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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223100/activation-of-anti-oxidant-nrf2-signaling-by-enone-analogues-of-curcumin
#1
Lorraine M Deck, Lucy A Hunsaker, Thomas A Vander Jagt, Lisa J Whalen, Robert E Royer, David L Vander Jagt
Inflammation and oxidative stress are common in many chronic diseases. Targeting signaling pathways that contribute to these conditions may have therapeutic potential. The transcription factor Nrf2 is a major regulator of phase II detoxification and anti-oxidant genes as well as anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective genes. Nrf2 is widespread in the CNS and is recognized as an important regulator of brain inflammation. The natural product curcumin exhibits numerous biological activities including ability to induce the expression of Nrf2-dependent phase II and anti-oxidant enzymes...
November 21, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222967/stimulation-of-the-endogenous-incretin-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-peptide-by-enteral-dextrose-improves-glucose-homeostasis-and-inflammation-in-murine-endotoxemia
#2
Faraaz Ali Shah, Srikanth Singamsetty, Lanping Guo, Byron W Chuan, Sherie McDonald, Bryce A Cooper, Brett J O'Donnell, Darko Stefanovski, Burton Wice, Yingze Zhang, Christopher P O'Donnell, Bryan J McVerry
Loss of glucose homeostasis during sepsis is associated with increased organ dysfunction and higher mortality. Novel therapeutic strategies to promote euglycemia in sepsis are needed. We have previously shown that early low-level intravenous (IV) dextrose suppresses pancreatic insulin secretion and induces insulin resistance in septic mice, resulting in profound hyperglycemia and worsened systemic inflammation. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of low-level dextrose via the enteral route would stimulate intestinal incretin hormone production, potentiate insulin secretion in a glucose-dependent manner, and thereby improve glycemic control in the acute phase of sepsis...
November 21, 2017: Translational Research: the Journal of Laboratory and Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222961/liver-zonation-in-children-with-nafld-associations-with-dietary-fructose-and-uric-acid-concentrations
#3
Valerio Nobili, Antonella Mosca, Rita De Vito, Massimiliano Raponi, Eleonora Scorletti, Christopher D Byrne
BACKGROUND & AIMS: As dietary components are delivered directly to the periportal zone of the liver lobule, there is the potential for greater injury in this zone (zone 1) compared to the perivenous zone (zone 3). We investigated the associations between dietary fructose consumption and uric acid concentrations and differential zonal injury in periportal and perivenous zones. METHODS: 271 children's histological images were scored in five periportal and five perivenous...
December 9, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222897/platelet-related-cytokines-among-normal-body-mass-index-overweight-and-obese-malaysians
#4
Nasrin Riyahi, Eusni Rahayu Mohd Tohit, Subashini C Thambiah, Zuriati Ibrahim
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Recent studies have reported that obesity is associated with platelet activation and systemic inflammation. Malaysia has the highest prevalence of obesity, hence, this research is performed to evaluate the development of low-grade inflammation and platelet activation, measured using soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) and soluble P-selectin (sP-sel), and to determine their association with obesity. In addition, we assessed the mean platelet volume (MPV) and platelet count (PLT), which are novel parameters consistently associated with obesity...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222888/common-food-antimicrobials-effects-on-cellular-inflammation-and-oxidative-damage-and-their-estimated-occurrence-in-singapore
#5
Claudine Loong, Shin Yih Tsen, Xing Lin Ho, Muhammed Faiz B Raman, Wai Mun Loke
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The prevalence and potential health effects of common food antimicrobials in processed foods and beverages are relatively unknown in Singapore. The occurrence of chemical antimicrobials in processed foods and beverages and their effects on inflammation and oxidative stress in vitro were examined. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: The occurrence of antimicrobials in 1605 processed food and 359 beverage items were examined by surveying the ingredients on the product labels...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222885/chronic-low-grade-inflammation-measured-by-dietary-inflammatory-index-and-its-association-with-obesity-among-school-teachers-in-yangon-myanmar
#6
Khin Mittar Moe San, Umi Fahmida, Fiastuti Wijaksono, Htin Lin, Ko Ko Zaw, Min Kyaw Htet
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study was aimed to investigate the association between obesity and chronic low grade inflammation (CLGI) measured by Dietary Inflammatory Index (DII) as a proxy indicator of CLGI among obese and non-obese teachers. METHODS AND STUDY DESIGN: We conducted a cross sectional study among 128 non-obese (BMI <25) and 116 obese (BMI >=25) female teachers aged 25-60 years from six urban schools in Yangon, Myanmar between January and March 2015...
