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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343071/analgesia-effect-of-baicalein-against-ntg-induced-migraine-in-rats
#1
Xiao-Fan Zhang, Wen-Jun Zhang, Cui-Lan Dong, Wan-Li Hu, Yu-Yao Sun, Yarigui Bao, Chun-Feng Zhang, Chang-Run Guo, Chong-Zhi Wang, Chun-Su Yuan
BACKGROUND: Migraine is a complex nervous system disease characterized by typical throbbing and unilateral headache, which causes severe healthy and social issues worldwide. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalein (BAI) on the treatment of migraine. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-four rats were randomly divided equally into four groups, including a blank group, model group, positive group (ibuprofen tablets 82mg/kg), and BAI group (60mg/kg)...
March 23, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338565/corneal-nerve-morphology-sensitivity-and-tear-neuropeptides-in-contact-lens-wear
#2
Blanka Golebiowski, Cecilia Chao, Fiona Stapleton, Isabelle Jalbert
PURPOSE: To determine tear neuropeptide levels in contact lens wearers and non-wearers, and to examine relationships with indices of corneal innervation, tear function, and ocular discomfort. METHODS: A cross-sectional, single-visit, investigator-masked pilot study. Assessments included Ocular Comfort Index (OCI), central and mid-peripheral corneal nerve density and morphology (HRT-Rostock), corneal sensitivity (Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer), tear Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) concentration (ELISA), in situ tear osmolarity (TearLab), tear secretion (Phenol Red Thread), and noninvasive tear break-up time (NITBUT; Keeler Tearscope)...
April 2017: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337957/transplantation-of-cultured-olfactory-bulb-cells-prevents-abnormal-sensory-responses-during-recovery-from-dorsal-root-avulsion-in-the-rat
#3
Andrew Collins, Daqing Li, Stephen B McMahon, Geoffrey Raisman, Ying Li
The central branches of the C7 and C8 dorsal roots were avulsed close to their entry point into the spinal cord in adult rats. The forepaw responses to heat and cold stimuli were tested at 1, 2 and 3 weeks after injury. Over this period the paws were sensitive to both stimuli at 1-2 weeks and returned towards normal at 3 weeks. Immunohistology showed no evidence of axonal regeneration into the spinal cord in a control group of rats with avulsion only, implying that adjacent dorsal roots and their corresponding dermatomes were involved in the recovery...
March 23, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337884/neurochemical-effects-of-photobiostimulation-in-the-trigeminal-ganglion-after-inferior-alveolar-nerve-injury
#4
D O Martins, F M Santos, L R G Britto, J B D Lemos, M Chacur
Orofacial pain is associated with peripheral and central sensitization of trigeminal nociceptive neurons. Nerve injury results in release of chemical mediators that contribute to persistent pain conditions. The activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1), promotes release of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) from trigeminal nerve terminals. CGRP and SP contribute to the development of peripheral hyperalgesia. The expression of SP and CGRP by primary afferent neurons is rapidly increased in response to peripheral inflammation...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337539/homer1-vesl-1-in-the-rat-esophagus-focus-on-myenteric-plexus-and-neuromuscular-junction
#5
J Zimmermann, W L Neuhuber, M Raab
Homer1, a scaffolding protein of the postsynaptic density (PSD), enriched at excitatory synapses is known to anchor and modulate group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and different channel- and receptor-proteins. Homer proteins are expressed in neurons of different brain regions, but also in non-neuronal tissues like skeletal muscle. Occurrence and location of Homer1 and mGluR5 in myenteric plexus and neuromuscular junctions (NMJ) of rat esophagus have yet not been characterized. We located Homer1 and mGluR5 immunoreactivity (-iry) in rat esophagus and focused on myenteric neurons, intraganglionic laminar endings (IGLEs) and NMJs, using double- and triple-label immunohistochemistry and confocal laser scanning microscopy...
