waste and/or neutralize pollutants from contaminated water is attracting much attention due to the environmentally friendly nature of this methodology. However, cell recovery remains a bottleneck and a considerable challenge for the development of this process. Magnetotactic bacteria are a unique group of organisms that can be manipulated by an external magnetic field due to the presence of biogenic magnetite crystals formed within their cells...
July 1, 2016: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Raheel Ahmed, James T Rutka
Identification of the epileptogenic zone is a critical determinant of seizure control outcomes following surgical resection in medically refractory seizures. There has been increasing recognition of the contributive value of Magnetoencephalography (MEG) studies in the diagnostic evaluation of epilepsy. Biomagnetic signals recorded by MEG studies in combination with source modeling techniques can yield diagnostic information regarding the underlying epileptogenic zone. MEG evaluation is particularly useful in evaluation of non lesional neocortical epilepsy...
July 2016: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
Kensuke Sekihara, Yuya Kawabata, Shuta Ushio, Satoshi Sumiya, Shigenori Kawabata, Yoshiaki Adachi, Srikantan S Nagarajan
OBJECTIVE: In functional electrophysiological imaging, signals are often contaminated by interference that can be of considerable magnitude compared to the signals of interest. This paper proposes a novel algorithm for removing such interferences that does not require separate noise measurements. APPROACH: The algorithm is based on a dual definition of the signal subspace in the spatial- and time-domains. Since the algorithm makes use of this duality, it is named the dual signal subspace projection (DSSP)...
June 2016: Journal of Neural Engineering
Samira Norouzi, Hossein Khademi, Angel Faz Cano, Jose A Acosta
Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Jolie L Chang, Seth E Pross, Anne M Findlay, Danielle Mizuiri, Jennifer Henderson-Sabes, Coleman Garrett, Srikantan S Nagarajan, Steven W Cheung
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To evaluate spatial plasticity of the auditory cortex in single-sided deafness (SSD). STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study comparing a cohort with adult-onset, idiopathic SSD to a cohort with normal hearing. METHODS: Demographic, audiometric, magnetoencephalographic imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging data were collected for 13 SSD adult subjects and 13 normal-hearing controls. Locations of peak activation corresponding to the M100 response in auditory cortices ipsilateral and contralateral to tonal stimuli (0...
March 8, 2016: Laryngoscope
L A Bradshaw, L K Cheng, E Chung, C B Obioha, J C Erickson, B L Gorman, S Somarajan, W O Richards
BACKGROUND: Gastroparesis is characterized by delayed gastric emptying without mechanical obstruction, but remains difficult to diagnose and distinguish from other gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Gastroparesis affects the gastric slow wave, but non-invasive assessment has been limited to the electrogastrogram (EGG), which reliably characterizes temporal dynamics but does not provide spatial information. METHODS: We measured gastric slow wave parameters from the EGG and magnetogastrogram (MGG) in patients with gastroparesis and in healthy controls...
June 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Nicole Jacobi, Lena Herich
INTRODUCTION: There are conflicting data regarding the role of serum ferritin (SF) as surrogate parameter for iron overload as an independent prognostic factor for outcome after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT). Superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) biomagnetic liver susceptometry, a noninvasive measurement of iron overload, allows measurement of the interference of an exteriorly applied small but highly constant magnetic field by the paramagnetic liver storage iron...
October 2016: European Journal of Haematology
L Anjos-Ramos, L A Gama, V L T Mati, L A Corá, R T Fujiwara, M F Americo
The aim was to correlate the gastrointestinal transit profile in rats, evaluated by a biomagnetic technique, in response to infection with different loads of Strongyloides venezuelensis. Eggs per gram, intestinal number of worms and fecundity, and also gastric emptying time, cecum arrival time, small intestinal transit time and stool weight were determined. Assessments occurred at 0 (control), 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 days post infection (dpi) with three infective loads (400, 2000, and 10,000 L). Gastric emptying was faster (p=0...
April 2016: Acta Tropica
Yoshiaki Adachi, Shigenori Kawabata, Tetsuo Sasano, Yasuhiro Haruta Daisuke Oyama, Gen Uehara, Kensuke Sekihara
A biomagnetic measurement system was developed, suitable for the detection of magnetospinogram (MSG) and magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals from the dorsal surface of supine subjects. It is effective for noninvasively observing the electric activity of the spinal cord and/or heart. These biomagnetic signals are extremely weak, and magnetic flux sensors based on superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are necessary to detect them. However, highly sensitive magnetic field measurement often suffers from ultra low-band circumstance noise mainly caused by transportation in urban areas...
2015: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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