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Meeta Pathak, O K Olstad, Liv Drolsum, Morten C Moe, Natalia Smorodinova, Sarka Kalasova, Katerina Jirsova, Bjørn Nicolaissen, Agate Noer
Patients with limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) often experience pain and photophobia due to recurrent epithelial defects and chronic inflammation of the cornea. Successfully restoring a healthy corneal surface in these patients by transplantation of ex vivo expanded human limbal epithelial cells (LECs) may alleviate these symptoms and significantly improve their quality of life. The clinical outcome of transplantation is known to be influenced by the quality of transplanted cells. Presently, several different protocols for cultivation and transplantation of LECs are in use...
October 1, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
Pravina Jeevanaraj, Zailina Hashim, Saliza Mohd Elias, Ahmad Zaharin Aris
We identified marine fish species most preferred by women at reproductive age in Selangor, Malaysia, mercury concentrations in the fish muscles, factors predicting mercury accumulation and the potential health risk. Nineteen most preferred marine fish species were purchased (n = 175) from selected fisherman's and wholesale market. Length, weight, habitat, feeding habit and trophic level were recognised. Edible muscles were filleted, dried at 80 °C, ground on an agate mortar and digested in Multiwave 3000 using HNO3 and H2O2...
September 12, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Koji Fujii, Haruhiko Watahiki, Yusuke Mita, Yasuki Iwashima, Hajime Miyaguchi, Tetsushi Kitayama, Hiroaki Nakahara, Natsuko Mizuno, Kazumasa Sekiguchi
In short tandem repeat (STR) analysis, length polymorphisms are detected by capillary electrophoresis (CE). At most STR loci, mobility shift due to sequence variation in the repeat region was thought not to affect the typing results. In our recent population studies of 1501 Japanese individuals, off-ladder calls were observed at the D12S391 locus using PowerPlex Fusion in nine samples for allele 22, one sample for allele 25, and one sample for allele 26. However, these samples were typed as ordinary alleles within the bins using GlobalFiler...
September 2016: Legal Medicine
Kazumi Matsubara, Chizuko Nishida, Yoichi Matsuda, Yoshinori Kumazawa
BACKGROUND: The discovery of differentially organized sex chromosome systems suggests that heteromorphic sex chromosomes evolved from a pair of homologous chromosomes. Whereas karyotypes are highly conserved in alethinophidian snakes, the degeneration status of the W chromosomes varies among species. The Z and W chromosomes are morphologically homomorphic in henophidian species, whereas in snakes belonging to caenophidian families the W chromosomes are highly degenerated. Snakes therefore are excellent animal models in which to study sex chromosome evolution...
2016: Zoological Letters
R Ciampi, C Romei, L Pieruzzi, A Tacito, E Molinaro, L Agate, V Bottici, F Casella, C Ugolini, G Materazzi, F Basolo, R Elisei
BACKGROUND: Papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC) thyroid carcinomas represent two distinct entities, but quite frequently, they may occur simultaneously. AIM: To provide genetic analysis of PTC and MTC occurring in the same patient (PTC/MTC) to elucidate their origin. METHODS: Sequencing analysis of RAS, BRAF and RET oncogenes hot spots mutations in tumoral and normal tissues of 24 PTC/MTC patients. RESULTS: Two of 24 patients (8...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Endocrinological Investigation
Nicole L Kallewaard, Davide Corti, Patrick J Collins, Ursula Neu, Josephine M McAuliffe, Ebony Benjamin, Leslie Wachter-Rosati, Frances J Palmer-Hill, Andy Q Yuan, Philip A Walker, Matthias K Vorlaender, Siro Bianchi, Barbara Guarino, Anna De Marco, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Gloria Agatic, Mathilde Foglierini, Debora Pinna, Blanca Fernandez-Rodriguez, Alexander Fruehwirth, Chiara Silacci, Roksana W Ogrodowicz, Stephen R Martin, Federica Sallusto, JoAnn A Suzich, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Qing Zhu, Steven J Gamblin, John J Skehel
Influenza virus remains a threat because of its ability to evade vaccine-induced immune responses due to antigenic drift. Here, we describe the isolation, evolution, and structure of a broad-spectrum human monoclonal antibody (mAb), MEDI8852, effectively reacting with all influenza A hemagglutinin (HA) subtypes. MEDI8852 uses the heavy-chain VH6-1 gene and has higher potency and breadth when compared to other anti-stem antibodies. MEDI8852 is effective in mice and ferrets with a therapeutic window superior to that of oseltamivir...
