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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823092/inhibition-of-p2x7-receptors-improves-outcomes-after-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#1
Xiaofeng Liu, Zhengqing Zhao, Ruihua Ji, Jiao Zhu, Qian-Qian Sui, Gillian E Knight, Geoffrey Burnstock, Cheng He, Hongbin Yuan, Zhenghua Xiang
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of death and disability for people under the age of 45 years worldwide. Neuropathology after TBI is the result of both the immediate impact injury and secondary injury mechanisms. Secondary injury is the result of cascade events, including glutamate excitotoxicity, calcium overloading, free radical generation, and neuroinflammation, ultimately leading to brain cell death. In this study, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) was detected predominately in microglia of the cerebral cortex and was up-regulated on microglial cells after TBI...
August 19, 2017: Purinergic Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823078/sesquiterpenes-from-fruits-of-torilis-japonica-with-inhibitory-activity-on-melanin-synthesis-in-b16-cells
#2
Da Hye Song, Yang Hee Jo, Jong Hoon Ahn, Seon Beom Kim, Cheong-Yong Yun, Youngsoo Kim, Bang Yeon Hwang, Mi Kyeong Lee
Melanin, a dark macromolecular pigment, protects skin from harmful damage. However, abnormal accumulation is responsible for hyperpigmentation disorders. Melanogenesis inhibitors have therefore become important constituents in cosmetic products for depigmentation. Torilis japonica Decandolle (Umbelliferae) is a biennial plant which is distributed in East Asia. Fruits of this plant have been used for the treatment of skin disease and inflammation. In our previous study, torilin, a major sesquiterpene of T. japonica, showed an inhibitory effect on melanin production in α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-activated B16 melanoma cells...
August 19, 2017: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28823073/effect-of-low-level-laser-therapy-%C3%AE-780%C3%A2-nm-on-the-mechanically-damaged-dentin-pulp-complex-in-a-model-of-extrusive-luxation-in-rat-incisors
#3
Dandara Andrade de Santana, Gabriela Ferraz Fonseca, Luciana Maria Pedreira Ramalho, Tânia Tavares Rodriguez, Marcio Cajazeira Aguiar
In order to regenerate the dental pulp, many strategies have been developed as phototherapy. In the pulp repair, we do not know if gallium-aluminum-arsenide (GaAlAs) laser preserves the primary odontoblasts or stimulates the formation of more dentin matrix when dental pulp is damaged. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of laser phototherapy (λ780 nm) on vascularization, inflammation, density of the primary odontoblast layer, and formation of reactionary and reparative dentin in the dental pulp by provoking extrusion of the rat incisor...
August 19, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822992/low-dose-bisphenol-a-increases-bile-duct-proliferation-in-juvenile-rats-a-possible-evidence-for-risk-of-liver-cancer-in-the-exposed-population
#4
Ji Seong Jeong, Ki Taek Nam, Buhyun Lee, Aryo Dimas Pamungkas, Daeun Song, Minjeong Kim, Wook-Joon Yu, Jinsoo Lee, Sunha Jee, Youngja H Park, Kyung-Min Lim
Increasing concern is being given to the association between risk of cancer and exposure to low-dose bisphenol A (BPA), especially in young-aged population. In this study, we investigated the effects of repeated oral treatment of low to high dose BPA in juvenile Sprague-Dawley rats. Exposing juvenile rats to BPA (0, 0.5, 5, 50, and 250 mg/kg oral gavage) from post-natal day 9 for 90 days resulted in higher food intakes and increased body weights in biphasic dose-effect relationship. Male mammary glands were atrophied at high dose, which coincided with sexual pre-maturation of females...
August 21, 2017: Biomolecules & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822969/preconditioning-with-the-bkca-channel-activator-ns-1619-prevents-ischemia-reperfusion-induced-inflammation-and-mucosal-barrier-dysfunction-ros-and-ho-1
#5
Hongyan Dai, Meifang Wang, Parag N Patel, Theodore J Kalogeris, Yajun Liu, William Durante, Ronald J Korthuis
Activation of large conductance, calcium-activated potassium (BKCa) channels evokes cell survival programs that mitigate intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) inflammation and injury 24 hours later. The goal of the current study was to determine the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and heme oxygenase (HO)-1 in delayed acquisition of tolerance to I/R induced by pretreatment with the BKCa channel opener NS-1619. Superior mesentery arteries were occluded for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 70 min in wild type (WT) or HO-1 null (HO-1(-/-)) mice that were pretreated with NS-1619 or saline vehicle 24 hrs earlier...
