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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551877/loss-of-gait-control-assessed-by-cognitive-motor-dual-tasks-pros-and-cons-in-detecting-people-at-risk-of-developing-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#1
REVIEW
Maroua Belghali, Nathalie Chastan, Fabien Cignetti, Damien Davenne, Leslie M Decker
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases are age-related progressive neurodegenerative diseases of increasing prevalence worldwide. In the absence of curative therapy, current research is interested in prevention, by identifying subtle signs of early-stage neurodegeneration. Today, the field of behavioral neuroscience has emerged as one of the most promising areas of research on this topic. Recently, it has been shown that the exacerbation of gait disorders under dual-task conditions (i.e., simultaneous performance of cognitive and motor tasks) could be a characteristic feature of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases...
May 27, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551869/impact-of-chronic-stress-on-the-spatial-learning-and-gr-pkac-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-and-cortex-in-rats-following-cholinergic-depletion
#2
Sun-Young Lee, Woo-Hyun Cho, Yo-Seob Lee, Jung-Soo Han
Studies have shown that the removal of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus induces dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and decreases the number of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Subsequent studies have revealed that the loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus reduces the expression of GRs and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling through interactions with the cytoplasmic catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc). We examined the effects of chronic stress on cognitive status and GR-PKAc-NF-κB signaling in rats with a loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex...
May 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551706/oral-administration-of-ethanolamine-glycerophospholipid-containing-a-high-level-of-plasmalogen-improves-memory-impairment-in-amyloid-%C3%AE-infused-rats
#3
Shinji Yamashita, Michio Hashimoto, Abdul Md Haque, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Mikio Kinoshita, Osamu Shido, Teruo Miyazawa
Ethanolamine plasmalogen (PlsEtn), a major phospholipid in neuronal membranes [60-90 mol% of ethanolamine glycerophospholipid (EtnGpl)], is specifically decreased in brains from patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study investigated how PlsEtn administration affects cognitive deficits and lipid composition in an animal model of AD. AD model rats were infused with amyloid-β (Aβ) into the cerebral ventricle and divided into three groups. Control, Egg, and Ascidian groups were then orally administered vehicle, egg yolk EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 10 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), or ascidian viscera EtnGpl (260 μmol as EtnGpl/kg BW/day; 209 μmol as PlsEtn/kg BW/day), respectively...
May 27, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551695/down-syndrome-increased-risk-of-dementia-and-lipid-disturbances
#4
Anna Kłosowska, Agnieszka Ćwiklińska, Agnieszka Kuchta, Agata Berlińska, Maciej Jankowski, Jolanta Wierzba
Down syndrome (DS) is the most common chromosomal aberration and genetically determined cause of intellectual disability. DS patients often present with some congenital defects and chronic diseases, including early onset dementia, which affects 70% of DS patients over 55 years of age and has a clinical presentation similar to Alzheimer disease (AD). The symptoms of DS originate from excessive genetic material within the "critical region" of the 21st chromosome. The "critical region" encompasses genes potentially associated with increase risk of dementia, e...
2017: Developmental Period Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551556/multi-modal-classification-of-neurodegenerative-disease-by-progressive-graph-based-transductive-learning
#5
Zhengxia Wang, Xiaofeng Zhu, Ehsan Adeli, Yingying Zhu, Feiping Nie, Brent Munsell, Guorong Wu
Graph-based transductive learning (GTL) is a powerful machine learning technique that is used when sufficient training data is not available. In particular, conventional GTL approaches first construct a fixed inter-subject relation graph that is based on similarities in voxel intensity values in the feature domain, which can then be used to propagate the known phenotype data (i.e., clinical scores and labels) from the training data to the testing data in the label domain. However, this type of graph is exclusively learned in the feature domain, and primarily due to outliers in the observed features, may not be optimal for label propagation in the label domain...
May 13, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551354/targeting-free-radicals-in-oxidative-stress-related-human-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Patrik Poprac, Klaudia Jomova, Miriama Simunkova, Vojtech Kollar, Christopher J Rhodes, Marian Valko
Cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by (i) opposing biological mechanisms, (ii) an inverse correlation between their incidences, and (iii) oxidative stress being a common denominator of both diseases. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells from oncogenic signaling and/or metabolic disturbances leads to upregulation of cellular antioxidant capacity to maintain ROS levels below a toxic threshold. Combining drugs that induce high levels of ROS with compounds that suppress cellular antioxidant capacity by depleting antioxidant systems [glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thioredoxin (TRX)] and/or targeting glucose metabolism represents a potential anticancer strategy...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551099/wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-plays-an-essential-role-in-%C3%AE-7-nicotinic-receptor-mediated-neuroprotection-of-dopaminergic-neurons-in-a-mouse-parkinson-s-disease-model
#7
Yuan Liu, Shuai Hao, Beibei Yang, Yi Fan, Xiaodong Qin, Yun Chen, Jun Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder with an incidence second only to Alzheimer's disease. The main pathological feature of PD is the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Nicotinic receptor agonists are neuroprotective in several PD models and there is considerable evidence that α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (α7-nAChRs) are important therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative diseases. However, the involvement of α7-nAChRs and underlying signaling mechanisms in PD pathogenesis are unclear...