July 28, 2016: Cell
Gillian M Keating
A fixed-dose tablet comprising the NS5A inhibitor ombitasvir, the NS3/4A inhibitor paritaprevir and ritonavir (ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir) (Technivie(®), Viekirax(®)) is available for use, in combination with ribavirin, for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 4 infection. High sustained virological response rates at 12 weeks post-treatment (SVR12) were achieved in treatment-naive or -experienced patients with chronic HCV genotype 4 infection, including patients without cirrhosis who received ombitasvir plus paritaprevir and ritonavir in combination with ribavirin for 12 weeks (SVR12 100 %) (PEARL-I trial), patients with compensated cirrhosis who received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ribavirin for 12 or 16 weeks (SVR12 97 and 98 %) (AGATE-I trial), or Egyptian patients without cirrhosis who received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ribavirin for 12 weeks (SVR12 94 %) or with compensated cirrhosis who received ombitasvir/paritaprevir/ritonavir plus ribavirin for 12 or 24 weeks (SVR12 97 and 93 %) (AGATE-II trial)...
August 2016: Drugs
David Viola, Laura Valerio, Eleonora Molinaro, Laura Agate, Valeria Bottici, Agnese Biagini, Loredana Lorusso, Virginia Cappagli, Letizia Pieruzzi, Carlotta Giani, Elena Sabini, Paolo Passannati, Luciana Puleo, Antonio Matrone, Benedetta Pontillo-Contillo, Valentina Battaglia, Salvatore Mazzeo, Paolo Vitti, Rossella Elisei
Thyroid cancer is rare, but it is the most frequent endocrine malignancy. Its prognosis is generally favorable, especially in cases of well-differentiated thyroid cancers (DTCs), such as papillary and follicular cancers, which have survival rates of approximately 95% at 40 years. However, 15-20% of cases became radioiodine refractory (RAI-R), and until now, no other treatments have been effective. The same problems are found in cases of poorly differentiated (PDTC) and anaplastic (ATC) thyroid cancers and in at least 30% of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) cases, which are very aggressive and not sensitive to radioiodine...
April 2016: Endocrine-related Cancer
Alban Bailliez, Olivier Lairez, Charles Merlin, Nicolas Piriou, Damien Legallois, Tanguy Blaire, Denis Agostini, Frederic Valette, Alain Manrique
UNLABELLED: This study compared two SPECT cameras with cadmium-zinc-telluride (CZT) detectors to a conventional Anger camera with cardiofocal collimators for the assessment of left ventricular (LV) function in a phantom and patients. METHODS: A gated dynamic cardiac phantom was used. Eighteen acquisitions were processed on each CZT camera and the conventional camera. The total number of counts within a myocardial volume of interest varied from 0.25 kcts to 1.5 Mcts...
September 2016: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Koji Fujii, Yasuki Iwashima, Haruhiko Watahiki, Yusuke Mita, Tetsushi Kitayama, Hiroaki Nakahara, Natsuko Mizuno, Kazumasa Sekiguchi
Short tandem repeat (STR) typing is widely used in forensic investigation. When the same DNA sample is analyzed with different STR typing kits, a typing discrepancy is occasionally observed. In this study, we examined the cause of a typing discrepancy in a sample at D5S818 locus. This sample was designated as 10, 12 using Identifiler(®) , Identifiler(®) Plus, GlobalFiler(®) , PowerPlex(®) 16HS, and PowerPlex(®) 18D, but as 9.3, 12 using PowerPlex(®) Fusion. Sequencing results indicated that the shorter allele in the sample had a deletion (U31Tdel) at 31 nucleotides upstream of the repeat region (AGAT)10 ...
