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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340410/development-of-fusogenic-glass-surfaces-that-impart-spatiotemporal-control-over-macrophage-fusion-direct-visualization-of-multinucleated-giant-cell-formation
#1
James J Faust, Wayne Christenson, Kyle Doudrick, Robert Ros, Tatiana P Ugarova
Implantation of synthetic material, including vascular grafts, pacemakers, etc. results in the foreign body reaction and the formation of multinucleated giant cells (MGCs) at the exterior surface of the implant. Despite the long-standing premise that fusion of mononucleated macrophages results in the formation of MGCs, to date, no published study has shown fusion in context with living specimens. This is due to the fact that optical-quality glass, which is required for the majority of live imaging techniques, does not promote macrophage fusion...
March 2, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340358/lysosomal-rupture-induced-by-structurally-distinct-chitosans-either-promotes-a-type-1-ifn-response-or-activates-the-inflammasome-in-macrophages
#2
David Fong, Pascal Grégoire-Gélinas, Alexandre P Cheng, Tal Mezheritsky, Marc Lavertu, Sachiko Sato, Caroline D Hoemann
Chitosan is a family of glucosamine and N-acetyl glucosamine polysaccharides with poorly understood immune modulating properties. Here, functional U937 macrophage responses were analyzed in response to a novel library of twenty chitosans with controlled degree of deacetylation (DDA, 60-98%), molecular weight (1 to >100 kDa), and acetylation pattern (block vs. random). Specific chitosan preparations (10 or 190 kDa 80% block DDA and 3, 5, or 10 kDa 98% DDA) either induced macrophages to release CXCL10 and IL-1ra at 5-50 μg/mL, or activated the inflammasome to release IL-1β and PGE2 at 50-150 μg/mL...
March 15, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340257/cd8-positive-t-cell-leukoencephalitis-with-astrocytopathy-clinically-presenting-as-neuromyelitis-optica
#3
Diana L Thomas, Jody Manners, Daniel Marker, Joseph Mettenburg, Geoffrey Murdoch, Bryan Stevens, Guoji Wang, Clayton Wiley
We describe a novel disease entity with the clinical and radiologic presentation of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and widespread CD8-positive T-cell leukoencephalitis and astrocytopathy. The 59-year-old female patient had a complex 2-year neurological history that included early changes in cognition and memory, progressive lower extremity motor dysfunction, and multimodal sensory involvement. MRI of the spinal cord showed increased T2 signal in the central cord extending from C2 through T4. MRI of the brain showed symmetric radial enhancement in periventricular deep white matter without evidence of demyelinating lesions...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340252/urinary-tract-infection-recent-insight-into-the-evolutionary-arms-race-between-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-our-immune-system
#4
Sebastian Schwab, Katarzyna Jobin, Christian Kurts
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are among the most common bacterial infections worldwide. Humans evolved various immune-dependent and independent defense mechanisms, while pathogens evolved multiple virulence factors to fight back. This article summarizes recent findings regarding the arms race between hosts and pathogens in UTIs. It was recently reported that macrophage subsets regulate neutrophil-mediated defense in primary UTIs but seem to subvert adaptive immunity upon re-infection. Moreover, some bacterial strains can survive inside macrophages, leading to recurrent infections...