March 23, 2017: Histochemistry and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329901/-pathophysiology-of-headaches
#6
Charly Gaul, Karl Meßlinger, Dagny Holle-Lee, Lars Neeb
Pathophysiological concepts of primary headache diseases have been developed significantly in the last decades. Nevertheless pathophysiology of single diseases is unexplained. Migraine headache arises from activation and sensibilization of trigeminal nociceptors, essential processes are located at the meninges and the meningeal vessels. Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) seems to have essential importance concerning migraine and cluster headache. Mechanisms leading to peripheral and central sensitization are relevant in chronification of migraine and tension-type headache...
March 2017: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324630/morphological-and-neurochemical-differences-in-peptidergic-nerve-fibres-of-the-mouse-vagina
#7
Christine Barry, Esther Ji, Harman Sharma, Lara Beukes, Pat Vilimas, Yvette DeGraaf, Dusan Matusica, Rainer V Haberberger
The vagina is innervated by a complex arrangement of sensory, sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve fibres that contain classical transmitters plus an array of neuropeptides and enzymes known to regulate diverse processes including blood flow and nociception. The neurochemical characteristics and distributions of peptide-containing nerves in the mouse vagina are unknown. This study used multiple labelling immunohistochemistry, confocal imaging and analysis to investigate the presence and colocalization of the peptides vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), calcitonin-gene related peptide (CGRP), substance P (SP), neuropeptide tyrosine (NPY) and the nitric oxide synthesizing enzyme neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in nerve fibres of the murine vaginal wall...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324021/endogenous-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-regulates-lipid-metabolism-and-energy-homeostasis-in-male-mice
#8
Tian Liu, Akiko Kamiyoshi, Takayuki Sakurai, Yuka Ichikawa-Shindo, Hisaka Kawate, Lei Yang, Megumu Tanaka, Xian Xian, Akira Imai, Liuyu Zhai, Kazutaka Hirabayashi, Kun Dai, Keiya Tanimura, Teng Liu, Nanqi Cui, Kyoko Igarashi, Akihiro Yamauchi, Takayuki Shindo
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a bioactive peptide produced by alternative splicing of the primary transcript of the calcitonin/CGRP gene. CGRP is largely distributed in the cardiovascular and nervous systems, where it acts as a regulatory factor. CGRP is also expressed in organs and tissues involved in metabolic regulation, including white adipose tissue (WAT), where its function is largely unknown. In this study, we examined the effects of endogenous CGRP on metabolic function. When we administered a high-fat diet to CGRP knockout (CGRP-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice for 10 weeks, we observed that food intake did not differ between the two groups, but body weight and visceral fat weight were significantly lower in CGRP-/- mice...
January 20, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322992/activation-of-the-intronic-cryptic-5-splice-site-depends-on-its-distance-to-the-upstream-cassette-exon
#9
Wei Liu, Xia Li, Shengjie Liao, Kefeng Dou, Yi Zhang
Splice site selection is a key step that determines the mRNA isoforms generated from a single transcript. The large diversity in splice site sequences emphasizes the plasticity of splice site recognition and selection. In this report, a cell-based reporter system using a SMN1/2 cassette exon was applied to the roles governing the activation of a cryptic 5'SS from the intron 4 of the CT/CGRP gene. We found that the cryptic site was activated when placed within 124nt downstream the cassette exon, and the level of activation was negatively correlated with its distance from the exon...
March 18, 2017: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321564/an-update-on-migraine-current-understanding-and-future-directions
#10
Francesca Puledda, Roberta Messina, Peter J Goadsby
Migraine is a common brain disorder with high disability rates which involves a series of abnormal neuronal networks, interacting at different levels of the central and peripheral nervous system. An increase in the interest around migraine pathophysiology has allowed researchers to unravel certain neurophysiological mechanisms and neurotransmitter involvement culminating in the recent development of novel therapies, which might substantially change the clinical approach to migraine patients. The present review will highlight the current aspects of migraine pathophysiology, covering an understanding of the complex workings of the migraine state and the brain regions responsible for them...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318158/-protective-effect-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-against-oxidative-damage-in-mc3t3-e1-osteoblasts
#11
Guo Junfeng, Zhang Huiyu, Zhang Gang, An Yang, Yang Yang, Wang Fei, Tan Yinghui
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to observe the protective effect of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), as well as its potential mechanism, against oxidative damage in MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. METHODS: 1) MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts were treated with different hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) concentrations (10⁻¹, 10⁻², 10⁻³, 10⁻⁴, and 10⁻⁵ mol·L⁻¹) for 12, 24, 36, and 48 h to build an oxidative damage model, to determine cell proliferation activity in each group by using CCK-8 assay, and to determine the optimal modeling concentration...