May 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
Monica Cipollini, Gisella Figlioli, Giuseppe Maccari, Sonia Garritano, Chiara De Santi, Ombretta Melaiu, Elisa Barone, Franco Bambi, Stefano Ermini, Giovanni Pellegrini, Alfonso Cristaudo, Rudy Foddis, Alessandra Bonotti, Cristina Romei, Agnese Vivaldi, Laura Agate, Eleonora Molinari, Roberto Barale, Asta Forsti, Kari Hemminki, Rossella Elisei, Federica Gemignani, Stefano Landi
The thyrocytes are exposed to high levels of oxidative stress which could induce DNA damages. Base excision repair (BER) is one of the principal mechanisms of defense against oxidative DNA damage, however recent evidences suggest that also nucleotide excision repair (NER) could be involved. The aim of present work was to identify novel differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) risk variants in BER and NER genes. For this purpose, the most strongly associated SNPs within NER and BER genes found in our previous GWAS on DTC were selected and replicated in an independent series of samples for a new case-control study...
May 2016: DNA Repair
Larra Agate, Deborah Beam, Collen Bucci, Yegor Dukashin, Raneem Jo'Beh, Kelsey O'Brien, Brooke A Jude
In this citizen science-aided, college laboratory-based microbiology research project, secondary school students collaborate with college research students on an investigation centered around bacterial species in the local watershed. This study specifically investigated the prevalence of violacein-producing bacterial isolates, as violacein has been demonstrated as a potential bioremediation treatment for outbreaks of the worldwide invasive chytrid, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). The impact of this invasion has been linked to widespread amphibian decline, and tracking of the spread of Bd is currently ongoing...
March 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
N Koshoridze, Z Kuchukashvili, K Menabde, Sh Lekiashvili, M Koshoridze
Stress represents one of the main problems of modern humanity. This study was done for understanding more clearly alterations in creatine content of the brain under psycho-emotional stress induced by long-term social isolation. It was shown that under 30 days social isolation creatine amount in the brain was arisen, while decreasing concentrations of synthesizing enzymes (AGAT, GAMT) and creatine transporter protein (CrT). Another important point was that such changes were accompanied by down-regulation of creatine kinase (CK), therefore the enzyme's concentration was lowered...
February 2016: Georgian Medical News
Paola De Benedictis, Andrea Minola, Elena Rota Nodari, Roberta Aiello, Barbara Zecchin, Angela Salomoni, Mathilde Foglierini, Gloria Agatic, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Rachel Lavenir, Anthony Lepelletier, Emma Bentley, Robin Weiss, Giovanni Cattoli, Ilaria Capua, Federica Sallusto, Edward Wright, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Hervé Bourhy, Davide Corti
Currently available rabies post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) for use in humans includes equine or human rabies immunoglobulins (RIG). The replacement of RIG with an equally or more potent and safer product is strongly encouraged due to the high costs and limited availability of existing RIG. In this study, we identified two broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies that represent a valid and affordable alternative to RIG in rabies PEP. Memory B cells from four selected vaccinated donors were immortalized and monoclonal antibodies were tested for neutralizing activity and epitope specificity...
2016: EMBO Molecular Medicine
Chinta Someswara Rao, S Viswanadha Raju
Next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies have been rapidly applied in biomedical and biological research in recent years. To provide the comprehensive NGS resource for the research, in this paper , we have considered 10 loci/codi/repeats TAGA, TCAT, GAAT, AGAT, AGAA, GATA, TATC, CTTT, TCTG and TCTA. Then we developed the NGS Tandem Repeat Database (TandemRepeatDB) for all the chromosomes of Homo sapiens, Callithrix jacchus, Chlorocebus sabaeus, Gorilla gorilla, Macaca fascicularis, Macaca mulatta, Nomascus leucogenys, Pan troglodytes, Papio anubis and Pongo abelii genome data sets for all those locis...