March 15, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340105/morin-stain-detects-aluminum-containing-macrophages-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-and-vaccination-granuloma-with-high-sensitivity-and-specificity
#5
Rati Chkheidze, Dennis K Burns, Charles L White, Diana Castro, Julie Fuller, Chunyu Cai
Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an inflammatory condition associated with the intramuscular (i.m.) injection of aluminum adjuvant-containing vaccines. It is clinically characterized by myalgia, weakness, and chronic fatigue and histologically by aggregates of cohesive macrophages with abundant basophilic, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive, diastase-resistant granules that percolate through the peri- and endomysium without eliciting substantial myofiber damage. The definitive diagnosis of MMF requires demonstration of aluminum within these macrophages...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339963/anti-apoptotic-effects-of-decyl-gallate-on-the-induction-of-apoptosis-in-a549-pneumocytes-by-paracoccidioides-brasiliensis-gp43
#6
Thais Bernardi, Julhiany de Fátima da Silva, Juliana Vicentin, Haroldo Cesar de Oliveira, Patricia Akemi Assato, Caroline Maria Marcos, Ana Carolina Alves de Paula E Silva, Rosangela Aparecida Moraes da Silva, Luis Octávio Regasini, Dulce Helena Siqueira Silva, Vanderlan da Silva Bolzani, Ana Marisa Fusco-Almeida, Maria José Soares Mendes-Giannini
Apoptosis is considered an escape mechanism from the host immune system for the fungus Paracoccidioides spp, and it serves as a vehicle for entry into macrophages without stimulating microbicidal activities. Recently, gp43 of P. brasiliensis was demonstrated to be involved in this process. Therefore, as a new therapeutic alternative, it is very important to study compounds that could reduce the modulation of the induction of apoptosis caused by this fungus. Decyl gallate (G14) is a known antifungal compound, and we decided to investigate its anti-apoptotic properties...
March 3, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339742/topiramate-modulates-post-infarction-inflammation-primarily-by-targeting-monocytes-or-macrophages
#7
Zhaohui Wang, Shiyuan Huang, Yuling Sheng, Xu Peng, Hui Liu, Nan Jin, Jun Cai, Yanwen Shu, Ting Li, Ping Li, Cheng Fan, Xiaofan Hu, Wenyong Zhang, Rui Long, Ya You, Caihong Huang, Yi Song, Chunhua Xiang, Jue Wang, Yong Yang, Kun Liu
Aims: Monocytes/macrophages response plays a key role in post-infarction inflammation that contributes greatly to post-infarction ventricular remodeling and cardiac rupture. Therapeutic targeting of the GABAA receptor, which is enriched in monocytes/macrophages but not expressed in the myocardium, may be possible after myocardial infarction. Methods and results: After MI was induced by ligation of the coronary artery, C57BL/6 mice were intraperitoneally administered with one specific agonist or antagonist of the GABAA receptor (topiramate or bicuculline), in the setting of presence or depletion of monocytes/macrophages...
February 17, 2017: Cardiovascular Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339650/convenient-method-for-better-preservation-of-fine-structures-of-cultured-macrophages-and-engulfed-yeast-cells-by-freeze-substitution-fixation
#8
Masashi Yamaguchi, Azusa Takahashi-Nakaguchi, Yuko Aida, Michiyo Sato-Okamoto, Hiroji Chibana
Rapid freeze-freeze substitution after glutaraldehyde fixation (CF-FS method) obtained the natural and fine structures of macrophages and engulfed yeast cells. Culturing macrophages on single hole molybdenum grids placed in culture dishes made possible the rapid freezing of cells by the 'open sandwich method'. This method may be convenient when rapid-freezing cannot be performed immediately, or when a rapid-freezing device is not available in the lab.
February 18, 2017: Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339606/testicular-abnormalities-in-mice-with-y-chromosome-deficiencies%C3%A2
#9
Victor A Ruthig, Torbjoern Nielsen, Jonathan M Riel, Yasuhiro Yamauchi, Egle A Ortega, Quinci Salvador, Monika A Ward
We recently investigated mice with Y chromosome gene contribution limited to two, one, or no Y chromosome genes in respect to their ability to produce haploid round spermatids and live offspring following round spermatid injection. Here we explored the normalcy of germ cells and Sertoli cells within seminiferous tubules, and the interstitial tissue of the testis in these mice. We performed quantitative analysis of spermatogenesis and interstitial tissue on Periodic acid-Schiff and hematoxylin-stained mouse testis sections...