December 1, 2016: Hua Xi Kou Qiang Yi Xue za Zhi, Huaxi Kouqiang Yixue Zazhi, West China Journal of Stomatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317098/cgrp-receptor-activity-in-mice-with-global-expression-of-human-receptor-activity-modifying-protein-1
#12
Keegan J Bohn, Baolin Li, Xiaofang Huang, Bianca N Mason, Anne-Sophie Wattiez, Adisa Kuburas, Christopher S Walker, Peiyi Yang, Jianliang Yu, Beverly A Heinz, Kirk W Johnson, Andrew F Russo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CGRP is a potent vasodilator and nociceptive neuropeptide linked to migraine. CGRP receptors are heterodimers of receptor activity-modifying protein-1 (RAMP1) and either calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR), which forms the canonical CGRP receptor, or calcitonin receptor (CTR), which forms the amylin-1 (AMY1 ) receptor. The goal of this study was to test whether transgenic mice globally expressing human RAMP1 (hRAMP1) have increased CGRP receptor activity and whether the receptors are sensitive to the human selective antagonist telcagepant...
March 20, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315869/npy-and-cgrp-inhibitor-influence-on-erk-pathway-and-macrophage-aggregation-during-fracture-healing
#13
Peng Tang, Chunguang Duan, Zheng Wang, ChunMei Wang, Guolin Meng, Kaifeng Lin, Qian Yang, Zhi Yuan
AIM: The aims of this study are to investigate the effects of neurotransmitters NPY and CGRP on ERK signaling in fracture healing, and to identify the correlation between macrophage aggregation and fracture healing. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to build a fracture model. The neurotransmitter receptor inhibitors were injected intraperitoneally into the rats. Immunofluorescence staining and ELISA were employed to determine the expression of NPY and CGRP in fracture area and the peripheral blood, respectively...
March 17, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306261/asymmetric-synthesis-of-the-major-metabolite-of-a-cgrp-receptor-antagonist-and-mechanism-of-epoxide-hydrogenolysis
#14
Guanglin Luo, Ling Chen, Charles M Conway, Walter Kostich, Benjamin M Johnson, Alicia Ng, John E Macor, Gene M Dubowchik
An asymmetric synthesis of the major metabolite of the CGRP recepotor antagonist BMS-846372 is presented. The variously substituted cyclohepta[b]pyridine ring system represents an under-explored ring system, and showed some unexpected chemistry. Reactivities of epoxide and ketone functional groups on cycloheptane ring were greatly controlled by a remote bulky TIPS group. The rate difference of the hydrogenolysis between two diastereomeric epoxide intermediates shed some light on the mechanism of epoxide hydrogenolysis, and further deuterium labeling studies unravelled more mechanistic details on this well known chemical transformation for the first time...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303458/calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-and-pain-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Wendy Sophie Schou, Sait Ashina, Faisal Mohammad Amin, Peter J Goadsby, Messoud Ashina
BACKGROUND: Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is widely distributed in nociceptive pathways in human peripheral and central nervous system and its receptors are also expressed in pain pathways. CGRP is involved in migraine pathophysiology but its role in non-headache pain has not been clarified. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search on PubMed, Embase and ClinicalTrials.gov for articles on CGRP and non-headache pain covering human studies including experimental studies and randomized clinical trials...