March 2016: Genomics Data
E V Borisova, S A Afanasyev, T Yu Rebrova, I V Kisteneva, R E Batalov, S V Popov
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of sotalol depending on the magnitude of changes in adrenal responsiveness and autonomic nervous system tone in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF). SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-six patients with paroxysmal AF in the presence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and hypertension were examined. Sinus rhythm variability and sympathicotonic and vagotonic disorders were studied in patients with paroxysmal AF before and during sotalol treatment...
2016: Terapevticheskiĭ Arkhiv
Malte Stockebrand, Ali Sasani Nejad, Axel Neu, Kusum K Kharbanda, Kathrin Sauter, Stefan Schillemeit, Dirk Isbrandt, Chi-Un Choe
Skeletal muscles require energy either at constant low (e.g., standing and posture) or immediate high rates (e.g., exercise). To fulfill these requirements, myocytes utilize the phosphocreatine (PCr)/creatine (Cr) system as a fast energy buffer and shuttle. We have generated mice lacking L-arginine:glycine amidino transferase (AGAT), the first enzyme of creatine biosynthesis. These AGAT(-/-) (d/d) mice are devoid of the PCr/Cr system and reveal severely altered oxidative phosphorylation. In addition, they exhibit complete resistance to diet-induced obesity, which is associated with a chronic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase in muscle and white adipose tissue...
August 2016: Amino Acids
Davide Corti, John Misasi, Sabue Mulangu, Daphne A Stanley, Masaru Kanekiyo, Suzanne Wollen, Aurélie Ploquin, Nicole A Doria-Rose, Ryan P Staupe, Michael Bailey, Wei Shi, Misook Choe, Hadar Marcus, Emily A Thompson, Alberto Cagigi, Chiara Silacci, Blanca Fernandez-Rodriguez, Laurent Perez, Federica Sallusto, Fabrizia Vanzetta, Gloria Agatic, Elisabetta Cameroni, Neville Kisalu, Ingelise Gordon, Julie E Ledgerwood, John R Mascola, Barney S Graham, Jean-Jacques Muyembe-Tamfun, John C Trefry, Antonio Lanzavecchia, Nancy J Sullivan
Ebola virus disease in humans is highly lethal, with case fatality rates ranging from 25 to 90%. There is no licensed treatment or vaccine against the virus, underscoring the need for efficacious countermeasures. We ascertained that a human survivor of the 1995 Kikwit Ebola virus disease outbreak maintained circulating antibodies against the Ebola virus surface glycoprotein for more than a decade after infection. From this survivor we isolated monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) that neutralize recent and previous outbreak variants of Ebola virus and mediate antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity in vitro...
March 18, 2016: Science
Layane Hanna-El-Daher, Olivier Braissant
While it has long been thought that most of cerebral creatine is of peripheral origin, the last 20 years has provided evidence that the creatine synthetic pathway (AGAT and GAMT enzymes) is expressed in the brain together with the creatine transporter (SLC6A8). It has also been shown that SLC6A8 is expressed by microcapillary endothelial cells at the blood-brain barrier, but is absent from surrounding astrocytes, raising the concept that the blood-brain barrier has a limited permeability for peripheral creatine...
August 2016: Amino Acids
Ekkehard Haen
Many drugs influence vital functions via the sympathetic and the parasympathetic system. Besides that hypersensitivity reactions and reactions by chemical radicals that arise in drug metabolism may directly harm the heart muscle cell. Cardiac adverse drug reactions (ADR) result in disturbances of the heart rhythm, negative inotropic effects, direct damage to the heart muscle cell, and reduced perfusion of heart tissue. Their importance is often neglected because pharmacologically similar drugs are licensed for completely different indications...
January 2016: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
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