August 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822903/uterine-clinical-findings-fertility-rate-leucocyte-migration-and-cox-2-protein-levels-in-the-endometrial-tissue-of-susceptible-mares-treated-with-platelet-rich-plasma-before-and-after-ai
#6
Lorenzo G Segabinazzi, Aime M Friso, Sebastian B Correal, André M Crespilho, José Antonio Dell'Aqua, Jordi Miró, Frederico O Papa, Marco Antonio Alvarenga
Persistent mating-induced endometritis (PMIE) results in decreased fertility in horses, thereby causing a significant impact in the horse market. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP), a modulator of the inflammatory response, has been largely used in veterinary medicine. Here, we investigated the effects of PRP on uterine inflammation, conception rate, endometrial polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMN) migration, and COX-2 protein levels in the endometrial tissue. Thirteen PMIE-susceptible mares were used for artificial insemination (AI)...
August 12, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822873/surface-modification-of-an-intraocular-lens-material-by-plasma-assisted-grafting-with-2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate-hema-for-controlled-release-of-moxifloxacin
#7
A Paula Vieira, Andreia F R Pimenta, Diana Silva, M Helena Gil, Patrícia Alves, Patrícia Coimbra, José L G C Mata, Dimitriya Bozukova, Tiago R Correia, Ilídio J Correia, A Paula Serro, A Jorge Guiomar
Endophthalmitis, an inflammation of the eye due to perioperative infection, may occur after cataract surgery. Intraocular lenses (IOLs) loaded with an antibiotic have been proposed as an alternative to the conventional postoperative endophthalmitis prophylaxis, since the antibiotic is delivered directly to the target site. In this work, an IOL-based antibiotic releasing system was prepared from a copolymer used in the production of IOLs and a fluoroquinolone used in endophthalmitis prophylaxis (moxifloxacin, MFX)...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822856/antigen-presenting-dendritic-cells-in-atherosclerosis
#8
Jesus Gil-Pulido, Alma Zernecke
Atherosclerosis is characterized by lipid accumulation and chronic inflammation of the arterial wall, involving both innate and adaptive immune responses. Accumulation of lipid-laden macrophages is a key event in atherosclerosis. However, also other immune cells, such as dendritic cells (DC) and T cells, are found within lesions. DCs are classified as a separate lineage of mononuclear phagocytes that arise from progenitors distinct from precursors of monocytes/macrophages. Although a clear attribution of the effects of antigen-presenting cells (APCs) to monocytes/macrophages and DCs is hampered by the use of promiscuous surface markers, recent research has approached to resolve the contribution of bona fide cDCs and their subsets and of plasmacytoid-DCs (pDCs) to atherosclerosis...
August 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822838/scavenging-reactive-oxygen-species-inhibits-status-epilepticus-induced-neuroinflammation
#9
Pallavi B McElroy, Li-Ping Liang, Brian J Day, Manisha Patel
Inflammation has been identified as an important mediator of seizures and epileptogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms underlying seizure-induced neuroinflammation could lead to the development of novel therapies for the epilepsies. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are recognized as mediators of seizure-induced neuronal damage and are known to increase in models of epilepsies. ROS are also known to contribute to inflammation in several disease states. We hypothesized that ROS are key modulators of neuroinflammation i...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822835/neuroprotective-effects-of-acetyl-l-carnitine-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-neuroinflammation-in-mice-involvement-of-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor
#10
Filiz Kazak, Gul Fatma Yarim
Neuroinflammation is the inflammation of nervous tissue that can lead to neurodegeneration. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin which affects growth, function and survival of neurons, enhances the stabilization of synapses, regulates synaptic function and branching of dendrites and axons. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor is believed to be involved in the pathophysiology of central nervous system (CNS) diseases associated with neuroinflamation. The aim of this study was to investigate new protective and therapeutic effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) in neuroinflammation...
