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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094875/neuroendocrinology-of-mast-cells-challenges-and-controversies
#1
REVIEW
Theoharis C Theoharides
Mast cells (MC) are hemopoietically-derived tissue immune cells that are ubiquitous in the body, including neuroendocrine organs such as the hypothalamus, pineal, pituitary, ovaries, pancreas and uterus where their action is not well understood. Mast cells have historically been associated with allergies because of their rich content of histamine and tryptase, but more recently with regulation of immunity and inflammation due their synthesis and release of numerous cytokines and chemokines. Mast cells are located perivascularly and express numerous receptors for diverse ligands such as allergens, pathogens, neurotransmitters, neuropeptides and hormones including acetylcholine, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), corticosteroids, corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), β-endorphin, epinephrine, 17β-estradiol, gonadotrophins, hemokinin-A (HKA), leptin, melatonin, neurotensin (NT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), substance P (SP) and vasoactive instestinal peptide (VIP)...
January 17, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089729/urinary-biomarkers-in-women-with-refractory-urgency-urinary-incontinence-randomized-to-sacral-neuromodulation-versus-onabotulinumtoxina-compared-to-controls
#2
Holly E Richter, Pamela Moalli, Cindy L Amundsen, Anna P Malykhina, Dennis Wallace, Rebecca Rogers, Deborah Myers, Maria Paraiso, Michael Albo, Haolin Shi, Tracy Nolen, Susie Meikle, R Ann Word
PURPOSE: To measure urinary biomarker levels in women with refractory urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and controls at baseline and 6 months post treatment from sacral neuromodulation (SNM) or intradetrusor injection onabotulinumtoxinA and to assess association of baseline biomarkers to post treatment UUI episodes (UUIE) and overactive bladder (OAB) symptom bother outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: First morning urines were collected from consented trial participants and age-matched women without UUI...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077715/excitatory-hindbrain-forebrain-communication-is-required-for-cisplatin-induced-anorexia-and-weight-loss
#3
Amber L Alhadeff, Ruby A Holland, Huiyuan Zheng, Linda Rinaman, Harvey J Grill, Bart C De Jonghe
: Cisplatin chemotherapy is commonly used to treat cancer despite severe energy balance side effects. In rats, cisplatin activates nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) projections to the lateral parabrachial nucleus (lPBN) and calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP) projections from the lPBN to the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). We demonstrated previously that CeA glutamate receptor signaling mediates cisplatin-induced anorexia and body weight loss. Here, we used neuroanatomical tracing, immunofluorescence, and confocal imaging to demonstrate that virtually all NTS→lPBN and lPBN→CeA CGRP projections coexpress vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VGLUT2), providing evidence that excitatory projections mediate cisplatin-induced energy balance dysregulation...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076465/the-effect-of-capsaicin-on-expression-patterns-of-cgrp-in-trigeminal-ganglion-and-trigeminal-nucleus-caudalis-following-experimental-tooth-movement-in-rats
#4
Zhou Yang, Long Hu, Y E Niansong, Liao Lina, Yang Xin, Jian Fan, Wang Yan, Lai Wenli
Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the effect of capsaicin on expression patterns of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in the trigeminal ganglion (TG) and trigeminal subnucleus caudalis (Vc) following experimental tooth movement. Material and Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study and divided into small-dose capsaicin+force group, large-dose capsaicin+force group, saline+force group, and no force group. Closed coil springs were used to mimic orthodontic forces in all groups except for the no force group, in which springs were inactivated...
November 2016: Journal of Applied Oral Science: Revista FOB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053042/induction-of-migraine-like-photophobic-behavior-in-mice-by-both-peripheral-and-central-cgrp-mechanisms
#5
Bianca N Mason, Eric A Kaiser, Adisa Kuburas, Maria-Cristina M Loomis, John A Latham, Leon F Garcia-Martinez, Andrew F Russo
: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a key player in migraine. Although migraine can be treated using CGRP antagonists that act peripherally, the relevant sites of CGRP action remain unknown. To address the role of CGRP both within and outside the CNS, we used CGRP-induced light-aversive behavior in mice as a measure of migraine-associated photophobia. Peripheral (intraperitoneal) injection of CGRP resulted in light-aversive behavior in wild-type CD1 mice similar to aversion seen previously after central (intracerebroventricular) injection...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049076/olfactory-identification-in-patients-with-schizophrenia%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-influence-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-concentrations
#6
M Urban-Kowalczyk, J Śmigielski, D Strzelecki
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the olfactory system and emotional processing is an area of growing interest in schizophrenia research. Both the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in the processing of olfactory information, and olfactory deficits may be also influenced by endogenous opioids and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. However, the relationship between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission has not been fully explored...