2018: Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222795/a-model-of-systemic-inflammation-to-study-neuroinflammation
#7
Vincenzo Sorrenti, Pietro Giusti, Morena Zusso
Increasing evidence suggests that neurodegeneration occurs in part because the environment is affected during disease in a cascade of processes collectively termed neuroinflammation. This is a reactive response of the central nervous system against noxious elements that interfere with tissue homeostasis. Neuroinflammation is mediated by inflammatory molecules released by microglial cells. Understanding and controlling interactions between the immune system and microglial activation might represent the key to prevent or delay the onset of central nervous system diseases...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222794/active-induction-of-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis-in-c57bl-6-mice
#8
Gabriella Contarini, Pietro Giusti, Stephen D Skaper
The protocol in this chapter presents a method to actively induce experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), one of the most widely used animal models to study efficacy of potential drugs for treatment of multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory, demyelinating disease of the central nervous system and the most common cause of chronic neurological impairment in young people. In this model EAE is induced in female C57BL/6 mice by immunization with an emulsion of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (fragment 35-55) in complete Freund's adjuvant, followed by administration of pertussis toxin in phosphate-buffered saline...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222767/platelet-counts-and-liver-enzymes-after-gastric-bypass-surgery
#9
Hans-Erik Johansson, Anna Wåhlén, Erica Aldenbäck, Arvo Haenni
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with chronic inflammation, liver steatosis and increased liver enzymes such as gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT), markers for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and liver fat content. Increased platelet counts (PCs) are a biomarker reflecting inflammation and the degree of fibrosis in NAFLD. We investigated alterations in PCs, GGT, ALT, C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGBP)...
December 8, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222629/postinflammatory-hyperpigmentation-epidemiology-clinical-presentation-pathogenesis-and-treatment
#10
REVIEW
Bridget P Kaufman, Taulun Aman, Andrew F Alexis
Postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) is a reactive hypermelanosis that develops following cutaneous inflammation. Common causes of PIH include intrinsic skin conditions (e.g., acne and eczema) as well as external insults to the skin, such as burn injuries and dermatologic procedures. PIH more commonly occurs in individuals with darker skin, for whom it is often a source of significant psychological distress. Several therapeutic modalities are available for the treatment of PIH, including topical agents, chemical peels, and energy-based devices...
December 8, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222481/hypoxia-inducible-factor-prolyl-4-hydroxylase-1-is-a-convergent-point-in-the-reciprocal-negative-regulation-of-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-p53-signaling-pathways
#11
Karim Ullah, Ann-Helen Rosendahl, Valerio Izzi, Ulrich Bergmann, Taina Pihlajaniemi, Joni M Mäki, Johanna Myllyharju
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF1α) induces the expression of several hundred genes in hypoxia aiming at restoration of oxygen homeostasis. HIF prolyl-4-hydroxylases (HIF-P4Hs) regulate the stability of HIF1α in an oxygen-dependent manner. Hypoxia is a common feature in inflammation and cancer and the HIF pathway is closely linked with the inflammatory NF-κB and tumor suppressor p53 pathways. Here we show that genetic inactivation or chemical inhibition of HIF-P4H-1 leads to downregulation of proinflammatory genes, while proapoptotic genes are upregulated...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#12
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222448/effect-of-qianghuo-erhuang-decoction-on-t-regulatory-and-t-helper-17-cells-in-treatment-of-adjuvant-induced-arthritis-in-rats
#13
Can Qian, Mei Kuang, Yong Wang
QianghuoErhuang Decoction (QED) is an effective recipe in treating rheumatoid arthritis. The present study aimed to explore the effects of QED on Treg and Th17 in adjuvant arthritis (AA) model. The study included 6 group rats: normal control group, AA group, AA + methotrexate (MTX) group, AA + high, moderate, and low dose QED groups. The arthritis score was significantly decreased in the MTX and high-dose QED groups compared with the AA group on days 24 and 28 (P < 0.01), respectively. The synovial tissue inflammation was attenuated by histological observation, and the proliferation of splenocytes was significantly inhibited in MTX and high-dose QED groups (P < 0...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222421/the-transcriptomic-signature-of-disease-development-and-progression-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#14
Sophie Cazanave, Alexei Podtelezhnikov, Kristian Jensen, Mulugeta Seneshaw, Divya P Kumar, Hae-Ki Min, Prasanna K Santhekadur, Bubu Banini, Adolfo Gabriele Mauro, Abdul M Oseini, Robert Vincent, Keith Q Tanis, Andrea L Webber, Liangsu Wang, Pierre Bedossa, Faridoddin Mirshahi, Arun J Sanyal