February 7, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336432/behavioral-abnormalities-and-reduced-norepinephrine-in-ep4-receptor-associated-protein-eprap-deficient-mice
#10
Risako Fujikawa, Sei Higuchi, Taichi Ikedo, Manabu Nagata, Kosuke Hayashi, Tao Yang, Takeshi Miyata, Masayuki Yokode, Manabu Minami
EP4 receptor-associated protein (EPRAP) is a newly identified molecule that regulates macrophage activation. We recently demonstrated the presence of EPRAP in the mice brain; however, little is known about the function of EPRAP in this tissue. Therefore, we investigated the role of EPRAP in behavior and emotion using behavioral analysis in mice. In this study, we subjected EPRAP-deficient (KO) mice and wild-type C57BL/6 (WT) mice to a battery of behavioral tests. EPRAP-KO mice tended to have shorter latencies to fall in the wire hang test, but had normal neuromuscular strength...
March 20, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335522/extracellular-vesicles-deliver-host-and-virus-rna-and-regulate-innate-immune-response
#11
REVIEW
Takahisa Kouwaki, Masaaki Okamoto, Hirotake Tsukamoto, Yoshimi Fukushima, Hiroyuki Oshiumi
The innate immune system plays a crucial role in controlling viral infection. Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors and RIG-I-like receptors, sense viral components called pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and trigger signals to induce innate immune responses. Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, deliver functional RNA and mediate intercellular communications. Recent studies have revealed that EVs released from virus-infected cells deliver viral RNA to dendritic cells and macrophages, thereby activating PRRs in recipient cells, which results in the expression of type I interferon and pro-inflammatory cytokines...
March 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335502/catechins-and-their-therapeutic-benefits-to-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#12
REVIEW
Fei-Yan Fan, Li-Xuan Sang, Min Jiang
Catechins are natural polyphenolic phytochemicals that exist in food and medicinal plants, such as tea, legume and rubiaceae. An increasing number of studies have associated the intake of catechins-rich foods with the prevention and treatment of chronic diseases in humans, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Some studies have demonstrated that catechins could significantly inhibit the excessive oxidative stress through direct or indirect antioxidant effects and promote the activation of the antioxidative substances such as glutathione peroxidases (GPO) and glutathione (GSH), reducing the oxidative damages to the colon...
March 19, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335442/in-vitro-and-in-vivo-effects-of-gracilaria-verrucosa-extracts-on-osteoclast-differentiation
#13
Kwang-Jin Kim, Yong-Jin Lee, Yun-Ho Hwang, Kyung-Yun Kang, Sung-Tae Yee, Young-Jin Son
Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335395/essential-oil-composition-and-bioactivities-of-waldheimia-glabra-asteraceae-from-qinghai-tibet-plateau
#14
Ji De, Yan Lu, Lijun Ling, Nan Peng, Yang Zhong
Waldheimia glabra is traditionally used as incense and as an anti-influenza drug by Tibetans in China. Here, we collected W. glabra from the Gangs Rinpoche mountain at an altitude of 5200 m, and analyzed its essential oil by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) combined with the retention indices (RI). Twenty-seven compounds, representing 72.4% of the total essential oil, were identified, including α-bisabolol (20.2%), valeranone (11.8%), chamazulene (9.9%), spathulenol (8.2%), β-caryophyllene (6...
March 13, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335365/antibacterial-properties-of-visible-light-responsive-carbon-containing-titanium-dioxide-photocatalytic-nanoparticles-against-anthrax
#15
Der-Shan Sun, Jyh-Hwa Kau, Hsin-Hsien Huang, Yao-Hsuan Tseng, Wen-Shiang Wu, Hsin-Hou Chang
The bactericidal activity of conventional titanium dioxide (TiO₂) photocatalyst is effective only on irradiation by ultraviolet light, which restricts the applications of TiO₂ for use in living environments. Recently, carbon-containing TiO₂ nanoparticles [TiO₂(C) NP] were found to be a visible-light-responsive photocatalyst (VLRP), which displayed significantly enhanced antibacterial properties under visible light illumination. However, whether TiO₂(C) NPs exert antibacterial properties against Bacillus anthracis remains elusive...