December 29, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041915/identification-of-multi-targeted-anti-migraine-potential-of-nystatin-and-development-of-its-brain-targeted-chitosan-nanoformulation
#7
Priti Girotra, Aman Thakur, Ajay Kumar, Shailendra Kumar Singh
The complex pathophysiology involved in migraine necessitates the drug treatment to act on several receptors simultaneously. The present investigation was an attempt to discover the unidentified anti-migraine activity of the already marketed drugs. Shared featured pharmacophore modeling was employed for this purpose on six target receptors (β2 adrenoceptor, Dopamine D3, 5HT1B, TRPV1, iGluR5 kainate and CGRP), resulting in the generation of five shared featured pharmacophores, which were further subjected to virtual screening of the ligands obtained from Drugbank database...
December 29, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041540/-basic-mechanisms-of-migraine-and-new-methods-of-treatment
#8
Jakob Møller Hansen, Messoud Ashina
Migraine is the most prevalent disabling neurological disorder. The management of patients with migraine has been hampered by lack of effective and well-tolerated acute and preventive therapies. Based on improved insights into the basic mechanisms of migraine, new and targeted treatments are currently undergoing large-scale testing. Among the most promising agents for migraine prevention are humanized antibodies against calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) or the CGRP receptor. If proven effective, these new treatments may emerge to improve the lives of millions of individuals worldwide disabled by migraine...
December 19, 2016: Ugeskrift for Laeger
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026039/positive-correlation-of-vanilloid-receptor-subtype1-and-prostaglandin-e2-expression-with-pain-in-leiomyomas
#9
Yoshiko Kagimoto, Kenshi Yamasaki, Ryoko Shimada-Ohmori, Liu Nan, Yukikazu Numata, Setsuya Aiba
Cutaneous leiomyomas are benign smooth muscle tumors that are occasionally painful. The mechanism of pain related to leiomyoma is not fully understood. To investigate the possible involvement of algoneic factors in pain from cutaneous leiomyomas. We present a case of cutaneous leiomyoma with severe, diffused pain in a large area and collected 10 more specimens of cutaneous leiomyoma with or without pain in patient histories. We immunohistochemiacally examined the expression of algoneic factors: serotonin, histamin, Substance P, PGE2, BDKRB2, VR1 and CGRP...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025094/serotonergic-mechanisms-of-trigeminal-meningeal-nociception-implications-for-migraine-pain
#10
Erkan Kilinc, Cindy Guerrero-Toro, Andrey Zakharov, Carmela Vitale, Max Gubert-Olive, Ksenia Koroleva, Arina Timonina, Liliana L Luz, Irina Shelukhina, Raisa Giniatullina, Fatma Tore, Boris V Safronov, Rashid Giniatullin
Serotonergic mechanisms play a central role in migraine pathology. However, the region-specific effects of serotonin (5-HT) mediated via multiple types of receptors in the nociceptive system are poorly understood. Using extracellular and patch-clamp recordings, we studied the action of 5-HT on the excitability of peripheral and central terminals of trigeminal afferents. 5-HT evoked long-lasting TTX-sensitive firing in the peripheral terminals of meningeal afferents, the origin site of migraine pain. Cluster analysis revealed that in majority of nociceptive fibers 5-HT induced either transient or persistent spiking activity with prevailing delta and theta rhythms...
December 23, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025021/inflammatory-pain-related-traits-of-sensory-drg-neurons-innervating-the-hip-joints
#11
Takayuki Nakajima, Seiji Ohtori, Junichi Nakamura, Takane Suzuki, Yasuchika Aoki, Atsuya Watanabe, Makoto Takazawa, Kazuhisa Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Hip pain is transmitted to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord via the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), which contains two types of neurons with differential sensitivity to neurotrophic factors. If either type predominantly innervates the hip joint, it may represent a good target for hip joint pain treatment. METHODS: Inflammation was induced in the left hip joint of rats (n = 10) by using complete Freund's adjuvant. Fluoro-Gold (FG) was applied to the hip joint after 7 days, and T12-L6 DRGs were double-stained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and isolection-IB4 1 week later...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Science: Official Journal of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024737/testicular-ectopia-why-does-it-happen-and-what-do-we-do
#12
Vishal V Punwani, Jeremy S Y Wong, Christopher Y H Lai, Jessalynn C Y Chia, John M Hutson
BACKGROUND/AIM: Testicular ectopia is rare, but the large range of anatomical locations described in the literature has spawned an abundance of possible theories to explain etiology. However, as the anatomical characteristics of normal testicular descent have only been elucidated recently, many of the theories of testicular ectopia do not incorporate this new perspective. In this study we aimed to determine what was in the literature about ectopic testis since 1980, and then try to explain the different anatomical variants in the light of current knowledge about testicular descent...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28011952/role-of-sensory-afferent-nerves-lipid-peroxidation-and-antioxidative-enzymes-in-the-carbon-monoxide-induced-gastroprotection-against-stress-ulcerogenesis
#13
S Kwiecien, K Magierowska, M Magierowski, M Surmiak, M Hubalewska-Mazgaj, R Pajdo, Z Sliwowski, A Chmura, D Wojcik, T Brzozowski
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a physiological gaseous mediator recently implicated in the mechanism of gastric mucosal defense due to its vasodilatory and antioxidative properties. Small quantities of endogenous CO are produced during heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO-1), however, the involvement of the capsaicin-sensitive afferent neurons releasing calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) and anti-oxidative factors and mechanisms in the CO-induced gastroprotection against stress ulcerogenesis has been little studied...