A longitudinal molecular model of the development and progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) over time is lacking. We have recently validated a high fat/sugar water-induced animal (an isogenic strain of C57BL/6 J:129S1/SvImJ mice) model of NAFLD that closely mimics most aspects of human disease. The hepatic transcriptome of such mice with fatty liver (8 weeks), steatohepatitis with early fibrosis (16-24 weeks) and advanced fibrosis (52 weeks) after initiation of the diet was evaluated and compared to mice on chow diet...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222419/probenecid-arrests-the-progression-of-pronounced-clinical-symptoms-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Nadine Hainz, Sandra Wolf, Artjom Beck, Stefan Wagenpfeil, Thomas Tschernig, Carola Meier
While it has been established that Probenecid (PBN) prevents the onset of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in mice, it is not clear whether it has any effect on already manifest EAE. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze the therapeutic effect of PBN in pronounced EAE. Mice with manifest clinical symptoms of EAE were either treated with PBN or solvent for 20 days, or they were left untreated. The clinical symptoms were monitored daily. Inflammation, demyelination and oligodendrocyte numbers were determined in the spinal cord...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222347/pioglitazone-inhibits-periprostatic-white-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-obese-mice
#16
Miki Miyazawa, Kotha Subbaramaiah, Priya Bhardwaj, Xi K Zhou, Hanhan Wang, Domenick J Falcone, Dilip D Giri, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with an increased incidence of high-grade prostate cancer (PC) and poor prognosis for PC patients. Recently, we showed that obesity-related periprostatic white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation, characterized by crown-like structures (CLS) consisting of dead or dying adipocytes surrounded by macrophages, was associated with high-grade PC. It's possible, therefore, that agents that suppress periprostatic WAT inflammation will alter the development or progression of PC. Pioglitazone, a ligand of PPARγ is used to treat diabetes and possesses anti-inflammatory properties...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222346/adiposity-inflammation-and-breast-cancer-pathogenesis-in-asian-women
#17
Neil M Iyengar, I-Chun Chen, Xi K Zhou, Dilip D Giri, Domenick J Falcone, Lisle A Winston, Hanhan Wang, Samantha Williams, Yen-Shen Lu, Tsu-Hsin Hsueh, Ann-Lii Cheng, Clifford A Hudis, Ching-Hung Lin, Andrew J Dannenberg
Obesity is associated with white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation in the breast, elevated levels of the estrogen biosynthetic enzyme, aromatase, and systemic changes that predispose to breast cancer development. We examined whether WAT inflammation and its associated systemic effects correlate with body fat levels in an Asian population where body mass index (BMI) is not an accurate assessment of obesity and cancer risk. We also investigated whether biologic differences could account for the greater proportion of premenopausal estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer in Asian versus western countries...
December 8, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222304/targeting-novel-mechanisms-of-pain-in-sickle-cell-disease
#18
REVIEW
Huy Tran, Mihir Gupta, Kalpna Gupta
Patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) suffer from intense pain that can start during infancy and increase in severity throughout life, leading to hospitalization and poor quality of life. A unique feature of SCD is vaso-occlusive crises (VOCs) characterized by episodic, recurrent, and unpredictable episodes of acute pain. Microvascular obstruction during a VOC leads to impaired oxygen supply to the periphery and ischemia reperfusion injury, inflammation, oxidative stress, and endothelial dysfunction, all of which may perpetuate a noxious microenvironment leading to pain...
December 8, 2017: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222188/myc-induces-immune-suppression-to-promote-lung-tumorigenesis
#19
(no author information available yet)
MYC promotes angiogenesis, inflammation, and immune suppression to accelerate KRASG12D tumor growth.
December 8, 2017: Cancer Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222126/autoimmune-crmp5-neuropathy-phenotype-and-outcome-defined-from-105-cases
#20
Divyanshu Dubey, Vanda A Lennon, Avi Gadoth, Sean J Pittock, Eoin P Flanagan, John E Schmeling, Andrew McKeon, Christopher J Klein
OBJECTIVE: To establish the phenotype and clinical outcomes of collapsin response-mediator protein-5 (CRMP5) autoimmune neuropathy in comparison with anti-neuronal nuclear antibody type 1 (ANNA1)-immunoglobulin G (IgG) neuropathy. METHODS: Patients with CRMP5-IgG and/or ANNA1-IgGs were identified in our service-line testing, and medical records were reviewed. RESULTS: One hundred five patients with CRMP5-IgG neuropathy (88% smokers; 69% having cancer, most commonly small cell lung cancer [75%]) were identified and compared to 51 patients with ANNA1-IgG neuropathy, 27 with coexisting CRMP5-IgG...
December 8, 2017: Neurology
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