December 9, 2016: Nanomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334886/glioblastoma-associated-microglia-and-macrophages-targets-for-therapies-to-improve-prognosis
#16
Candice C Poon, Susobhan Sarkar, V Wee Yong, John J P Kelly
Glioblastoma is the most common and most malignant primary adult human brain tumour. Diagnosis of glioblastoma carries a dismal prognosis. Treatment resistance and tumour recurrence are the result of both cancer cell proliferation and their interaction with the tumour microenvironment. A large proportion of the tumour microenvironment consists of an inflammatory infiltrate predominated by microglia and macrophages, which are thought to be subverted by glioblastoma cells for tumour growth. Thus, glioblastoma-associated microglia and macrophages are logical therapeutic targets...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334721/microrna-9-inhibits-nlrp3-inflammasome-activation-in-human-atherosclerosis-inflammation-cell-models-through-the-jak1-stat-signaling-pathway
#17
Yue Wang, Zhihua Han, Yuqi Fan, Junfeng Zhang, Kan Chen, Lin Gao, Huasu Zeng, Jiatian Cao, Changqian Wang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: MicroRNA-9 (miR-9) is involved in inflammatory reaction in atherosclerosis; however, its function and regulatory mechanisms remain unclear. We aimed to uncover the exact roles of miR-9 and downstream signaling pathways using in vitro human atherosclerosis models. METHODS: We used oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL)-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages, oxLDL-stimulated human primary peripheral blood monocytes and lipopolysaccharides (LPS) or Alum-stimulated human THP-1 derived macrophages as in vitro atherosclerosis inflammation models...
March 27, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334683/combined-metformin-and-insulin-treatment-reverses-metabolically-impaired-omental-adipogenesis-and-accumulation-of-4-hydroxynonenal-in-obese-diabetic-patients
#18
Morana Jaganjac, Shamma Almuraikhy, Fatima Al-Khelaifi, Mashael Al-Jaber, Moataz Bashah, Nayef A Mazloum, Kamelija Zarkovic, Neven Zarkovic, Georg Waeg, Wael Kafienah, Mohamed A Elrayess
OBJECTIVE: Obesity-associated impaired fat accumulation in the visceral adipose tissue can lead to ectopic fat deposition and increased risk of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). This study investigated whether impaired adipogenesis of omental (OM) adipose tissues and elevated 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE) accumulation contribute to this process, and if combined metformin and insulin treatment in T2DM patients could rescue this phenotype. METHODS: OM adipose tissues were obtained from forty clinically well characterized obese individuals during weight reduction surgery...
March 16, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334641/humanized-mouse-model-for-assessing-the-human-immune-response-to-xenogeneic-and-allogeneic-decellularized-biomaterials
#19
Raymond M Wang, Todd D Johnson, Jingjin He, Zhili Rong, Michelle Wong, Vishal Nigam, Atta Behfar, Yang Xu, Karen L Christman
Current assessment of biomaterial biocompatibility is typically implemented in wild type rodent models. Unfortunately, different characteristics of the immune systems in rodents versus humans limit the capability of these models to mimic the human immune response to naturally derived biomaterials. Here we investigated the utility of humanized mice as an improved model for testing naturally derived biomaterials. Two injectable hydrogels derived from decellularized porcine or human cadaveric myocardium were compared...
March 11, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334040/macrophage-origin-limits-functional-plasticity-in-helminth-bacterial-co-infection
#20
Dominik Rückerl, Sharon M Campbell, Sheelagh Duncan, Tara E Sutherland, Stephen J Jenkins, James P Hewitson, Tom A Barr, Lucy H Jackson-Jones, Rick M Maizels, Judith E Allen
Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser...
March 2017: PLoS Pathogens
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