October 2016: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002923/tendinopathic-supraspinatus-tenocytes-may-have-a-neuroendocrine-like-function-secreting-cgrp-sp-and-vegf-a-pilot-immunohistochemistry-study
#14
R Sahemey, P Malliaras, J S Lewis, G J Michael, P Shortland, D Morrissey, N Maffulli
We wanted to observe and compare the appearance of neurovascular tissue from tendon ex vivo, in patients with and without painful rotator cuff tendinopathy. Supraspinatus tendons were biopsied from 5 participants with painful tendinopathy and normal tendon from a young male. Slides were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and toluidine blue for histological assessment. Immunohistochemical markers for general nerves (protein gene-product 9.5 and synaptophysin), sensory nerves (calcitonin gene-related peptide; substance-P) and vascularisation (vascular endothelial growth factor) were used...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001346/analgesic-microneedle-patch-for-neuropathic-pain-therapy
#15
Xi Xie, Conrado Pascual, Christopher Lieu, Seajin Oh, Ji Wang, Bende Zou, Julian Xie, Zhaohui Li, James Xie, David C Yeomans, Mei X Wu, Xinmin Simon Xie
Neuropathic pain caused by nerve injury is debilitating and difficult to treat. Current systemic pharmacological therapeutics for neuropathic pain produce limited pain relief and have undesirable side effects, while current local anesthetics tend to nonspecifically block both sensory and motor functions. Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP), a neuropeptide released from sensory nerve endings, appears to play a significant role in chronic neuropathic pain. In this study, an analgesic microneedle (AMN) patch was developed using dissolvable microneedles to transdermally deliver selective CGRP antagonist peptide in a painless manner for the treatment of localized neuropathic pain...
December 27, 2016: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994541/localization-of-brain-natriuretic-peptide-immunoreactivity-in-rat-spinal-cord
#16
Essam M Abdelalim, Jean-Pierre Bellier, Ikuo Tooyama
Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27990431/spatiotemporal-changes-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-innervation-in-spinal-fusion
#17
Xiao-Yi Zhou, Xi-Ming Xu, Sui-Yi Wu, Fei Wang, Yi-Lin Yang, Ming Li, Xian-Zhao Wei
Few studies have investigated the role calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) plays in the process of spinal fusion. The aim of the present study is to observe the temporal and spatial changes of CGRP induced by experimental fusion surgery in rats and elucidate the role of CGRP in spinal fusion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used in the study and the specimens were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day, respectively. Then, histological and immunohistochemical analysis were applied to evaluate the fusion mass and spatiotemporal changes of CGRP chronologically...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977070/role-of-transient-receptor-potential-ankyrin-1-receptors-in-rodent-models-of-meningeal-nociception-experiments-in%C3%A2-vitro
#18
A C Denner, B Vogler, K Messlinger, R De Col
BACKGROUND: The TRP channel ankyrin type 1 (TRPA1) is a nonselective cation channel known to be activated by environmental irritants, cold and endogenous mediators of inflammation. Activation of TRPA1 in trigeminal afferents innervating meningeal structures has recently been suggested to be involved in the generation of headaches. METHODS: Two in vitro models of meningeal nociception were employed using the hemisected rodent head preparation, (1) recording of single meningeal afferents and (2) release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) from the cranial dura mater...
December 15, 2016: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959574/porcine-dorsal-root-ganglia-ovarian-neurons-are-affected-by-long-lasting-testosterone-treatment
#19
B Jana, K Palus, K Meller, J Całka
We studied the effect of testosterone overdose on the number, distribution and chemical coding of ovarian neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) in pigs. On day 3 of the estrous cycle, the ovaries of both the control and experimental gilts were injected with retrograde tracer Fast Blue. From day 4 of the estrous cycle to the expected day 20 of the second studied cycle, the experimental gilts were injected with testosterone, while the control gilts received oil. After the completion of the protocol the Th16-L5 DRGs were collected...
December 13, 2016: Physiological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940880/cgrp-in-human-models-of-primary-headaches
#20
Håkan Ashina, Henrik Winther Schytz, Messoud Ashina
OBJECTIVE: To review the role of CGRP in human models of primary headaches and to discuss methodological aspects and future directions. DISCUSSION: Provocation experiments demonstrated a heterogeneous CGRP migraine response in migraine patients. Conflicting CGRP plasma results in the provocation experiments are likely due to assay variation; therefore, proper validation and standardization of an assay is needed. To what extent CGRP is involved in tension-type headache and cluster headache is unknown...
December 9, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
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