May 24, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551028/bidirectional-interactions-between-diabetes-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
REVIEW
Mitsuru Shinohara, Naoyuki Sato
Clinical studies have indicated that diabetes is associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and neurodegeneration. However, the mechanisms underlying this association have not been fully elucidated. Diabetes causes neurodegeneration by inducing changes in vascular function and structure, glucose metabolism, and insulin signaling, as well as by modifying β-amyloid (Aβ)/tau metabolisms. In turn, AD influences systemic glucose metabolism by inducing behavioral changes, memory disturbances, hypothalamic dysfunction, frailty and possibly plasma/peripheral Aβ level changes...
May 24, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551012/activation-of-cb2-receptor-system-restores-cognitive-capacity-and-hippocampal-sox2-expression-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Jiang Wu, Mark Hocevar, Joseph F Foss, B Bihua Bie, Mohamed Naguib
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by neuroinflammation, extensive deposits of amyloid-β aggregates, and loss of memory and cognitive abilities. The brains of patients with AD show increased expression of cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CB2) receptors and glial markers. CB2 receptors act as a negative feedback regulator; when activated by a CB2 agonist, they can help limit the extent of the neuroinflammatory response and the subsequent development of neuronal damage in the central nervous system...
May 24, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550283/high-resolution-bioelectrical-imaging-of-a%C3%AE-induced-network-dysfunction-on-cmos-meas-for-neurotoxicity-and-rescue-studies
#10
Hayder Amin, Thierry Nieus, Davide Lonardoni, Alessandro Maccione, Luca Berdondini
Neurotoxicity and the accumulation of extracellular amyloid-beta1-42 (Aβ) peptides are associated with the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and correlate with neuronal activity and network dysfunctions, ultimately leading to cellular death. However, research on neurodegenerative diseases is hampered by the paucity of reliable readouts and experimental models to study such functional decline from an early onset and to test rescue strategies within networks at cellular resolution. To overcome this important obstacle, we demonstrate a simple yet powerful in vitro AD model based on a rat hippocampal cell culture system that exploits large-scale neuronal recordings from 4096-electrodes on CMOS-chips for electrophysiological quantifications...
May 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550264/depressive-symptoms-are-associated-with-progression-to-dementia-in-patients-with-amyloid-positive-mild-cognitive-impairment
#11
Byungseung Moon, Seongheon Kim, Young Ho Park, Jae-Sung Lim, Young Chul Youn, Sang Yun Kim, Jae-Won Jang
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms are prevalent in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and are considered to be a risk factor for progression to dementia. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether depressive symptoms in MCI promote disease progression in a manner related to amyloid status, and to determine the relationship between depressive symptoms and longitudinal cerebral structural changes. METHODS: Baseline data for 336 patients with MCI (75 with depression and 261 without) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study were analyzed...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550262/increased-plasma-homocysteine-level-is%C3%A2-associated-with-executive-dysfunction-in%C3%A2-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Sai Tian, Jing Han, Rong Huang, Jie Sun, Rongrong Cai, Yanjue Shen, Shaohua Wang
BACKGROUND: Homocysteine (Hcy) is involved in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the role of Hcy in T2DM patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and to determine whether methylene tetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) C677T or cystathionine beta-synthase (CBS) 844ins68 polymorphism is related to T2DM-associated MCI. METHODS: We recruited 285 T2DM patients and divided them into two groups, 140 patients with MCI, and 145 healthy-cognition controls, on the basis of Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) scores...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550261/effect-of-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-genotype-on-metabolic-biomarkers-in-aging-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Jill Morris K, Roxanne Adeline Z Uy, Eric D Vidoni, Heather M Wilkins, Ashley E Archer, John P Thyfault, John M Miles, Jeffrey M Burns
Alzheimer's disease (AD) may have heterogeneous pathophysiological underpinnings, with risk factors including apolipoprotein rmvarep4 (APOE4) genotype and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that distinct phenotypes exist within AD. We examined APOE4 and metabolic biomarkers in 338 subjects (n = 213 nondemented (ND), n = 125 AD). We further characterized steady state free fatty acid (FFA) levels in a subset of 45 participants who had also participated in a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was elevated in AD versus ND (p = 0...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550260/living-alone-with-alzheimer-s-disease-data-from-svedem-the-swedish-dementia-registry
#14
Pavla Cermakova, Maja Nelson, Juraj Secnik, Sara Garcia-Ptacek, Kristina Johnell, Johan Fastbom, Lena Kilander, Bengt Winblad, Maria Eriksdotter, Dorota Religa