August 16, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822811/reduced-dynamic-range-of-antiviral-innate-immune-responses-in-aging
#11
REVIEW
Ryan D Molony, Anna Malawista, Ruth R Montgomery
The worldwide population aged≥65years is increasing and the average life span is expected to increase another 10years by 2050. This extended lifespan is associated with a progressive decline in immune function and a paradoxical state of low-grade, chronic inflammation that may contribute to susceptibility to viral infection, and reduced responses to vaccination. Here we review the effects of aging on innate immune responses to viral pathogens including elements of recognition, signaling, and production of inflammatory mediators...
August 16, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822808/bml-111-equilibrated-ace-angii-at1r-and-ace2-ang-1-7-mas-axis-to-protect-hepatic-fibrosis-in-rats
#12
Quandong Hu, Zhenzhen Hu, Qiongfeng Chen, Yonghong Huang, Zi Mao, Fangyun Xu, Xiaoyan Zhou
BACKGROUND: It was recently reported Lipoxins (LXs) had protective effects on fibrous diseases, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) had played vital and bidirectional roles in hepatic fibrosis. In this paper, a hepatic fibrosis model, induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) in rats, was used to observe the relations between RAAS and LXs, as well as to further explore the alternative anti-fibrosis mechanisms of LXs. METHODS: The model was evaluated by morphological observations and biochemical assays...
August 16, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822800/amelogenin-induces-m2-macrophage-polarisation-via-pge2-camp-signalling-pathway
#13
Kensuke Yamamichi, Takao Fukuda, Terukazu Sanui, Kyosuke Toyoda, Urara Tanaka, Yuki Nakao, Karen Yotsumoto, Hiroaki Yamato, Takaharu Taketomi, Takeshi Uchiumi, Fusanori Nishimura
OBJECTIVES: Amelogenin, the major component of the enamel matrix derivative (EMD), has been suggested as a bioactive candidate for periodontal regeneration. Apart from producing a regenerative effect on periodontal tissues, amelogenin has also been reported to have an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the precise molecular mechanisms underlying these effects remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the immunomodulatory effects of amelogenin on macrophages. DESIGN: Human phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)-differentiated U937 macrophages and CD14+ peripheral blood-derived monocytes (PBMC)-derived macrophages were stimulated with recombinant amelogenin (rM180)...
August 12, 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822766/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-increases-muc1-expression-in-macrophages-through-the-tlr4-p38-pathway
#14
Kosuke Kato, Alec D Hanss, Marina A Zemskova, Nicole E Morgan, Marianne Kim, Kenneth S Knox, Yong Lin, Erik P Lillehoj, Kwang Chul Kim
Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in the clearance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) from the airways. However, hyper-activation of macrophages can impair bacterial clearance and contribute to morbidity and mortality. MUC1 mucin is a membrane-tethered, high molecular mass glycoprotein expressed on the apical surface of mucosal epithelial cells and some hematopoietic cells, including macrophages, where it counter-regulates inflammation. We recently reported that Pa up-regulates the expression of MUC1 in primary human AMs and THP-1 macrophages, and that increased MUC1 expression in these cells prevents hyper-activation of macrophages that appears to be important for host defense against severe pathology of Pa lung infection...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822761/down-regulation-of-vascular-ppar-%C3%AE-contributes-to-endothelial-dysfunction-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-mice-exposed-to-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia
#15
Yanan Zhang, Chunlian Zhang, Haiou Li, Jingdong Hou
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), characterized by chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), is associated with endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of OSA is linked to an epidemic of obesity. CIH has recently been reported to cause endothelial dysfunction in diet-induced obese animals by exaggerating oxidative stress and inflammation, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. PPAR-γ, a ligand-inducible transcription factor that exerts anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, is down-regulated in the peripheral tissues in diet-induce obesity...
August 16, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822719/thalidomide-is-associated-with-increased-t-cell-activation-and-inflammation-in-antiretroviral-naive-hiv-infected-individuals-in-a-randomised-clinical-trial-of-efficacy-and-safety
#16
Tânia R C Vergara, Sadia Samer, Joanna R Santos-Oliveira, Leila B Giron, Muhammad Shoaib Arif, Maria Luciana Silva-Freitas, Lia A Cherman, Mauro S Treitsman, Alberto Chebabo, Maria Cecilia A Sucupira, Alda M Da-Cruz, Ricardo Sobhie Diaz
TRIAL DESIGN: Open-label, randomised, controlled, pilot proof-of-concept clinical trial. METHODS: Participants: Antiretroviral naïve adult males with CD4 count ≥350cells/mm(3). INTERVENTIONS: Patients were randomised to receive thalidomide 200mg QD for 3weeks (Thalidomide group) or not (Control group) and followed for 48weeks. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that short-term Thalidomide use would reduce HIV related inflammation and HIV replication among antiretroviral naïve HIV infected individuals...