December 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301400/the-role-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-in-peripheral-and-central-pain-mechanisms-including-migraine
#16
Smriti Iyengar, Michael H Ossipov, Kirk W Johnson
Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid peptide found primarily in the C and Aδ sensory fibers arising from the dorsal root and trigeminal ganglia, as well as the central nervous system. Calcitonin gene-related peptide was found to play important roles in cardiovascular, digestive, and sensory functions. Although the vasodilatory properties of CGRP are well documented, its somatosensory function regarding modulation of neuronal sensitization and of enhanced pain has received considerable attention recently...
April 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295313/peripheral-and-central-anatomical-organization-of-cutaneous-afferent-subtypes-in-a-rat-nociceptive-intersegmental-spinal-reflex
#17
Hyun Joon Lee, Jason M White, Jumi Chung, Keith E Tansey
Stimulation of rat segmental dorsal cutaneous nerves (DCNs) evokes the nociceptive intersegmental cutaneus trunci muscle (CTM) reflex. The reflex consists of early and late responses, mediated by Aδ and C fibers respectively based on required stimulation strengths, and shows segmental differences in terms of amplitude and duration. We have now investigated whether the peripheral or central anatomy of nociceptive afferent subtypes in different DCNs also vary in a segmental manner. The numbers of different axon subtypes, determined by axon diameter, were analyzed across peripheral DCNs from T6 to L1...
March 11, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287437/the-influence-of-low-doses-of-zearalenone-and-t-2-toxin-on-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-like-immunoreactive-cgrp-li-neurons-in-the-ens-of-the-porcine-descending-colon
#18
Krystyna Makowska, Kazimierz Obremski, Lukasz Zielonka, Slawomir Gonkowski
The enteric nervous system (ENS) can undergo adaptive and reparative changes in response to physiological and pathological stimuli. These manifest primarily as alterations in the levels of active substances expressed by the enteric neuron. While it is known that mycotoxins can affect the function of the central and peripheral nervous systems, knowledge about their influence on the ENS is limited. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of low doses of zearalenone (ZEN) and T-2 toxin on calcitonin gene related peptide-like immunoreactive (CGRP-LI) neurons in the ENS of the porcine descending colon using a double immunofluorescence technique...
March 10, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281109/neuropeptides-as-a-marker-for-chronic-headache
#19
REVIEW
Nuria Riesco, Eva Cernuda-Morollón, Julio Pascual
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to revise current evidence on trigemino-vascular system (TVS) neuropeptides as potential biomarkers for chronic primary headaches, mainly for chronic migraine (CM). RECENT FINDINGS: Within sensory neuropeptides, released by an activated trigeminal nerve, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) levels seem to be a good biomarker of acute migraine and somewhat sensitive and specific for CM. CGRP, however, is not increased in 20-30% of CM patients, which suggests that CGRP is not the only neuropeptide involved in migraine pain generation and maintenance...
April 2017: Current Pain and Headache Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280408/effect-of-subcutaneous-treatment-with-human-umbilical-cord-blood-derived-multipotent-stem-cells-on-peripheral-neuropathic-pain-in-rats
#20
Min Ju Lee, Tae Gyoon Yoon, Moonkyu Kang, Hyun Jeong Kim, Kyung Sun Kang
In this study, we aim to determine the in vivo effect of human umbilical cord blood-derived multipotent stem cells (hUCB-MSCs) on neuropathic pain, using three, principal peripheral neuropathic pain models. Four weeks after hUCB-MSC transplantation, we observed significant antinociceptive effect in hUCB-MSC-transplanted rats compared to that in the vehicle-treated control. Spinal cord cells positive for c-fos, CGRP, p-ERK, p-p 38, MMP-9 and MMP 2 were significantly decreased in only CCI model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats, while spinal cord cells positive for CGRP, p-ERK and MMP-2 significantly decreased in SNL model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats and spinal cord cells positive for CGRP and MMP-2 significantly decreased in SNI model of hUCB-MSCs-grafted rats, compared to the control 4 weeks or 8weeks after transplantation (p<0...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
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