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Medicinal herbs and spices

Borbála Antal, Ákos Kuki, Lajos Nagy, Tibor Nagy, Miklós Zsuga, Márta M-Hamvas, Gábor Vasas, Sándor Kéki
Direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS) was applied as a rapid method for the discrimination of the spices and traditional medicines cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), caraway (Carum carvi L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). The seeds of these plants were analyzed without sample preparation by DART ion source coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (QTOF) tandem mass spectrometry. The relatively clean DART spectra showed characteristic patterns, fingerprints, for each herb. It was found that a marker compound can be assigned to each species that can identify unambiguously these plants...
2016: Analytical Sciences: the International Journal of the Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry
Ray S Hovijitra, Suwan Choonharuangdej, Theerathavaj Srithavaj
Although medicinal herbs with fungicidal effects have been ubiquitously employed in traditional medicine, such effects of culinary herbs and spices still have to be elucidated. Therefore, it is noteworthy to determine the antifungal efficacy of some edible herbs used in Thai cuisine against sessile Candida albicans cultures, and to inquire if they can be further utilized as naturally-derived antifungals. Fourteen essential oils extracted from Thai culinary herbs and spices were tested for their antifungal activity against C...
2016: Journal of Oral Science
Parichehr Hayatdavoudi, Abolfazl Khajavi Rad, Ziba Rajaei, Mousa Al-Reza Hadjzadeh
OBJECTIVE: The incidence and prevalence of kidney stone is increasing worldwide. After the first recurrence the risk of subsequent relapses is higher and the time period between relapses is shortened. Urinary stones can be severely painful and make a huge economic burden. The stone disease may increase the vulnerability of patients to other diseases such as renal failure. Medicinal herbs are rich sources of antioxidants which are increasingly consumed globally for their safety, efficacy and low price...
January 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Ethan B Russo
Plants have been the predominant source of medicines throughout the vast majority of human history, and remain so today outside of industrialized societies. One of the most versatile in terms of its phytochemistry is cannabis, whose investigation has led directly to the discovery of a unique and widespread homeostatic physiological regulator, the endocannabinoid system. While it had been the conventional wisdom until recently that only cannabis harbored active agents affecting the endocannabinoid system, in recent decades the search has widened and identified numerous additional plants whose components stimulate, antagonize, or modulate different aspects of this system...
July 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Claus Leitzmann
In food science the term 'phytochemicals' includes a variety of plant ingredients with different structures that are capable of health-promoting effects. Phytonutrients are natural substances but are not called nutrients in the traditional sense, since they are synthesized by plants neither in energy metabolism nor in anabolic or catabolic metabolism, but only in specific cell types. They differ from primary plant compounds in that they are not essential to the plant. Phytonutrients perform important tasks in the secondary metabolism of plants as repellents to pests and sunlight as well as growth regulators...
2016: Forschende Komplementärmedizin, Research in Complementary Medicine
V V Sathibabu Uddandrao, Parim Brahmanaidu, G Saravanan
Plants derived constituents with impending therapeutic values have been used long time to cure various diseases and disorders including Diabetes mellitus (DM). Many of the medicinal plants and herbs are also part of our diet as spices, vegetables and fruits. In recent years, there is growing evidence that plant-foods molecules, due to their biological properties, may be unique nutraceuticals and supplementary treatments for various aspects of Diabetes mellitus. In this review, we addressed the potential efficacies of S-Allylcysteine (SAC), a sulfur containing amino acid, derived from garlic, on Diabetes mellitus and other disorders...
April 18, 2016: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Zhang-Feng Zhong, Wen Tan, William W Qiang, Virginia L Scofield, Ke Tian, Chun-Ming Wang, Wen-An Qiang, Yi-Tao Wang
Furanodiene is a bioactive sesquiterpene isolated from the spice-producing Curcuma wenyujin plant (Y. H. Chen and C. Ling) (C. wenyujin), which is a commonly prescribed herb used in clinical cancer therapy by modern practitioners of traditional Chinese medicine. Previously, we have shown that furanodiene inhibits breast cancer cell growth both in vitro and in vivo, however, the mechanism for this effect is not yet known. In this study, therefore, we asked (1) whether cultured breast cancer cells made resistant to the chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin (DOX) via serial selection protocols are susceptible to furanodiene's anticancer effect, and (2) whether AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a regulator of cellular energy homeostasis in eukaryotic cells, participates in this effect...