BACKGROUND: Many people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) live alone in their own homes. There is a lack of knowledge about whether these individuals receive the same quality of diagnostics and treatment for AD as patients who are cohabiting. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the diagnostic work-up and treatment of community-dwelling AD patients who live alone. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional cohort study based on data from the Swedish Dementia Registry (SveDem)...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550259/transport-of-non-transferrin-bound-iron-to-the-brain-implications-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Ajai K Tripathi, Shilpita Karmakar, Abhishek Asthana, Ajay Ashok, Vilok Desai, Shounak Baksi, Neena Singh
A direct correlation between brain iron and Alzheimer's disease (AD) raises questions regarding the transport of non-transferrin-bound iron (NTBI), a toxic but less researched pool of circulating iron that is likely to increase due to pathological and/or iatrogenic systemic iron overload. Here, we compared the distribution of radiolabeled-NTBI (59Fe-NTBI) and transferrin-bound iron (59Fe-Tf) in mouse models of iron overload in the absence or presence of inflammation. Following a short pulse, most of the 59Fe-NTBI was taken up by the liver, followed by the kidney, pancreas, and heart...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550258/effect-of-apoe-genotype-on-amyloid-deposition-brain-volume-and-memory-in-cognitively-normal-older-individuals
#16
Yen Ying Lim, Robert Williamson, Simon M Laws, Victor L Villemagne, Pierrick Bourgeat, Christopher Fowler, Stephanie Rainey-Smith, Olivier Salvado, Ralph N Martins, Christopher C Rowe, Colin L Masters, Paul Maruff
BACKGROUND: The association between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4 allele and high risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia before the age of 80 has been recognized for over 30 years. However, the timing and mode of action of APOE is not understood, nor has there been a detailed analysis of the effect of APOE genotype on memory, hippocampal volume, and amyloid-β (Aβ) levels in cognitively normal adults. OBJECTIVE: Examine the effect of APOE allelic genotype on the relationship between Aβ levels, hippocampal volume, and memory in cognitively normal adults...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550257/increasing-body-mass-index-at-midlife-is-associated-with-increased-cortical-thinning-in-alzheimer-s-disease-vulnerable-regions
#17
Marnie E Shaw, Walter P Abhayaratna, Kaarin J Anstey, Nicolas Cherbuin
Higher body mass index (BMI) at midlife is associated with greater decreases in cognitive function at older age as well as increased Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk, compared to those with normal BMI. Here, we tested whether BMI at midlife was associated with cortical thinning in brain regions known to be affected in early AD. We examined a large sample (n = 404) of midlife individuals (44-49 years) from the PATH population-based study. Individuals were scanned with magnetic resonance imaging (1.5T) on up to three occasions over eight years...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550255/sembragiline-in-moderate-alzheimer-s-disease-results-of-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-phase-ii-trial-mayflower-road
#18
Stephane Nave, Rachelle S Doody, Mercè Boada, Timo Grimmer, Juha-Matti Savola, Paul Delmar, Meike Pauly-Evers, Tania Nikolcheva, Christian Czech, Edilio Borroni, Benedicte Ricci, Juergen Dukart, Marie Mannino, Tracie Carey, Emma Moran, Inma Gilaberte, Nicoletta Milani Muelhardt, Irene Gerlach, Luca Santarelli, Susanne Ostrowitzki, Paulo Fontoura
BACKGROUND: Sembragiline is a potent, selective, long-acting, and reversible MAO-B inhibitor developed as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety, tolerability, and efficacy of sembragiline in patients with moderate AD. METHODS: In this Phase II study (NCT01677754), 542 patients with moderate dementia (MMSE 13-20) on background acetylcholinesterase inhibitors with/without memantine were randomized (1:1:1) to sembragiline 1 mg, 5 mg, or placebo once daily orally for 52 weeks...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550254/precuneus-failures-in-subjects-of-the-psen1-e280a-family-at-risk-of-developing-alzheimer-s-disease-detected-using-quantitative-electroencephalography
#19
John Fredy Ochoa, Joan Francesc Alonso, Jon Edinson Duque, Carlos Andrés Tobón, Ana Baena, Francisco Lopera, Miguel Angel Mañanas, Alher Mauricio Hernández
BACKGROUND: Presenilin-1 (PSEN1) mutations are the most common cause of familial early onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). The PSEN1 E280A (E280A) mutation has an autosomal dominant inheritance and is involved in the production of amyloid-β. The largest family group of carriers with E280A mutation is found in Antioquia, Colombia. The study of mutation carriers provides a unique opportunity to identify brain changes in stages previous to AD. Electroencephalography (EEG) is a low cost and minimally invasiveness technique that enables the following of brain changes in AD...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550253/is-sleep-disruption-a-risk-factor-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Arthur Cassa Macedo, Sara Balouch, Naji Tabet
Sleep disturbances are routinely encountered in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and affect about 25-40% of patients in the mild-to-moderate stages of the disease. In many, sleep pathology may represent a symptom of the underlying neurodegeneration. However, a history of sleep disruption occurring years prior to onset of cognitive symptoms could represent a potential risk factor for AD. The aim of the present narrative review was to evaluate current evidence linking sleep disturbances with AD development and to understand the mechanisms that may contribute to this...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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