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Şenol Turan, Abdullah Yıldırım, Cana Aksoy-Poyraz, Murat Bolayırlı, Mert Savrun
OBJECTIVE: Neuroactive steroids (NAS) are neuroactive molecules that have been shown to be associated with various psychiatric disorders. There are some inconclusive findings about the alteration in neuroactive steroid levels after the treatment of depression and ECT is still one of the most effective treatment choices for treatment resistant depression. Thus, we aimed to investigate the alterations of several NAS in plasma after ECT in inpatients with treatment resistant depression. METHODS: In this study we enrolled 19 consecutive patients, 12 female and 7 male inpatients with major depression, who were not responding to medication, for whom ECT was Indicated, and were not taking any antidepressant treatment for at least a week prior to enrolment...
October 2014: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
Ian Bailey, G Gordon Gibson, Kathryn Plant, Mark Graham, Nick Plant
The nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors plays a central role in the regulation of cellular responses to chemical challenge. Nuclear receptors are activated by a wide range of both endogenous and exogenous chemicals, and their target genes include those involved in the metabolism and transport of the activating chemical. Such target gene activation, thus, acts to remove the stimulating xenobiotic or to maintain homeostatic levels of endogenous chemicals. Given the dual nature of this system it is important to understand how these two roles are balanced, such that xenobiotics are efficiently removed while not impacting negatively on homeostasis of endogenous chemicals...
2011: PloS One
Frank J Gonzalez
Marked species differences exist in P450 expression and activities. In order to produce mouse models that can be used to more accurately predict human drug and carcinogen metabolism, P450- and xenobiotic receptor humanized mice are being prepared using bacterial artificial chromosomes (BAC) and P1 phage artificial chromosomes (PAC) genomic clones. In some cases, transgenic mice carrying the human genes are bred with null-mice to produce fully humanized mice. Mice expressing human CYP1A1, CYP1A2, CYP2E1, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP3A7 were generated and characterized...
2007: Journal of Biochemical and Molecular Toxicology
Jonathan M Maher, Xingguo Cheng, Angela L Slitt, Matthew Z Dieter, Curtis D Klaassen
The multidrug resistance-associated proteins (Mrp) are ATP-dependent transporters that export a variety of conjugated and unconjugated compounds out of cells. There are nine identified Mrp transporters in humans, with murine orthologs for all except Mrp8. Because nuclear receptors mediate induction of phase I enzymes, Mrp transporter expression might be similarly regulated by these receptors to coordinate metabolism and export of chemicals from liver. To test the hypothesis that Mrp expression may be coordinately regulated with phase I enzyme expression in liver, 15 different compounds were given representing known transcriptionally mediated pathways: aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), constitutive androstane receptor (CAR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), and nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)...
July 2005: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
D D Surry, G Meneses-Lorente, R Heavens, A Jack, D C Evans
1. A new assay to quantify mRNA levels in small numbers of rat hepatocytes has been developed for cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms 1A1, 1A2, 3A and 4A1. The assay uses sets of oligonucleotide probes end-labelled with [35S]-dATP to hybridize to mRNA in control- or drug-treated rat hepatocytes cultured on Cytostar-T 96-well scintillating microplates. 2. The rat hepatocyte induction potential (RHIP) assays for CYP3A, 1A1, 1A2 and 4A1 are sensitive and selective and have an excellent qualitative relationship with CYP induction data ex vivo...
May 2000: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
R M Lemcke, M R Burrows
The addition of cholesterol to a liquid medium containing bovine serum albumin (BSA) fraction V or acetone-delipidized BSA fraction V instead of serum stimulated the growth of Treponema hyodysenteriae, a serum-requiring spirochaete associated with swine dysentery. As little as 1.25 micrograms cholesterol ml-1 increased viable counts about 1000-fold. Sitosterol and cholestanol, but not pregnenalone, cholestenone or stigmasteriol, produced a growth response comparable to that of cholesterol. The results suggest that T...
February 1980: Journal of General Microbiology
C L Bethea
Dispersed monkey pituitary cells were cultured on extracellular matrix and in serum-free medium for up to 1 month, with medium changes every other day. The cells were treated with ethanol vehicle or 10 nM 17 beta-estradiol (E2 beta), 17 alpha-estradiol (E2 alpha), progesterone (P4), pregnenalone (P5), 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone (17OH P4), and E2 beta plus P4. Immunoreactive PRL (IR-PRL) levels in 48 h medium samples were first determined with a homologous human PRL RIA and then with a heterologous monkey PRL RIA...
August 1986: Endocrinology
A Iu Koliada
Seven types of monoclonal antibodies to cytochrome P-450 were obtained from the rat liver. Liver microsomal samples from intact rats and those pretreated with phenobarbital, 3-methylcholanthrene, Aroclor 1254, pregnenalone carbonitrile, beta-naphthoflavone and imidazole were stained with these antibodies using immunoblotting technique. The study made it possible to draw the following conclusions. Firstly, two types of these antibodies react with two cytochrome P-450 isoforms, P-450b and P-450 PB/PCN-E. Secondly, two types of antibodies react with three cytochrome P-450 isoforms: P-450a, P-450b and P-450PB/PCN-E...
April 1986: Biulleten' Eksperimental'noĭ Biologii i Meditsiny
M I Walton, C R Wolf, P Workman
SR 4233 or WIN 59075 (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine-1,4-dioxide) is a novel and highly selective hypoxic cell cytotoxin requiring reductive bioactivation for its impressive antitumour effects. Expression of appropriate reductases will contribute to therapeutic selectivity. Here we provide more detailed information on the role of cytochrome P450 and cytochrome P450 reductase in SR 4233 reduction by mouse liver microsomes. Reduction of SR 4233 to the mono-N-oxide SR 4317 (3-amino-1,2,4-benzotriazine-1-oxide) is NADPH, enzyme and hypoxia dependent...
July 22, 1992: Biochemical Pharmacology
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