August 12, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822659/incidence-and-risk-factors-of-groin-lymphocele-formation-after-venoarterial-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-cardiogenic-shock-patients
#17
Michael Salna, Hiroo Takayama, Arthur R Garan, Paul Kurlansky, Maryjane A Farr, Paolo C Colombo, Thomas Imahiyerobo, Nicholas Morrissey, Yoshifumi Naka, Koji Takeda
OBJECTIVE: Venous-arterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA-ECMO) is a well-established therapy for refractory cardiopulmonary failure. Femoral cannulation offers a quick and effective means of providing circulatory support but is not without complication. Inflammation or lymphatic disruption at the site of cannulation can cause the formation of lymphoceles, leading to the patient's discomfort and possibly necessitating intervention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of in-hospital lymphocele formation in VA-ECMO patients and to identify predictors for their development...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822566/human-pulp-responses-to-partial-pulpotomy-treatment-with-theracal-as-compared-with-biodentine-and-proroot-mta-a-clinical-trial
#18
Hengameh Bakhtiar, Mohammad Hossein Nekoofar, Pouyan Aminishakib, Fatemeh Abedi, Fereshteh Naghi Moosavi, Ehsan Esnaashari, Arash Azizi, Samar Esmailian, Mohammad Reza Ellini, Vahid Mesgarzadeh, Mehdi Sezavar, Imad About
INTRODUCTION: Questions exist regarding the efficacy of resin-containing materials such as TheraCal directly applied on the pulp. This study sought to investigate the clinical efficacy of TheraCal as compared with Biodentine and ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) for partial pulpotomy. METHODS: In this clinical trial, partial pulpotomy was performed for 27 sound human maxillary and mandibular third molars scheduled for extraction. The teeth were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 9) and underwent partial pulpotomy with TheraCal, Biodentine, and ProRoot MTA...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Endodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822563/effect-of-pericardial-fat-volume-and-density-on-markers-of-insulin-resistance-and-inflammation-in-patients-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-infection
#19
Chris T Longenecker, Seunghee Margevicius, Yiying Liu, Mark D Schluchter, Chun-Ho Yun, Hiram G Bezerra, Grace A McComsey
Treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is characterized by ectopic fat deposition, a persistent inflammatory state, and increased cardiometabolic risk. In this secondary analysis of a placebo controlled trial of rosuvastatin among 147 HIV+ subjects (median age 46; 78% men) on stable antiretroviral therapy, we aimed to evaluate longitudinal associations between computed tomography (CT) measures of pericardial fat (PCF) volume and density, insulin resistance, and inflammation. We measured PCF volume and density (mean attenuation in Hounsfield units) by noncontrast gated CT at baseline and week 96...
July 24, 2017: American Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822519/high-sensitive-c-reactive-protein-and-interleukin-6-in-atrial-fibrillation-with-rheumatic-mitral-stenosis-from-indian-cohort
#20
Gautam Sharma, Sudhir Shetkar, Ashu Bhasin, Lakshmy Ramakrishnan, Rajnish Juneja, Nitish Naik, Ambuj Roy, Sivasubramanian Ramakrishnan, Balram Bhargava, Vinay Kumar Bahl
INTRODUCTION: Presence of chronic low grade inflammation has often been implicated in the etiology of atrial fibrillation (AF). Whether pre-existing inflammatory state promotes AF or initiation of AF activates inflammation is a dilemma among clinicians. This study investigates the role of high sensitive C reactive protein (hs-CRP) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) in AF with rheumatic mitral stenosis (Rh-MS) as markers of chronic inflammation. METHODS: This case control cohort included sixty five (n=65) Rh-MS patients having other valve lesions as trivial to mild...
July 2017: Indian Heart Journal
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