April 26, 2016: Molecular BioSystems
Romika Dhiman, Neeraj Aggarwal, Kamal Rai Aneja, Manpreet Kaur
In the present investigation, comparison of antimicrobial activities of different spices, Curcuma longa, Zingiber officinale, and Mentha arvensis, and medicinal herbs, such as Withania somnifera, Rauvolfia serpentina, Emblica officinalis, Terminalia arjuna, and Centella asiatica, was evaluated. Different extraction solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, and water) were used and extracts were examined against Bacillus cereus, Serratia sp., Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Aspergillus flavus, and Penicillium citrinum isolated from juices...
2016: International Journal of Microbiology
Pei-Yi Chen, Jhe-Wei Yu, Fen-Ling Lu, Mei-Chih Lin, Hwei-Fang Cheng
Cinnamon bark (Rou Gui in Chinese), cinnamon twig (Gui Zhi) and shaved cinnamon bark (Gui Sin) have been widely used as spices and in traditional Chinese medicine since ancient times. On-going issues related to quality and authenticity necessitate the development of analytical methods capable of providing an objective evaluation of samples. In this study, chemical fingerprints of cinnamon bark, cinnamon twigs and shaved cinnamon bark were established using liquid chromatography quadruple time-of-flight mass spectrometry in conjunction with principal component analysis (PCA)...
September 2016: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Anjali Ganjre, Rahul Kathariya, Neeta Bagul, Vivek Pawar
"Let food be thy medicine and medicine be thy food", as said by the father of medicine, Hippocrates in 431 B.C. Nature has provided us with a variety of treatment modalities in the form of food. For the first 5,000 years of civilization, humans relied on herbs and foods for medicine. Only in the past 60 years have we forgotten our medicinal "roots" in favor of patented medicines. While pharmaceutical ingredients have their value, we should not overlook the well-documented, non-toxic and inexpensive healing properties of food...
October 2015: Clinical Nutrition Research
Abhijeet Alok, Indra Deo Singh, Shivani Singh, Mallika Kishore, Prakash Chandra Jha
Turmeric has been in use for thousands of years as a dye, flavouring and a medicinal herb. Ancient Indian medicine has touted turmeric as an herb with the ability to provide glow and lustre to the skin as well as vigour and vitality to the entire body. Since curcumin has antimicrobial, antioxidant, astringents and other useful properties, it is quite useful in dentistry also. Curcumin, the most active polyphenolic constituent, is the active ingredient in the traditional herbal remedy and dietary spice turmeric...
October 2015: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Bulent Kabak, Alan D W Dobson
Spices and herbs have been used since ancient times as flavor and aroma enhancers, colorants, preservatives, and traditional medicines. There are more than 30 spices and herbs of global economic and culinary importance. Among the spices, black pepper, capsicums, cumin, cinnamon, nutmeg, ginger, turmeric, saffron, coriander, cloves, dill, mint, thyme, sesame seed, mustard seed, and curry powder are the most popular spices worldwide. In addition to their culinary uses, a number of functional properties of aromatic herbs and spices are also well described in the scientific literature...
January 2, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Kee Hun Do, Tae Jin An, Sang-Keun Oh, Yuseok Moon
Medicinal herbs have been increasingly used for therapeutic purposes against a diverse range of human diseases worldwide. Moreover, the health benefits of spices have been extensively recognized in recent studies. However, inevitable contaminants, including mycotoxins, in medicinal herbs and spices can cause serious problems for humans in spite of their health benefits. Along with the different nation-based occurrences of mycotoxins, the ultimate exposure and toxicities can be diversely influenced by the endogenous food components in different commodities of the medicinal herbs and spices...
October 2015: Toxins
Seyed Fazel Nabavi, Arianna Di Lorenzo, Morteza Izadi, Eduardo Sobarzo-Sánchez, Maria Daglia, Seyed Mohammad Nabavi
Herbs and spices have been used since ancient times, because of their antimicrobial properties increasing the safety and shelf life of food products by acting against foodborne pathogens and spoilage bacteria. Plants have historically been used in traditional medicine as sources of natural antimicrobial substances for the treatment of infectious disease. Therefore, much attention has been paid to medicinal plants as a source of alternative antimicrobial strategies. Moreover, due to the growing demand for preservative-free cosmetics, herbal extracts with antimicrobial activity have recently been used in the cosmetic industry to reduce the risk of allergies connected to the presence of methylparabens...
September 2015: Nutrients
Serkan Ozturk, Yeter Erol Ozturk, Oya Yeter, Buket Alpertunga
Synthetic cannabinoids, which were synthesized to improve the therapeutic effects of cannabis, have become a major issue when they are abused. They have different chemical structures from tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) but similar effects on endocannabinoid receptors. "Spice" named products have more serious side effects than cannabis and can even cause death. These mixtures are prepared by spraying chemicals onto small pieces of herbs and are being dishonestly sold as "natural" and "legal" products over the internet...
December 2015: Forensic Science International
Syed Faisal Zaidi, Muhammad Aziz, Jibran Sualeh Muhammad, Makoto Kadowaki
Cinnamomum cassia is widely utilized as a spice in different cookeries worldwide, especially in Asian cuisines. This herb is also being used in different forms of traditional medicine (Unani, Ayurvedic, Japanese and Chinese) for managing conditions like dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease and ischemic brain injury. Recent studies have shown the scientific evidence for the medicinal use of this particular herb in several diseases like H. pylori infection, diabetes, brain ischemia and cancers. This article reviews the literature on potential benefits of the herb published within the last 10 years...
July 2015: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Helmut M Hügel
Healthy brain aging and the problems of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are a global concern. Beyond 60 years of age, most, if not everyone, will experience a decline in cognitive skills, memory capacity and changes in brain structure. Longevity eventually leads to an accumulation of amyloid plaques and/or tau tangles, including some vascular dementia damage. Therefore, lifestyle choices are paramount to leading either a brain-derived or a brain-deprived life. The focus of this review is to critically examine the evidence, impact, influence and mechanisms of natural products as chemopreventive agents which induce therapeutic outcomes that modulate the aggregation process of beta-amyloid (Aβ), providing measureable cognitive benefits in the aging process...
2015: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Seyyed Amin Ayatollahi Mousavi, Abdolhasan Kazemi
In the last decades, the number of people suffering from dermatophytoses has seriously increased, which may be due to the development of resistant strains to a range of antifungal drugs. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antidermatophytic properties of eight extracts from the selected spices and herbs, which were ethno-medicinally used in Iran against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Trichophyton interdigitale, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum (10 strain of each). The in vitro antifungal activities of the extracts from four spices and four plants were evaluated by the broth macro dilution method against four dermatophyte strains...
November 2015: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Rashida Ginwala, Emily McTish, Chander Raman, Narendra Singh, Mitzi Nagarkatti, Prakash Nagarkatti, Divya Sagar, Pooja Jain, Zafar K Khan
Apigenin, a natural flavonoid, found in several plants, fruits, vegetables, herbs, and spices, is known to have anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory properties that are evident in the use of these substances for centuries as medicinal approaches to treat asthma, insomnia, Parkinson's disease, neuralgia, and shingles. However, there is a considerable dearth of information regarding its effect on immune cells, especially dendritic cells (DC) that maintain the critical balance between an immunogenic and tolerogenic immune response, in an immunospecialized location like the central nervous system (CNS)...
March 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Dilek Eke, Ayla Çelik
Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) is a man-made fluorosurfactant and global pollutant. PFOS a persistent and bioaccumulative compound, and it is widely distributed in humans and wildlife. Therefore, it was added to Annex B of the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants in May 2009. Curcumin is a natural polyphenolic compound abundant in the rhizome of the perennial herb turmeric. It is commonly used as a dietary spice and coloring agent in cooking and anecdotally as an herb in traditional Asian medicine...
2016: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
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